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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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The Korean Space Science Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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The Effects of Moon's Uneven Mass Distribution on the Critical Inclinations of a Lunar Orbiter
Rahoma, Walid A. ; Abd El-Salam, Fawzy A. ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 31, issue 4, 2014, Pages 285~294
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2014.31.4.285
The uneven mass distribution of the Moon highly perturbs the lunar spacecrafts. This uneven mass distribution leads to peculiar dynamical features of the lunar orbiters. The critical inclination is the value of inclination which keeps the deviation of the argument of pericentre from the initial values to be zero. Considerable investigations have been performed for critical inclination when the gravity field is assumed to be symmetric around the equator, namely for oblate gravity field to which Earth's satellites are most likely to be subjected. But in the case of a lunar orbiter, the gravity field of mass distribution is rather asymmetric, that is, sectorial, and tesseral, harmonic coefficients are big enough so they can't be neglected. In the present work, the effects of the first sectorial and tesseral harmonic coefficients in addition to the first zonal harmonic coefficients on the critical inclination of a lunar artificial satellite are investigated. The study is carried out using the Hamiltonian framework. The Hamiltonian of the problem is cconstructed and the short periodic terms are eliminated using Delaunay canonical variables. Considering the above perturbations, numerical simulations for a hypothetical lunar orbiter are presented. Finally, this study reveals that the critical inclination is quite different from the critical inclination of traditional sense and/or even has multiple solutions. Consequently, different families of critical inclination are obtained and analyzed.
A Statistical Test of the Relationship Between Chorus Wave Activation and Anisotropy of Electron Phase Space Density
Lee, Dong-Hee ; Lee, Dae-Young ; Shin, Dae-Kyu ; Kim, Jin-Hee ; Cho, Jung-Hee ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 31, issue 4, 2014, Pages 295~301
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2014.31.4.295
Whistler mode chorus wave is considered to play a critical role in accelerating and precipitating the electrons in the outer radiation belt. In this paper we test a conventional scenario of triggering chorus using THEMIS satellite observations of waves and particles. Specifically, we test if the chorus onset is consistent with development of anisotropy in the electron phase space density (PSD). After analyzing electron PSD for 73 chorus events, we find that, for ~80 % of them, their onsets are indeed associated with development of the positive anisotropy in PSD where the pitch angle distribution of electron velocity peaks at 90 degrees. This PSD anisotropy is prominent mainly at the electron energy range of
~20 keV. Interestingly, we further find that there is sometimes a time delay among energies in the increases of the anisotropy: A development of the positive anisotropy occurs earlier by several minutes for lower energy than for an adjacent higher energy.
Prediction Model of the Outer Radiation Belt Developed by Chungbuk National University
Shin, Dae-Kyu ; Lee, Dae-Young ; Kim, Jin-Hee ; Cho, Jung-Hee ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 31, issue 4, 2014, Pages 303~309
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2014.31.4.303
The Earth's outer radiation belt often suffers from drastic changes in the electron fluxes. Since the electrons can be a potential threat to satellites, efforts have long been made to model and predict electron flux variations. In this paper, we describe a prediction model for the outer belt electrons that we have recently developed at Chungbuk National University. The model is based on a one-dimensional radial diffusion equation with observationally determined specifications of a few major ingredients in the following way. First, the boundary condition of the outer edge of the outer belt is specified by empirical functions that we determine using the THEMIS satellite observations of energetic electrons near the boundary. Second, the plasmapause locations are specified by empirical functions that we determine using the electron density data of THEMIS. Third, the model incorporates the local acceleration effect by chorus waves into the one-dimensional radial diffusion equation. We determine this chorus acceleration effect by first obtaining an empirical formula of chorus intensity as a function of drift shell parameter
, incorporating it as a source term in the one-dimensional diffusion equation, and lastly calibrating the term to best agree with observations of a certain interval. We present a comparison of the model run results with and without the chorus acceleration effect, demonstrating that the chorus effect has been incorporated into the model to a reasonable degree.
Variation of Floating Potential in the Topside Ionosphere Observed by STSAT-1
Lee, Junhyun ; Lee, Ensang ; Lee, Jaejin ; Kim, Khan-Hyuk ; Seon, Jongho ; Lee, Dong-Hun ; Jin, Ho ; Kim, Eung-Hyun ; Jeon, Hyun-Jin ; Lim, Seong-Bin ; Kim, Taeyoun ; Jang, Jaewoong ; Jang, Kyung-Duk ; Ryu, Kwangsun ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 31, issue 4, 2014, Pages 311~315
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2014.31.4.311
In this study, we investigated the effect of space plasmas on the floating potential variation of a low-altitude, polar-orbiting satellite using the Langmuir Probe (LP) measurement onboard the STSAT-1 spacecraft. We focused on small potential drops, for which the estimation of plasma density and temperature from LP is available. The floating potential varied according to the variations of plasma density and temperature, similar to the previously reported observations. Most of the potential drops occurred around the nightside auroral region. However, unlike the previous studies where large potential drops were observed with the precipitation of auroral electrons, the potential drops occurred before or after the precipitation of auroral electrons. Statistical analysis shows that the potential drops have good correlation with the temperature increase of cold electrons, which suggests the small potential drops be mainly controlled by the cold ionospheric plasmas.
Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector
Jeong, Meeyoung ; Lee, Kyeong Beom ; Kim, Kyeong Ja ; Lee, Min-Kie ; Han, Ju-Bong ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 31, issue 4, 2014, Pages 317~323
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2014.31.4.317
Odyssey, one of the NASA's Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya), a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA) method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of
in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl) and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.
Acidity in Precipitation and Solar North-South Asymmetry
Moon, Ga-Hee ; Ha, Kyoung-Yoon ; Kang, Seong-Hoon ; Lee, Byoung-Ho ; Kim, Ki-Beom ; Kim, Jung-Hee ; Chang, Heon-Young ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 31, issue 4, 2014, Pages 325~333
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2014.31.4.325
We are motivated by both the accumulating evidence for the connection of solar variability to the chemistry of nitrogen oxide in the atmosphere and recent finding that the Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) influx is associated with the solar north-south asymmetry. We have analyzed the measured pH in precipitation over the 109 stations distributed in the United States. We have found that data of pH in precipitation as a whole appear to be marginally anti-correlated with the solar asymmetry. That is, rain seems to become less acidic when the southern hemisphere of the Sun is more active. The acidity of rain is also found to be correlated with the atmospheric temperature, while not to be correlated with solar activity itself. We have carried on the analysis with two subsamples in which stations located in the east and in the west. We find that the pH data derived from the eastern stations which are possibly polluted by sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are not correlated with the solar asymmetry, but with the temperature. On the contrary, the pH data obtained from the western stations are found to be marginally anti-correlated with the solar asymmetry. In addition, the pH data obtained from the western stations are found to be correlated with the solar UV radiation. We conclude by briefly pointing out that a role of the solar asymmetry in the process of acidification of rain is to be further examined particularly when the level of pollution by sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides is low.
Holocene Climate Variability on the Centennial and Millennial Time Scale
Lee, Eun Hee ; Lee, Dae-Young ; Park, Mi-Young ; Kim, Sungeun ; Park, Su Jin ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 31, issue 4, 2014, Pages 335~340
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2014.31.4.335
There have been many suggestions and much debate about climate variability during the Holocene. However, their complex forcing factors and mechanisms have not yet been clearly identified. In this paper, we have examined the Holocene climate cycles and features based on the wavelet analyses of
records. The wavelet results of the
data show that the cycles of ~2180-2310, ~970, ~500-520, ~350-360, and ~210-220 years are dominant, and the ~1720 and ~1500 year cycles are relatively weak and subdominant. In particular, the ~2180-2310 year periodicity corresponding to the Hallstatt cycle is constantly significant throughout the Holocene, while the ~970 year cycle corresponding to the Eddy cycle is mainly prominent in the early half of the Holocene. In addition, distinctive signals of the ~210-220 year period corresponding to the de Vries cycle appear recurrently in the wavelet distribution of
, which coincide with the grand solar minima periods. These de Vries cycle events occurred every ~2270 years on average, implying a connection with the Hallstatt cycle. In contrast, the wavelet results of
data show that the cycles of ~1900-2000, ~900-1000, and ~550-560 years are dominant, while the ~2750 and ~2500 year cycles are subdominant. The periods of ~2750, ~2500, and ~1900 years being derived from the
records of NGRIP, GRIP and GISP2 ice cores, respectively, are rather longer or shorter than the Hallstatt cycle derived from the
records. The records of these three sites all show the ~900-1000 year periodicity corresponding to the Eddy cycle in the early half of the Holocene.
Prototype Development for the GMT FSM Secondary - Off-axis Aspheric Mirror Fabrication -
Kim, Young-Soo ; Kim, Jihun ; Song, Je Heon ; Cho, Myung ; Yang, Ho-Soon ; Lee, Joohyung ; Kim, Ho-Sang ; Lee, Kyoung-Don ; Ahn, Hyo-Sung ; Park, Won Hyun ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 31, issue 4, 2014, Pages 341~346
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2014.31.4.341
A prototype of the GMT FSM has been developed to acquire and to enhance the key technology - mirror fabrication and tip-tilt actuation. The ellipsoidal off-axis mirror has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated from light-weighting to grinding, polishing, and figuring of the mirror surface. The mirror was tested by using an interferometer together with CGHs, which revealed the surface error of 13.7 nm rms in the diameter of 1030 mm. The SCOTS test was employed to independently validate the test results. It measured the surface error to be 17.4 nm rms in the diameter of 1010 mm. Both tests show the optical surface of the FSMP mirror within the required value of 20 nm rms surface error.
Study on an 8-Wheel Suspension to Enhance the Hill-Climbing Performance for a Planetary Exploration Rover
Eom, We-Sub ; Lee, Joo-Hee ; Gong, Hyun-Cheol ; Choi, Gi-Hyuk ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 31, issue 4, 2014, Pages 347~351
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2014.31.4.347
Planetary exploration rovers are likely to make a trip on a winding and sloping road of irregular surfaces to the destination in order to accomplish scientific missions. One of the key technologies for rovers is a suspension for traveling and performing exploration missions; the suspension is an essential area of technology for a stable movement of a rover. In this study, an 8-wheel suspension is designed to enable efficient climbing of slopes on a passage to the destination. For the two front wheels among the eight wheels, the moment at the pivot connecting two wheels is derived when the distance between the wheels and the torque of wheels are same. A test experiment was performed to compare the magnitude of moment according to the change in tilt angle and the position of the pivot. Finally, a suspension design considering the position of the pivot was proposed to enhance the hill-climbing performance.