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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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The Korean Space Science Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
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DC Langmuir Probe for Measurement of Space Plasma: A Brief Review
Oyama, Koichiro ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 167~180
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.167
Herein, we discuss the in situ measurement of the electron temperature in the ionosphere/plasmasphere by means of DC Langmuir probes. Major instruments which have been reported are a conventional DC Langmuir probe, whose probe voltage is swept; a pulsed probe, which uses pulsed bias voltage; a rectification probe, which uses sinusoidal signal; and a resonance cone probe, which uses radio wave propagation. The content reviews past observations made with the instruments above. We also discuss technical factors that should be taken into account for reliable measurement, such as problems related to the contamination of electrodes and the satellite surface. Finally, we discuss research topics to be studied in the near future.
Storm Sudden Commencements Without Interplanetary Shocks
Park, Wooyeon ; Lee, Jeongwoo ; Yi, Yu ; Ssessanga, Nicholas ; Oh, Suyeon ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 181~187
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.181
Storm sudden commencements (SSCs) occur due to a rapid compression of the Earth's magnetic field. This is generally believed to be caused by interplanetary (IP) shocks, but with exceptions. In this paper we explore possible causes of SSCs other than IP shocks through a statistical study of geomagnetic storms using SYM-H data provided by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism - Kyoto and by applying a superposed epoch analysis to simultaneous solar wind parameters obtained with the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. We select a total of 274 geomagnetic storms with minimum SYM-H of less than -30nT during 1998-2008 and regard them as SSCs if SYM-H increases by more than 10 nT over 10 minutes. Under this criterion, we found 103 geomagnetic storms with both SSC and IP shocks and 28 storms with SSC not associated with IP shocks. Storms in the former group share the property that the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), proton density and proton velocity increase together with SYM-H, implying the action of IP shocks. During the storms in the latter group, only the proton density rises with SYM-H. We find that the density increase is associated with either high speed streams (HSSs) or interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), and suggest that HSSs and ICMEs may be alternative contributors to SSCs.
Orbit Determination Using SLR Data for STSAT-2C: Short-arc Analysis
Kim, Young-Rok ; Park, Eunseo ; Kucharski, Daniel ; Lim, Hyung-Chul ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 189~200
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.189
In this study, we present the results of orbit determination (OD) using satellite laser ranging (SLR) data for the Science and Technology Satellite (STSAT)-2C by a short-arc analysis. For SLR data processing, the NASA/GSFC GEODYN II software with one year (2013/04 - 2014/04) of normal point observations is used. As there is only an extremely small quantity of SLR observations of STSAT-2C and they are sparsely distribution, the selection of the arc length and the estimation intervals for the atmospheric drag coefficients and the empirical acceleration parameters was made on an arc-to-arc basis. For orbit quality assessment, the post-fit residuals of each short-arc and orbit overlaps of arcs are investigated. The OD results show that the weighted root mean square post-fit residuals of short-arcs are less than 1 cm, and the average 1-day orbit overlaps are superior to 50/600/900 m for the radial/cross-track/along-track components. These results demonstrate that OD for STSAT-2C was successfully achieved with cm-level range precision. However its orbit quality did not reach the same level due to the availability of few and sparse measurement conditions. From a mission analysis viewpoint, obtaining the results of OD for STSAT-2C is significant for generating enhanced orbit predictions for more frequent tracking.
Development of a Reduction Algorithm of GEO Satellite Optical Observation Data for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL)
Park, Sun-youp ; Choi, Jin ; Jo, Jung Hyun ; Son, Ju Young ; Park, Yung-Sik ; Yim, Hong-Suh ; Moon, Hong-Kyu ; Bae, Young-Ho ; Choi, Young-Jun ; Park, Jang-Hyun ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 201~207
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.201
An algorithm to automatically extract coordinate and time information from optical observation data of geostationary orbit satellites (GEO satellites) or geosynchronous orbit satellites (GOS satellites) is developed. The optical wide-field patrol system is capable of automatic observation using a pre-arranged schedule. Therefore, if this type of automatic analysis algorithm is available, daily unmanned monitoring of GEO satellites can be possible. For data acquisition for development, the COMS1 satellite was observed with 1-s exposure time and 1-m interval. The images were grouped and processed in terms of "action", and each action was composed of six or nine successive images. First, a reference image with the best quality in one action was selected. Next, the rest of the images in the action were geometrically transformed to fit in the horizontal coordinate system (expressed in azimuthal angle and elevation) of the reference image. Then, these images were median-combined to retain only the possible non-moving GEO candidates. By reverting the coordinate transformation of the positions of these GEO satellite candidates, the final coordinates could be calculated.
Design and Development of High-Repetition-Rate Satellite Laser Ranging System
Choi, Eun-Jung ; Bang, Seong-Cheol ; Sung, Ki-Pyoung ; Lim, Hyung-Chul ; Jung, Chan-Gyu ; Kim, In-Yeung ; Choi, Jae-Seung ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 209~219
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.209
The Accurate Ranging System for Geodetic Observation - Mobile (ARGO-M) was successfully developed as the first Korean mobile Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) system in 2012, and has joined in the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) tracking network, DAEdeoK (DAEK) station. The DAEK SLR station was approved as a validated station in April 2014, through the ILRS station "data validation" process. The ARGO-M system is designed to enable 2 kHz laser ranging with millimeter-level precision for geodetic, remote sensing, navigation, and experimental satellites equipped with Laser Retro-reflector Arrays (LRAs). In this paper, we present the design and development of a next generation high-repetition-rate SLR system for ARGO-M. The laser ranging rate up to 10 kHz is becoming an important issue in the SLR community to improve ranging precision. To implement high-repetition-rate SLR system, the High-repetition-rate SLR operation system (HSLR-10) was designed and developed using ARGO-M Range Gate Generator (A-RGG), so as to enable laser ranging from 50 Hz to 10 kHz. HSLR-10 includes both hardware controlling software and data post-processing software. This paper shows the design and development of key technologies of high-repetition-rate SLR system. The developed system was tested successfully at DAEK station and then moved to Sejong station, a new Korean SLR station, on July 1, 2015. HSLR-10 will begin normal operations at Sejong station in the near future.
Optical Orbit Determination of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite Effected by Baseline Distances between Various Ground-based Tracking Stations I: COMS simulation case
Son, Ju Young ; Jo, Jung Hyun ; Choi, Jin ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 221~228
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.221
To protect and manage the Korean space assets including satellites, it is important to have precise positions and orbit information of each space objects. While Korea currently lacks optical observatories dedicated to satellite tracking, the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is planning to establish an optical observatory for the active generation of space information. However, due to geopolitical reasons, it is difficult to acquire an adequately sufficient number of optical satellite observatories in Korea. Against this backdrop, this study examined the possible locations for such observatories, and performed simulations to determine the differences in precision of optical orbit estimation results in relation to the relative baseline distance between observatories. To simulate more realistic conditions of optical observation, white noise was introduced to generate observation data, which was then used to investigate the effects of baseline distance between optical observatories and the simulated white noise. We generated the optical observations with white noise to simulate the actual observation, estimated the orbits with several combinations of observation data from the observatories of various baseline differences, and compared the estimated orbits to check the improvement of precision. As a result, the effect of the baseline distance in combined optical GEO satellite observation is obvious but small compared to the observation resolution limit of optical GEO observation.
Optical Orbit Determination of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite Effected by Baseline Distances between Various Ground-based Tracking Stations II: COMS Case with Analysis of Actual Observation Data
Son, Ju Young ; Jo, Jung Hyun ; Choi, Jin ; Kim, Bang-Yeop ; Yoon, Joh-Na ; Yim, Hong-Suh ; Choi, Young-Jun ; Park, Sun-Youp ; Bae, Young Ho ; Roh, Dong-Goo ; Park, Jang-Hyun ; Kim, Ji-Hye ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 229~235
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.229
We estimated the orbit of the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite, through data from actual optical observations using telescopes at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Optical Wide field Patrol (OWL) at KASI, and the Chungbuk National University Observatory (CNUO) from August 1, 2014, to January 13, 2015. The astrometric data of the satellite were extracted from the World Coordinate System (WCS) in the obtained images, and geometrically distorted errors were corrected. To handle the optically observed data, corrections were made for the observation time, light-travel time delay, shutter speed delay, and aberration. For final product, the sequential filter within the Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) was used for orbit estimation based on the results of optical observation. In addition, a comparative analysis was conducted between the precise orbit from the ephemeris of the COMS maintained by the satellite operator and the results of orbit estimation using optical observation. The orbits estimated in simulation agree with those estimated with actual optical observation data. The error in the results using optical observation data decreased with increasing number of observatories. Our results are useful for optimizing observation data for orbit estimation.
Analysis of a Simulated Optical GSO Survey Observation for the Effective Maintenance of the Catalogued Satellites and the Orbit Determination Strategy
Choi, Jin ; Jo, Jung Hyun ; Yim, Hong-Suh ; Choi, Young-Jun ; Son, Ju-Young ; Park, Sun-youp ; Bae, Young-Ho ; Roh, Dong-Goo ; Cho, Sungki ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 237~245
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.237
A strategy is needed for a regional survey of geosynchronous orbits (GSOs) to monitor known space objects and detect uncataloged space objects. On the basis of the Inter-Agency Debris Committee's recommendation regarding the protected region of geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO), target satellites with perigee and apogee of
and various inclinations are selected for analysis. The status of the GSO region was analyzed using the satellite distribution based on the orbital characteristics in publicly available two-line element data. Natural perturbation effects cause inactive satellites to drift to two stable longitudinal points. Active satellites usually maintain the designed positions as a result of regular or irregular maneuver operations against their natural drift. To analyze the detection rate of a single optical telescope, 152 out of 412 active satellites and 135 out of 288 inactive satellites in the GSO region were selected on the basis of their visibility at the observation site in Daejeon, Korea. By using various vertical view ranges and various numbers of observations of the GSO region, the detection efficiencies were analyzed for a single night, and the numbers of follow-up observations were determined. The orbital estimation accuracies were also checked using the arc length and number of observed data points to maintain the GSO satellite catalog.
Evaluating High-Degree-and-Order Gravitational Harmonics and its Application to the State Predictions of a Lunar Orbiting Satellite
Song, Young-Joo ; Kim, Bang-Yeop ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 247~256
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.247
In this work, an efficient method with which to evaluate the high-degree-and-order gravitational harmonics of the non-sphericity of a central body is described and applied to state predictions of a lunar orbiter. Unlike the work of Song et al. (2010), which used a conventional computation method to process gravitational harmonic coefficients, the current work adapted a well-known recursion formula that directly uses fully normalized associated Legendre functions to compute the acceleration due to the non-sphericity of the moon. With the formulated algorithms, the states of a lunar orbiting satellite are predicted and its performance is validated in comparisons with solutions obtained from STK/Astrogator. The predicted differences in the orbital states between STK/Astrogator and the current work all remain at a position of less than 1 m with velocity accuracy levels of less than 1 mm/s, even with different orbital inclinations. The effectiveness of the current algorithm, in terms of both the computation time and the degree of accuracy degradation, is also shown in comparisons with results obtained from earlier work. It is expected that the proposed algorithm can be used as a foundation for the development of an operational flight dynamics subsystem for future lunar exploration missions by Korea. It can also be used to analyze missions which require very close operations to the moon.
Preliminary Analysis of Delta-V Requirements for a Lunar CubeSat Impactor with Deployment Altitude Variations
Song, Young-Joo ; Ho, Jin ; Kim, Bang-Yeop ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 257~268
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.257
Characteristics of delta-V requirements for deploying an impactor from a mother-ship at different orbital altitudes are analyzed in order to prepare for a future lunar CubeSat impactor mission. A mother-ship is assumed to be orbiting the moon with a circular orbit at a 90 deg inclination and having 50, 100, 150, 200 km altitudes. Critical design parameters that are directly related to the success of the impactor mission are also analyzed including deploy directions, CubeSat flight time, impact velocity, and associated impact angles. Based on derived delta-V requirements, required thruster burn time and fuel mass are analyzed by adapting four different miniaturized commercial onboard thrusters currently developed for CubeSat applications. As a result, CubeSat impact trajectories as well as thruster burn characteristics deployed at different orbital altitudes are found to satisfy the mission objectives. It is concluded that thrust burn time should considered as the more critical design parameter than the required fuel mass when deducing the onboard propulsion system requirements. Results provided through this work will be helpful in further detailed system definition and design activities for future lunar missions with a CubeSat-based payload.
A Novel Axial Foldable Mechanism for a Segmented Primary Mirror of Space Telescope
Thesiya, Dignesh ; Srinivas, Arra ; Shukla, Piyush ;
Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences, volume 32, issue 3, 2015, Pages 269~279
DOI : 10.5140/JASS.2015.32.3.269
Future space missions will have larger telescopes in order to look deeper into space while improvising on spatial resolution. The primary mirrors for these telescopes will be so large that using a monolithic mirror will be nearly impossible because of the difficulties associated with its fabrication, transportation, and installation on a launch vehicle. The feasibility of launching these huge mirrors is limited because of their small launch fairing diameter. The aerodynamic shape of the fairing requires a small diameter, but the height of the launch vehicle, which is available for designers to utilize, is larger than the fairing diameter. This paper presents the development of an axial deployment mechanism based on the screw jack principle. The mechanism was designed and developed, and a prototype was constructed in order to demonstrate a lab model.