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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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The Korean Space Science Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2012
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2012
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2012
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2012
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Change of Sunspot Groups Observed from 2002 to 2011 at ButterStar Observatory
Oh, Sung-Jin ; Chang, Heon-Young ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 245~251
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.245
Since the development of surface magnetic features should reflect the evolution of the solar magnetic field in the deep interior of the Sun, it is crucial to study properties of sunspots and sunspot groups to understand the physical processes working below the solar surface. Here, using the data set of sunspot groups observed at the ButterStar observatory for 3,364 days from 2002 October 16 to 2011 December 31, we investigate temporal change of sunspot groups depending on their Z
rich classification type. Our main findings are as follows: (1) There are more sunspot groups in the southern hemisphere in solar cycle 23, while more sunspot groups appear in the northern hemisphere in solar cycle 24. We also note that in the declining phase of solar cycle 23 the decreasing tendency is apparently steeper in the solar northern hemisphere than in the solar southern hemisphere. (2) Some of sunspot group types make a secondary peak in the distribution between the solar maximum and the solar minimum. More importantly, in this particular data set, sunspot groups which have appeared in the solar southern hemisphere make a secondary peak 1 year after a secondary peak occurs in the solar northern hemisphere. (3) The temporal variations of small and large sunspot group numbers are disparate. That is, the number of large sunspot group declines earlier and faster and that the number of small sunspot group begins to rise earlier and faster. (4) The total number of observed sunspot is found to behave more likewise as the small sunspot group does. Hence, according to our findings, behaviors and evolution of small magnetic flux tubes and large magnetic flux tubes seem to be different over solar cycles. Finally, we conclude by briefly pointing out its implication on the space weather forecast.
Correlation Between Collimation-Corrected Peak Luminosity and Spectral Lag of Gamma-ray Bursts in the Source Frame
Chang, Heon-Young ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 253~258
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.253
We revisit the relation between the peak luminosity
and the spectral time lag in the source frame. Since gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are generally thought to be beamed, it is natural to expect that the collimation-corrected peak luminosity may well correlate with the spectral time lag in the source frame if the lag-luminosity relation in the GRB source frame exists. With 12 long GRBs detected by the Swift satellite, whose redshift and spectral lags in the source frame are known, we computed
using bulk Lorentz factors
archived in the published literature, where the subscripts H and W represent homogeneous and wind-like circumburst environments, respectively. We have confirmed that the isotropic peak luminosity correlates with the spectral time lag in the source frame. We have also confirmed that there is an anti-correlation between the source-frame spectral lag and the peak energy,
(1 + z) in the source frame. We have found that the collimation-corrected luminosity correlates in a similar way with the spectral lag, except that the correlations are somewhat less tight. The correlation in the wind density profile seems to agree with the isotropic peak luminosity case better than in the homogeneous case. Finally we conclude by briefly discussing its implications.
Estimation of Polar Cap Potential and the Role of PC Index
Moon, Ga-Hee ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 259~267
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.259
Polar cap potential has long been considered as an indicator for the amount of energy flowing in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Thus, the estimation of polar cap potential is important to understand the physical process of the magnetosphere. To estimate the polar cap potential in the Northern Hemisphere, merging electric field by Kan & Lee (1979) is adopted. Relationships between the PC index and calculated merging electric field (
) are examined during full-time and storm-time periods separately. For this purpose Dst, AL, and PC indices and solar wind data are utilized during the period from 1996-2003. From this linear relationship, polar cap potential (
) is estimated using the formula by Doyle & Burke (1983). The values are represented as
kV for the full-time period and
kV for a storm-time period separately. Considering that the average value of polar cap potential of Doyle & Burke (1983) is about 47 kV during moderately quiet intervals with the S3-2 measurements, these results are similar to such. The monthly averaged variation of Dst, AL, and PC indices are then compared. The Dst and AL indices show distinct characteristics with peaks during equinoctial season whereas the average PC index according to the month shows higher values in autumn than in spring. The monthly variations of the linear correlation coefficients between solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices are also examined. The PC-AL linear correlation coefficient is highest, being 0.82 with peaks during the equinoctial season. As with the AL index, the PC index may also prove useful for predicting the intensity of an auroral substorm. Generally, the linear correlation coefficients are shown low in summer due to conductance differences and other factors. To assess the role of the PC index during the recovery phase of a storm, the relation between the cumulative PC index and the duration is examined. Although the correlation coefficient lowers with the storm size, it is clear that the average correlation coefficient is high. There is a tendency that duration of the recovery phase is longer as the PC index increases.
Development of the Kinematic Global Positioning System Precise Point Positioning Method Using 3-Pass Filter
Choi, Byung-Kyu ; Roh, Kyoung-Min ; Cho, Sung-Ki ; Park, Jong-Uk ; Park, Pil-Ho ; Lee, Sang-Jeong ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 269~274
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.269
Kinematic global positioning system precise point positioning (GPS PPP) technology is widely used to the several area such as monitoring of crustal movement and precise orbit determination (POD) using the dual-frequency GPS observations. In this study we developed a kinematic PPP technology and applied 3-pass (forward/backward/forward) filter for the stabilization of the initial state of the parameters to be estimated. For verification of results, we obtained GPS data sets from six international GPS reference stations (ALGO, AMC2, BJFS, GRAZ, IENG and TSKB) and processed in daily basis by using the developed software. As a result, the mean position errors by kinematic PPP showed 0.51 cm in the east-west direction, 0.31 cm in the north-south direction and 1.02 cm in the up-down direction. The root mean square values produced from them were 1.59 cm for the east-west component, 1.26 cm for the south-west component and 2.95 cm for the up-down component.
Preliminary Products of Precise Orbit Determination Using Satellite Laser Ranging Observations for ILRS AAC
Kim, Young-Rok ; Park, Sang-Young ; Park, Eun-Seo ; Lim, Hyung-Chul ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 275~285
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.275
In this study, we present preliminary results of precise orbit determination (POD) using satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations for International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) Associate Analysis Center (AAC). Using SLR normal point observations of LAGEOS-1, LAGEOS-2, ETALON-1, and ETALON-2, the NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software are utilized for POD. Weekly-based orbit determination strategy is applied to process SLR observations and the post-fit residuals check, and external orbit comparison are performed for orbit accuracy assessment. The root mean square (RMS) value of differences between observations and computations after final iteration of estimation process is used for post-fit residuals check. The result of ILRS consolidated prediction format (CPF) is used for external orbit comparison. Additionally, we performed the precision analysis of each ILRS station by post-fit residuals. The post-fit residuals results show that the precisions of the orbits of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 0.9 and 1.3 cm, and those of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 2.5 and 1.9 cm, respectively. The orbit assessment results by ILRS CPF show that the radial accuracies of LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 are 4.0 cm and 5.3 cm, and the radial accuracies of ETALON-1 and ETALON-2 are 30.7 cm and 7.2 cm. These results of station precision analysis confirm that the result of this study is reasonable to have implications as preliminary results for administrating ILRS AAC.
Validation on Residual Variation and Covariance Matrix of USSTRATCOM Two Line Element
Yim, Hyeon-Jeong ; Chung, Dae-Won ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 287~293
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.287
Satellite operating agencies are constantly monitoring conjunctions between satellites and space objects. Two line element (TLE) data, published by the Joint Space Operations Center of the United States Strategic Command, are available as raw data for a preliminary analysis of initial conjunction with a space object without any orbital information. However, there exist several sorts of uncertainties in the TLE data. In this paper, we suggest and analyze a method for estimating the uncertainties in the TLE data through mean, standard deviation of state vector residuals and covariance matrix. Also the estimation results are compared with actual results of orbit determination to validate the estimation method. Characteristics of the state vector residuals depending on the orbital elements are examined by applying the analysis to several satellites in various orbits. Main source of difference between the covariance matrices are also analyzed by comparing the matrices. Particularly, for the Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-2, we examine the characteristics of the residual variation of state vector and covariance matrix depending on the orbital elements. It is confirmed that a realistic consideration on the space situation of space objects is possible using information from the analysis of mean, standard deviation of the state vector residuals of TLE and covariance matrix.
Radiosonde Sensors Bias in Precipitable Water Vapor From Comparisons With Global Positioning System Measurements
Park, Chang-Geun ; Roh, Kyoung-Min ; Cho, Jung-Ho ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 295~303
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.295
In this study, we compared the precipitable water vapor (PWV) data derived from the radiosonde observation data at Sokcho Observatory and the PWV data at Sokcho Global Positioning System (GPS) Observatory provided by Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, for the years of 2006, 2008, 2010, and analyzed the radiosonde seasonal, diurnal bias according to radiosonde sensor types. In the scatter diagram of the daytime and nighttime radiosonde PWV data and the GPS PWV data, dry bias was found in the daytime radiosonde observation as known in the previous study. Overall, the tendency that the wet bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV decreased and the dry bias of the radiosonde PWV increased as the GPS PWV increased. The quantitative analysis of the bias and error of the radiosonde PWV data showed that the mean bias decreased in the nighttime except for 2006 winter, and in comparison for summer, RS92-SGP sensor showed the highest quality.
Thermal Analysis of MIRIS Space Observation Camera for Verification of Passive Cooling
Lee, Duk-Hang ; Han, Won-Yong ; Moon, Bong-Kon ; Park, Young-Sik ; Jeong, Woong-Seob ; Park, Kwi-Jong ; Lee, Dae-Hee ; Pyo, Jeong-Hyun ; Kim, Il-Joong ; Kim, Min-Gyu ; Matsumoto, Toshio ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 305~313
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.305
We conducted thermal analyses and cooling tests of the space observation camera (SOC) of the multi-purpose infrared imaging system (MIRIS) to verify passive cooling. The thermal analyses were conducted with NX 7.0 TMG for two cases of attitude of the MIRIS: for the worst hot case and normal case. Through the thermal analyses of the flight model, it was found that even in the worst case the telescope could be cooled to less than
. This is similar to the results of the passive cooling test (
). For the normal attitude case of the analysis, on the other hand, the SOC telescope was cooled to about
in 10 days. Based on the results of these analyses and the test, it was determined that the telescope of the MIRIS SOC could be successfully cooled to below
with passive cooling. The SOC is, therefore, expected to have optimal performance under cooled conditions in orbit.
Heavy-Ion Radiation Characteristics of DDR2 Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory Fabricated in 56 nm Technology
Ryu, Kwang-Sun ; Park, Mi-Young ; Chae, Jang-Soo ; Lee, In ; Uchihori, Yukio ; Kitamura, Hisashi ; Takashima, Takeshi ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.315
We developed a mass-memory chip by staking 1 Gbit double data rate 2 (DDR2) synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) memory core up to 4 Gbit storage for future satellite missions which require large storage for data collected during the mission execution. To investigate the resistance of the chip to the space radiation environment, we have performed heavy-ion-driven single event experiments using Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba medium energy beam line. The radiation characteristics are presented for the DDR2 SDRAM (K4T1G164QE) fabricated in 56 nm technology. The statistical analyses and comparisons of the characteristics of chips fabricated with previous technologies are presented. The cross-section values for various single event categories were derived up to ~80
. Our comparison of the DDR2 SDRAM, which was fabricated in 56 nm technology node, with previous technologies, implies that the increased degree of integration causes the memory chip to become vulnerable to single-event functional interrupt, but resistant to single-event latch-up.
Performance Analysis for Mirrors of 30 cm Cryogenic Space Infrared Telescope
Park, Kwi-Jong ; Moon, Bong-Kon ; Lee, Dae-Hee ; Jeong, Woong-Seob ; Nam, Uk-Won ; Park, Young-Sik ; Pyo, Jeong-Hyun ; Han, Won-Yong ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 29, issue 3, 2012, Pages 321~328
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2012.29.3.321
We have designed a 30 cm cryogenic space infrared telescope for astronomical observation. The telescope is designed to observe in the wavelength range of 0.5~2.1
, when it is cooled down to 77 K. The result of the preliminary design of the support structure and support method of the mirror of a 30 cm cryogenic space infrared telescope is shown in this paper. As a Cassegrain prescription, the optical system of a 30 cm cryogenic space infrared telescope has a focal ratio of f/3.1 with a 300 mm primary mirror (M-1) and 113 mm secondary mirror (M-2). The material of the whole structure including mirrors is aluminum alloy (Al6061-T6). Flexures that can withstand random vibration were designed, and it was validated through opto-mechanical analysis that both primary and secondary mirrors, which are assembled in the support structure, meet the requirement of root mean square wavefront error <
for all gravity direction. Additionally, when the M-1 and flexures are assembled by bolts, the effect of thermal stress occurring from a stainless steel bolt when cooled and bolt torque on the M-1 was analyzed.