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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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The Korean Space Science Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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Magnetopause Waves Controlling the Dynamics of Earth's Magnetosphere
Hwang, Kyoung-Joo ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.1
Earth's magnetopause separating the fast and often turbulent magnetosheath and the relatively stagnant magnetosphere provides various forms of free energy that generate low-frequency surface waves. The source mechanism of this energy includes current-driven kinetic physical processes such as magnetic reconnection on the dayside magnetopause and flux transfer events drifting along the magnetopause, and velocity shear-driven (Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) or density/pressure gradient-driven (Rayleigh-Taylor instability) magnetohydro-dynamics (MHD) instabilities. The solar wind external perturbations (impulsive transient pressure pulses or quasi-periodic dynamic pressure variations) act as seed fluctuations for the magnetopause waves and trigger ULF pulsations inside the magnetosphere via global modes or mode conversion at the magnetopause. The magnetopause waves thus play an important role in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling, which is the key to space weather. This paper presents recent findings regarding the generation of surface waves (e.g., Kelvin-Helmholtz waves) at the Earth's magnetopause and analytic and observational studies accountable for the linking of the magnetopause waves and inner magnetospheric ULF pulsations, and the impacts of magnetopause waves on the dynamics of the magnetopause and on the inner magnetosphere.
The Morphology of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles - a review
Kil, Hyosub ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 13~19
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.13
Plasma bubbles that occur in the equatorial F-region make up one of the most distinguishing phenomena in the ionosphere. Bubbles represent plasma depletions with respect to the background ionosphere, and are the major source of electron density irregularities in the equatorial F-region. Such bubbles are seen as plasma depletion holes (in situ satellite observations), vertical plumes (radar observations), and emission-depletion bands elongated in the north-south direction (optical observations). However, no technique can observe the whole three-dimensional structure of a bubble. Various aspects of bubbles identified using different techniques indicate that a bubble has a "shell" structure. This paper reviews the development of the concepts of "bubble" and "shell" in this context.
Photometric Defocus Observations of Transiting Extrasolar Planets
Hinse, Tobias C. ; Han, Wonyong ; Yoon, Joh-Na ; Lee, Chung-Uk ; Kim, Yong-Gi ; Kim, Chun-Hwey ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 21~32
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.21
We have carried out photometric follow-up observations of bright transiting extrasolar planets using the CbNUOJ 0.6 m telescope. We have tested the possibility of obtaining high photometric precision by applying the telescope defocus technique, allowing the use of several hundred seconds in exposure time for a single measurement. We demonstrate that this technique is capable of obtaining a root-mean-square scatter of sub-millimagnitude order over several hours for a V~10 host star, typical for transiting planets detected from ground-based survey facilities. We compared our results with transit observations from a telescope operated in in-focus mode. High photometric precision was obtained due to the collection of a larger amount of photons, resulting in a higher signal compared to other random and systematic noise sources. Accurate telescope tracking is likely to further contribute to lowering systematic noise by exposing the same pixels on the CCD. Furthermore, a longer exposure time helps reduce the effect of scintillation noise which otherwise has a significant effect for small-aperture telescopes operated in in-focus mode. Finally we present the results of modelling four light-curves in which a root-mean-square scatter of 0.70 to 2.3 milli-magnitudes was achieved.
Long-term Statistical Analysis of the Simultaneity of Forbush Decrease Events at Middle Latitudes
Lee, Seongsuk ; Oh, Suyeon ; Yi, Yu ; Evenson, Paul ; Jee, Geonhwa ; Choi, Hwajin ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 33~38
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.33
Forbush Decreases (FD) are transient, sudden reductions of cosmic ray (CR) intensity lasting a few days, to a week. Such events are observed globally using ground neutron monitors (NMs). Most studies of FD events indicate that an FD event is observed simultaneously at NM stations located all over the Earth. However, using statistical analysis, previous researchers verified that while FD events could occur simultaneously, in some cases, FD events could occur non-simultaneously. Previous studies confirmed the statistical reality of non-simultaneous FD events and the mechanism by which they occur, using data from high-latitude and middle-latitude NM stations. In this study, we used long-term data (1971-2006) from middle-latitude NM stations (Irkutsk, Climax, and Jungfraujoch) to enhance statistical reliability. According to the results from this analysis, the variation of cosmic ray intensity during the main phase, is larger (statistically significant) for simultaneous FD events, than for non-simultaneous ones. Moreover, the distribution of main-phase-onset time shows differences that are statistically significant. While the onset times for the simultaneous FDs are distributed evenly over 24-hour intervals (day and night), those of non-simultaneous FDs are mostly distributed over 12-hour intervals, in daytime. Thus, the existence of the two kinds of FD events, according to differences in their statistical properties, were verified based on data from middle-latitude NM stations.
Heliocentric Potential (HCP) Prediction Model for Nowscast of Aviation Radiation Dose
Hwang, Junga ; Kim, Kyung-Chan ; Dokgo, Kyunghwan ; Choi, Enjin ; Kim, Hang-Pyo ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 39~44
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.39
It is well known that the space radiation dose over the polar route should be carefully considered especially when the space weather shows sudden disturbances such as CME and flares. The National Meteorological Satellite Center (NMSC) and Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) recently established a basis for a space radiation service for the public by developing a space radiation prediction model and heliocentric potential (HCP) prediction model. The HCP value is used as a critical input value of the CARI-6 and CARI-6M programs, which estimate the aviation route dose. The CARI-6/6M is the most widely used and confidential program that is officially provided by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The HCP value is given one month late in the FAA official webpage, making it difficult to obtain real-time information on the aviation route dose. In order to overcome this limitation regarding time delay, we developed a HCP prediction model based on the sunspot number variation. In this paper, we focus on the purpose and process of our HCP prediction model development. Finally, we find the highest correlation coefficient of 0.9 between the monthly sunspot number and the HCP value with an eight month time shift.
Development and Test of 2.5-Dimensional Electromagnetic PIC Simulation Code
Lee, Sang-Yun ; Lee, Ensang ; Kim, Khan-Hyuk ; Seon, Jongho ; Lee, Dong-Hun ; Ryu, Kwang-Sun ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 45~50
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.45
We have developed a 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic particle simulation code using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method to investigate electromagnetic phenomena that occur in space plasmas. Our code is based on the leap-frog method and the centered difference method for integration and differentiation of the governing equations. We adopted the relativistic Buneman-Boris method to solve the Lorentz force equation and the Esirkepov method to calculate the current density while maintaining charge conservation. Using the developed code, we performed test simulations for electron two-stream instability and electron temperature anisotropy induced instability with the same initial parameters as used in previously reported studies. The test simulation results are almost identical with those of the previous papers.
Astronomical Characteristics of Cheonsang-yeolcha-bunyajido from the Perspective of Manufacturing Methods
Ahn, Sang-Hyeon ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 51~62
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.51
I investigated a method for drawing the star chart in the planisphere Cheonsang-yeolcha-bunyajido. The outline of the star chart can be constructed by considering the astronomical information given in the planisphere alone and the drawing method described in Xin-Tangshu; further the chart can be completed by using additional information on the shape and linking method of asterisms out of an inherited star chart. The circles of perpetual visibility, the equator, and the circle of perpetual invisibility are concentric, and their common center locates the Tianshu-xing, which was defined to be a pole star in the Han dynasty. The radius of the circle of perpetual visibility was modified in accordance with the latitude of Seoul, whereas the other circles were drawn for the latitude of
, which had been the reference latitude in ancient Chinese astronomy. The ecliptic was drawn as an exact circle by parallel transference of the equator circle to fix the location of the equinoxes at the positions recorded in the epitaph of the planisphere. The positions of equinoxes originated from the Han dynasty. The 365 ticks around the boundary of the circle of perpetual invisibility were possibly drawn by segmenting the circumference with an arc length instead of a chord length with the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter as accurate as 3.14 presumed. The 12 equatorial sectors were drawn on the boundary of the star-chart in accordance with the beginning and ending lodge angles given in the epitaph that originated from the Han dynasty. The determinative lines for the 28 lunar lodges were drawn to intersect their determinative stars, but seven determinative stars are deviated. According to the treatises of the Tang dynasty, these anomalies were inherited from charts of the period earlier than the Tang dynasty. Thus, the star chart in Cheonsang-yeolcha-bunyajido preserves the old tradition that had existed before the present Chinese tradition reformed in approximately 700 CE. In conclusion, the star chart in Cheonsang-yeolcha-bunyajido shows the sky of the former Han dynasty with the equator modified to the latitude of Seoul.
Scale Marking Method on the Circumference of Circle Elements for Astronomical Instruments in the Early Joseon Dynasty
Mihn, Byeong-Hee ; Lee, Ki-Won ; Ahn, Young Sook ; Lee, Yong Sam ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 63~71
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.63
During the reign of King Sejong (世宗, 1418-1450) in the Joseon Dynasty, there were lots of astronomical instruments, including miniaturized ones. Those instruments utilized the technical know-how acquired through building contemporary astronomical instruments previously developed in the Song(宋), Jin(金), and Yuan(元) dynasties of China. In those days, many astronomical instruments had circles, rings, and spheres carved with a scale of 365.25, 100, and 24 parts, respectively, on their circumference. These were called the celestial-circumference degree, hundred-interval (Baekgak), and 24 direction, respectively. These scales are marked by the angular distance, not by the angle. Therefore, these circles, rings, and spheres had to be optimized in size to accomodate proper scales. Assuming that the scale system is composed of integer multiples of unit length, we studied the sizes of circles by referring to old articles and investigating existing artifacts. We discovered that the star chart of Cheonsang yeolcha bunyajido was drawn with a royal standard ruler (周尺) based on the unit length of 207 mm. Interestingly, its circumference was marked by the unit scale of 3 puns per 1 du (or degree) like Honsang (a celestial globe). We also found that Hyeonju ilgu (a equatorial sundial) has a Baekgak disk on a scale of 1 pun per 1 gak (that is an interval of time similar to a quarter). This study contributes to the analysis of specifications of numerous circular elements from old Korean astronomical instruments.
A Study of the Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui (兩景揆日儀) in the Joseon Dynasty
Lee, Yong Sam ; Kim, Sang Hyuk ; Mihn, Byeong-Hee ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 73~80
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.73
The Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui (兩景揆日儀) is a kind of elevation sundial using three wooden plates. Sang-hyeok Lee (李尙爀, 1810~?) and Byeong-cheol Nam (南秉哲, 1817~1863) gave descriptions of this sundial and explained how to use it in their Gyu-il-go (揆日考) and Ui-gi-jip-seol (儀器輯說), respectively. According to Gyu-il-go (揆日考) there are two horizontal plates and two vertical plates that have lines of season and time. Subseasonal (節候) lines are engraved between seasonal (節氣) lines, subdividing the interval into three equal lines of Cho-hu (初候, early subseason), Jung-hu (中候, mid subseason) and Mal-hu (末候, late subseason); there are 13 seasonal lines for a year, thus resulting in 37 subseasonal lines; also, there are 12 double-hour (時辰) lines for a day engraved on these plates. The only remaining artifact of Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui was made in 1849 (the
year of Heon-jong) and is kept at the Korea University Museum. We have compared and analyzed Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui and similar western sundials. Also, we have reviewed the scientific aspect of this artifact and built a replica. Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui is a new model enhanced from the miniaturization development in the early Joseon Dynasty and can be applied to the southern part of the tropic line through a structure change.
Design and Performance of an Automated Bioreactor for Cell Culture Experiments in a Microgravity Environment
Kim, Youn-Kyu ; Park, Seul-Hyun ; Lee, Joo-Hee ; Choi, Gi-Hyuk ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 81~89
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.81
In this paper, we describe the development of a bioreactor for a cell-culture experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). The bioreactor is an experimental device for culturing mouse muscle cells in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the experiment was to assess the impact of microgravity on the muscles to address the possibility of long-term human residence in space. After investigation of previously developed bioreactors, and analysis of the requirements for microgravity cell culture experiments, a bioreactor design is herein proposed that is able to automatically culture 32 samples simultaneously. This reactor design is capable of automatic control of temperature, humidity, and culture-medium injection rate; and satisfies the interface requirements of the ISS. Since bioreactors are vulnerable to cell contamination, the medium-circulation modules were designed to be a completely replaceable, in order to reuse the bioreactor after each experiment. The bioreactor control system is designed to circulate culture media to 32 culture chambers at a maximum speed of 1 ml/min, to maintain the temperature of the reactor at
, and to keep the relative humidity of the reactor above 70%. Because bubbles in the culture media negatively affect cell culture, a de-bubbler unit was provided to eliminate such bubbles. A working model of the reactor was built according to the new design, to verify its performance, and was used to perform a cell culture experiment that confirmed the feasibility of this device.
Burst Locating Capability of the Korean Solar Radio Burst Locator (KSRBL)
Hwangbo, Jung-Eun ; Bong, Su-Chan ; Park, Sung-Hong ; Lee, Dae-Young ; Cho, Kyung-Suk ; Lee, Jaejin ; Park, Young-Deuk ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 1, 2015, Pages 91~99
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.1.91
The Korean Solar Radio Burst Locator (KSRBL) is a solar radio spectrograph observing the broad frequency range from 0.245 to 18 GHz with the capability of locating wideband gyrosynchrotron bursts. Due to the characteristics of a spiral feed, the beam center varies in a spiral pattern with frequency, making a modulation pattern over the wideband spectrum. After a calibration process, we obtained dynamic spectra consistent with the Nobeyama Radio Polarimeter (NoRP). We compared and analyzed the locations of bursts observed by KSRBL with results from the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). As a result, we found that the KSRBL provides the ability to locate flaring sources on the Sun within around 2'.