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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Medical Education Review
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Volume 18, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Artificial Intelligence: Will It Replace Human Medical Doctors?
Choi, Yoon Sup ;
Korean Medical Education Review, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 47~50
DOI : 10.17496/kmer.2016.18.2.47
Development of artificial intelligence is expected to revolutionize today's medicine. In fact, medicine was one of the areas to which advances in artificial intelligence technology were first applied. Recently, state-of-the-art artificial intelligence, especially deep learning technology, has been actively utilized to treat cancer patients and analyze medical image data. Application of artificial intelligence has the potential to fundamentally change various aspects of medicine, including the role of human doctors, the clinical decision-making process, and even overall healthcare systems. Facing such fundamental changes is unavoidable, and we need to prepare to effectively integrate artificial intelligence into our medical system. We should re-define the role of human doctors, and accordingly, medical education should also be altered. In this article, we will discuss the current status of artificial intelligence in medicine and how we can prepare for such changes.
Artificial Intelligence Technology Trends and IBM Watson References in the Medical Field
Lee, Kang Yoon ; Kim, Junhewk ;
Korean Medical Education Review, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 51~57
DOI : 10.17496/kmer.2016.18.2.51
This literature review explores artificial intelligence (AI) technology trends and IBM Watson health and medical references. This study explains how healthcare will be changed by the evolution of AI technology, and also summarizes key technologies in AI, specifically the technology of IBM Watson. We look at this issue from the perspective of 'information overload,' in that medical literature doubles every three years, with approximately 700,000 new scientific articles being published every year, in addition to the explosion of patient data. Estimates are also forecasting a shortage of oncologists, with the demand expected to grow by 42%. Due to this projected shortage, physicians won't likely be able to explore the best treatment options for patients in clinical trials. This issue can be addressed by the AI Watson motivation to solve healthcare industry issues. In addition, the Watson Oncology solution is reviewed from the end user interface point of view. This study also investigates global company platform business to explain how AI and machine learning technology are expanding in the market with use cases. It emphasizes ecosystem partner business models that can support startup and venture businesses including healthcare models. Finally, we identify a need for healthcare company partnerships to be reviewed from the aspect of solution transformation. AI and Watson will change a lot in the healthcare business. This study addresses what we need to prepare for AI, Cognitive Era those are understanding of AI innovation, Cloud Platform business, the importance of data sets, and needs for further enhancement in our knowledge base.
Bedside Education Will Be More Important than Now in the Age of Artificial Intelligence
Yeh, Byung-Il ;
Korean Medical Education Review, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 58~64
DOI : 10.17496/kmer.2016.18.2.58
The birth of the scientific revolution, brought forth by Vesalius and Copernicus in 1543, marked the beginning of a new age. However, the changes such as treatment effectiveness, survival rate, prevalence of specific diseases, etc. had not yet become clear during the 16th century. In the early 17th century, Boerhaave emphasized bedside teaching and practice. His attitude influenced numerous students and educators, so many medical students visited hospital wards where he worked. From the late 18th to 19th centuries, Jenner's smallpox vaccination, Pasteur's anthrax and rabies vaccinations, and Koch's four postulates used to detect pathogens were developed using the scientific research method, which initiated big changes for medicine. Flexner, credited for reporting the new medical education system, adopted scientific medicine. He believed medical students must study basic medical science since it could be the foundation of clinical medicine and lead to a revolution in the field. He proposed a new medical curriculum composed of two-years of basic medicine and two-years of clinical medicine, which has been used more than 100 years. During the late 20th century, bedside teaching rounds decreased gradually as scientific medicine has become popular. Many medical educators in many articles have proposed bedside education as an effective method for medical learning. Despite the advent of the age of artificial intelligence and the changing of medical environments in the near future, bedside education will be more useful and important for medical students, educators, and patients as it is a traditional method and essential for patients who desire a more personal approach.
Needs Assessment of Medical Students During Clerkship About Basic Medical Science: Focused on 'Learning Outcome of Basic Medical Education: Scientific Concept and Principle-centered'
Park, Hye Jin ; Kim, Dae Hyun ; Park, Won Kyun ; Kum, Dong yoon ; Kwon, Seon Young ; Kim, Jae Bum ; Kim, Jin Hee ; Hwang, Il Seon ; Kim, Min Seo ;
Korean Medical Education Review, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 65~82
DOI : 10.17496/kmer.2016.18.2.65
This study aimed to identify curriculum gaps and a pilot study to provide the programs for selection during clerkship. Over the course of a clerkship, students analyze the current level and the needs level of TLO (terminal learning objectives) based on the book "Learning outcome of basic medical education: Scientific concept and principle-centered." We conducted a needs assessment utilizing a t-test, Borich Needs Assessment, and the Locus for Focus model. In the investigation of the needs level, the levels of the musculoskeletal and respiratory systems were relatively high and in the investigation of the current level, the levels of the digestive and musculoskeletal systems were relatively high. This study is expected to contribute to reasonable decision-making by utilizing various methods of analysis and providing in-depth results of needs analysis in designing clerkship curriculum.
Changes in Self-Leadership and Self-Efficacy After Leadership Training of First-Year Premedical Students
Yoo, Dong-Mi ; Kang, Wha Sun ;
Korean Medical Education Review, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 83~89
DOI : 10.17496/kmer.2016.18.2.83
The purpose of this study was to elucidate to what extent the goals of the leadership training program implemented in a medical college were achieved. Study subjects consisted of 74 first-year premedical students at the College of Medicine of The Catholic University of Korea. All participants completed two questionnaires: an 18-item self-leadership questionnaire asking self-expectation, rehearsal, goal setting, self-rewards, self-judgment and constructive thinking, and a 28-item self-efficacy questionnaire asking preference toward difficult work, efficacy of self-control, and confidence before and after the leadership training program. Students also competed a program satisfaction survey after the program. The collected data were analyzed with a paired t-test, descriptive statistics by IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). Students' overall satisfaction with the program scored 4.06 out of 5. The scores of self-leadership and self-efficacy increased after the leadership training program except for 'confidence' in self-efficacy. The results indicate that an intensive leadership program in a short period of time could help to enhance social competencies such as communication skills, empathy, self-reflection, and teamwork of premedical students.
Ethically Related Decisions in Different Scenarios of Medical School Applicants for Graduate-Entry Program
Kim, Do-Hwan ; Kim, Eun Jeong ; Hwang, Jinyoung ; Shin, Jwa-Seop ; Lee, Seunghee ;
Korean Medical Education Review, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 90~98
DOI : 10.17496/kmer.2016.18.2.90
Assessment tools for non-academic qualities such as ethics frequently employ hypothetical scenarios to lay out a contextual framework underlying the corresponding criteria of assessment. Due to the context-specific nature of the assessment criteria, details of the scenarios become very important in obtaining accurate results. This study aims to explore how medical school applicants differ in ethical decision making depending on the types of ethical dilemma scenarios, and how they correlate with academic achievements after admission. In 2014, all 82 applicants invited for an admission interview for a graduate-entry program were asked to complete a questionnaire comprised of 13 hypothetical scenarios. There were three domains (unethical business decisions, unethical academic decisions, and sexual quid pro quos) and participants were made to choose between the profitable-but-unethical choice or the unprofitable-but-ethical choice, using a four-point Likert-type scale. On average, tendencies toward unethical decisions were lowest for sexual favors (
), and highest for gaining academic advantages (
). Unethical decisions for academic advantages and sexual benefits showed significant correlation respectively with the female gender and those who graduated from overseas universities. In addition, the propensity for choosing unethical academic decisions was significantly correlated with high academic achievements in medical school (r=0.396). Not only does this study demonstrate that different levels of ethical decision making depend on the scenarios, but also those differences may be a determinant factor in subsequent academic performances in medical school. In conclusion, given the possible influence of the details of the hypothetical scenarios to the applicant's responses, careful consideration must be given during their development.
Education on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome and Personal Hygiene Practices of Medical Students
Kim, Min Jeong ; Lee, Sang Yeoup ;
Korean Medical Education Review, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 99~105
DOI : 10.17496/kmer.2016.18.2.99
The purpose of this study was to inquire into the knowledge of medical students on the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and evaluate whether infection prevention education impacts students' level of knowledge and individual hygiene practices. This study also investigated the route by which medical students obtain disease-related information. The study involved a survey conducted in August of 2015 at two medical schools in Busan. In the first year to fourth year, a total of 345 students are enrolled (111 students in A school and 234 students in B school). Before the study was carried out, university A performed infection prevention education related to MERS, but B did not. We used self-developed questionnaires to survey the demographic characteristics, routes of acquisition of MERS information, degree of knowledge of MERS, educational satisfaction, and personal hygiene practices before and after education. Knowledge level differences according to gender and year in school were not statistically significant. Students obtained their information about MERS from various news media sources and the Internet, and through social network sites. Students practiced sanitary control behaviors in an average of 2.2 manners (standard deviation=0.95). The level of knowledge of MERS revealed a positive correlation with the frequency and total numbers of personal hygiene practices. This finding suggests that the infection prevention education program played a role in knowledge acquisition and personal hygiene practices for the medical students. In order to provide accurate and reliable knowledge of disease and preventive health behavior to medical students, continuous and well-planned education programs are necessary.
Strategies of Peer-Assisted Learning and Their Effectiveness in Nursing Education: A Systematic Review
Park, In-Hee ; Hong, Jeong Min ; Shin, Sujin ;
Korean Medical Education Review, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 106~113
DOI : 10.17496/kmer.2016.18.2.106
The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with effective peer-assisted learning (PAL) for nursing students. This review examined studies on PAL in nursing education. The literature was searched using terms including 'nursing & peer assisted learning,' 'nursing & peer learning,' and 'nursing & peer teaching.' Potentially relevant research on PAL was identified, and 12 studies were determined to meet the inclusion criteria. This review includes five qualitative, three mixed-methods, and three experimental studies published on the topic. In the studies reviewed, practicum classes were found to use PAL the most. Students of the same age were most commonly the subjects of PAL, as indicated in six papers. PAL has been suggested to affect participants' knowledge, self-efficacy, confidence, and anxiety. The findings indicate that interactions between peers promote learning and lead to mutually positive responses, which provide opportunities for self-development. Finally, students' learning outcomes improve and their confidence in their knowledge and skills increases as they experience the role of student nurse. These findings indicate that PAL can be utilized as an efficient learning method in nursing education programs. However, effective strategies for using PAL to achieve learning objectives and maximize learning outcomes are needed.