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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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The Korean Society of Speech Sciences
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Volume 2, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Differential Effect for Neural Activation Processes according to the Proficiency Level of Code Switching: An ERP Study
Kim, Choong-Myung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 3~10
The present study aims to investigate neural activations according to the level of code switching in English proficient bilinguals and to find the relationship between the performance of language switching and proficiency level using ERPs (event-related potentials). First, when comparing high-proficient (HP) with low-proficient (LP) bilingual performance in a native language environment, the activation level of N2 was observed to be higher in the HP group than in the LP group, but only under two conditions: 1) the language switching (between-language) condition known as indexing attention of code switching and 2) the inhibition of current language for L1. Another effect of N400 can be shown in both groups only in the language non-switching (within-language) condition. This effect suggests that both groups completed the semantic acceptability task well in their native language environment without the burden of language switching, irrespective of high or low performance. The latencies of N400 are only about 100ms earlier in the HP group than in the LP group. This difference can be interpreted as facilitation of the given task. These results suggest that HP showed the differential activation in inhibitory system for L1 in switching condition of L1-to-L2 to be contrary to inactivation of inhibitory system for the LP group. Despite the absence of an N400 effect at the given task in both groups, differential latencies between the peaks were attributed to the differences of efficiency in semantic processing.
Comparison between Operatic Singing and Applied Music Singing
Nam, Do-Hyun ; Kim, Wha-Sook ; Yoo, Hyun-Gii ; Choi, Hong-Shik ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 11~18
This study compared classical operatic singing and applied music singing using the vocal assessment software, Dr. Speech and SPEAD from Lx Speech Studio. Participants in this study included: eight female operatic singers (mean 22.6 yrs, average career 7.5 yrs); eight male operatic singers (mean 25.6 yrs, average career 7.3 yrs); eight female applied music singers (mean 25.1 yrs, average career 6.1 yrs); and eight male applied music singers (mean 27.6 yrs, average career 6.8 yrs). The results demonstrated significantly higher closed quotient values in female applied music singers during singing (p<.05). In addition, higher closed quotient values in speaking were presented in male classical singers and longer MPT was obtained in female operatic singers (p<.05). Furthermore, singer's formants were identified in all male operatic singers and in three female operatic singers. In contrast, only one applied music male and one female singer showed singer's formants while singing.
Acoustic Characteristics of Normal Healthy Koreans with Advancing Age
Kim, Sun-Woo ; Kim, Hyang-Hee ; Park, Eun-Sook ; Choi, Hong-Shik ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 19~28
The purpose of this study was to increase the current understanding of the acoustic characteristics of voices with advancing age. The relationship between age-related changes in body physiology and certain acoustic characteristics of voice was studied in a sample of 80 men representing four chronological age groupings (20-29, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79) who were all of good physical condition. Each subject was asked to phonate the vowel /a/, /i/, and /u/ for as long as possible at comfortable frequency and intensity level and read the sentence. A promising voice analysis program (Multi-Dimensional Voice
) was used to measure the fundamental frequency (
), jitter, shimmer,
variation, peak-amplitude variation, smoothed pitch perturbation quotient, smoothed amplitude perturbation quotient, soft phonation index,
-tremor intensity index, amplitude tremor intensity index, and noise-to-harmonics ratio from the samples.
Correlation of Acoustic Cues in Stop Productions of Korean and English Adults and Children
Kong, Eun-Jong ; Weismer, Gary ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 29~37
Previous studies have investigated a between-category relationship of multiple acoustic cues for a laryngeal contrast by examining the distributions of VOT, f0 and H1-H2. The current study examined within-category correlations between cues comprising stops by Korean- and English-speaking adults and children to understand how children master the internal structure of stop phonation types in two languages. Word-initial stops were collected from about 70 children and 15 adults speaking English and Korean, and were analyzed in terms of VOT, f0 and H1-H2 to compute correlation coefficients. Findings in adults' productions included a gender-differentiated cue-correlation pattern associated with H1-H2 in Korean tense stops and a trading relationship between f0 and VOT in Korean lax and aspirated stops and English voiced and voiceless stops. Children did not necessarily have adult-like cue-correlation patterns even in early-acquired categories, suggesting that the mastery of intra-category structure of phonation type might occur later than inter-category structure.
A Comparative Study of Intonation Phrase Boundary Tones of Korean Produced by Korean Speakers and Chinese Speakers in the Reading of Korean Text
Yune, Young-Sook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 39~49
The purpose of this paper is to examine how Chinese speakers realize Korean intonation phrase (IP) boundary tones in the reading of a Korean text. Korean IP boundary tones play various roles in speech communication. They indicate prosodic constituents' boundaries while simultaneously performing pragmatic and grammatical functions. In order to express and understand Korean utterances correctly, it is necessary to understand the Korean IP boundary tone system. To investigate the IP boundary tone produced by Chinese speakers, we have specifically examined the type of boundary tones, the degree of internal pitch modulation of boundary tones, and the pitch difference between penultimate syllables and boundary tones. The results of each analysis were compared to the IP boundary tones produced by Korean native speakers. The results show that IP boundary tones were realized higher than penultimate syllables.
A Method for Correcting English Vowel Pronunciation by Wooden Chopsticks
Yang, Byung-Gon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 51~58
English vowels play an important role in the daily communication between Korean students and international visitors. However, many Korean students still have difficulty producing them distinctively. Vowels vary according to shapes of oral and pharyngeal cavities, which are mainly determined by the degree of jaw opening and tongue position. Yang (2008a) proposed a simplified chart of English and Korean vowels for an educational purpose. He also suggested to use wooden chopsticks to secure distinguishable jaw openings. The purpose of this study is to tap whether wooden chopsticks can be applicable to a method for correcting English vowel pronunciation. Twelve male and female students participated in the recordings of eight /hVd/ words followed by additional recordings with wooden chopsticks between upper and lower teeth. The first and second formant trajectories of both natural and controlled vowel productions were obtained and compared at six equidistant measurement points using Praat. Results showed that the formant values of natural vowel productions were comparable to those of controlled productions. Vowels with similar formant trajectories of male students were separated with the aid of chopsticks. The width of each chopstick could be controlled similarly in the experiment. The author concludes that wooden chopsticks can be useful to correct vowel pronunciation. Further studies are desirable for native speakers to make perceptual evaluations of controlled vowel productions by nonnative speakers.
Korean Sibilant /s/ before a High Front and a Round Segment
Kang, Hyun-Sook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 59~65
In this paper, we investigate acoustic characteristics of Korean /s/ when it is followed by both a high front and a round segment regardless of their order to one another. We show that Korean /s/ in this environment has characteristics of a labio-palatalized segment, being affected by both a high front and a round segment if they occur within the domain of a syllable. In the experiment, we show that Korean /s/ before a high front and a round segment shows a spectral shape different from that in other environments. Specifically, it is different from /s/ before a high front segment only, showing peaks around 2.5 kHz. Furthermore, it shows a rapid decrease of amplitude in 4-5 kHz, and sometimes another plateau of high peaks in 5-6 kHz. We also examined center of gravity frequency and band energy difference. Based on the results of this experiment, we argue that Korean /s/ is affected by the following segments within the domain of coarticulation, a syllable and that the degree of coarticulation is different from language to language.
Vowel Formant Trajectory Patterns for Shared Vowels of American English and Korean
Chung, Hyun-Ju ; Kong, Eun-Jong ; Weismer, Gary ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 67~74
The purpose of this study was to explore the cross-linguistic difference in the spectral movement pattern of American English and Korean vowels. Eight American vowels /a/, /e/, /
/, /i/, /I/, /o/, /u/, and /
/, and five Korean vowels, /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/ in a fricative-vowel environment produced by adult speakers of each language were analyzed. The spectral movement patterns of the first two formant frequency values were measured and analyzed. The results showed that Korean vowels had minimal spectral movement, both in F1 and F2 values, as compared to American English vowels. Moreover, no consistent direction of movement was found in the three corner Korean vowels, while American English vowels showed consistent direction of movement for each vowel of the same phonemic category.
Respiratory Functions and Characteristics of Phonation in Patients with de novo Idiopathic Parkinson's Diseases
Cho, Sun-A ; Sohn, Young-Ho ; Baek, Seung-Jae ; Lee, Phil-Hyu ; Lee, Ji-Eun ; Choi, Yae-Lin ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 75~82
Many previous studies based on respiratory characteristics of Idiopathic Parkinson's Diseases (IPD) patients have not controlled related factors appropriately. Accordingly, these studies produced discordant results. Furthermore, there is currently a lack of studies that can provide precise explanations on the characteristics of respiration and phonation. This study included a total of 40 subjects: 20 mixed gender de novo IPD patients ranging in age from 50 to 80 (Hoehn & Yahr stage 1~3), and 20 normal subjects with similar matches for age and gender. All participants were controlled based on their gender, age, height, weight, vocal fold function, cognitive abilities, and depression factors. K-MMSE (Korean-Mini Mental State Examination), nVHI-10 (new Voice Handicap Index), and KGDS (Korean Form of Geriatric Depression Scale) were evaluated to select this study subjects. In order to compare respiratory functions between the two groups, FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were measured using microQuark, a PC-based spirometer. CSL was used by measure MPT and PAS was used to measure MFR. To investigate the characteristics of phonation ability, CSL was used to measure jitter and shimmer, while PAS was used to measure Psub. In order to compare the respiratory function averages and phonation ability between the two groups, statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS (version 12.0). The results of this study showed that most de novo IPD patients were included in the normal average range of respiratory and phonatory ability. But the respiratory and phonatory ability of de novo IPD patients showed lower tendency as compared with the normal group. When the average of respiratory and phonatory ability among the gender was compared, the difference of males was greater than the difference of females.
A Preliminary Report on Perceptual Resolutions of Korean Consonant Cluster Simplification and Their Possible Change over Time
Cho, Tae-Hong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 83~92
The present study examined how listeners of Seoul Korean would recover deleted phonemes in consonant cluster simplification. In a phoneme monitoring experiment, listeners had to monitor for C2 (/k/ or /p/) in C1C2C3 when C2 was deleted (C1 was preserved) or preserved (C1 was deleted). The target consonant (C2) was either /k/ or /p/ (e.g., i
lato vs. pa
lato), and there were two listener groups, one group tested in 2002 and the other in 2009. Some points have emerged from the results. First, listeners were able to detect deleted phonemes as accurately and rapidly as preserved phonemes, showing that the physical presence of the acoustic information did not improve the listeners' performance. This suggests that listeners must have relied on language-specific phonological knowledge about the consonant cluster simplification, rather than relying on the low-level acoustic-phonetic information. Second, listener groups (participants in 2002 vs. 2009), differed in processing /p/ versus /k/: listeners in 2009 failed to detect /p/ more frequently than those in 2002, suggesting that the way the consonant cluster sequence is produced and perceived has changed over time. This result was interpreted as coming from statistical patterns of speech production in contemporary Seoul Korean as reported in a recent study by Cho & Kim (2009): /p/ is deleted far more often than /p/ is preserved, which is likely reflected in the way listeners process simplified variants. Finally, listeners processed /k/ more efficiently than /p/, especially when the target was physically present (in C-preserved condition), indicating that listeners benefited more from the presence of /k/ than of /p/. This was interpreted as supporting the view that velars are perceptually more robust than labials, which constrains shaping phonological patterns of the language. These results were then discussed in terms of their implications for theories of spoken word recognition.
Acoustic Properties of Fricatives Produced by Children with Functional Articulation Disorder
Nam, Jeong-Hoon ; Yi, Bong-Won ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 93~100
The purpose of this study was to compare the acoustic properties of fricatives, /ㅅ, ㅆ/ produced by children with functional articulation disorder and normal children (N=20, aged 6-7). All subjects showed significant differences in both the length of friction intervals and breathing intervals of fricatives according to the changes in the environment presented within each group. However, there is a difference in the extent of variation in length between the two groups. This means that children with functional articulation disorder have greater difficulty in adjusting fricative noises according to changes in the CV VCV environment than normal children.
A Study of an Independent Evaluation of Prosody and Segmentals: With Reference to the Difference in the Evaluation of English Pronunciation between Native Speakers of English and Korean Learners of English
Park, Han-Sang ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 101~107
This study investigates the difference in the evaluation of English pronunciation quality between native speakers of English and Korean learners of English. This study employs a novel method of independently evaluating the prosody and segmentals of English sentences. A set of stimuli were made by swapping the prosody and the segmentals of English sentences read by a native speaker of American English and a Korean learner of English. Evaluations of the difference level of stimuli pairs and the goodness of the pronunciation quality showed that both native speakers of English and Korean learners of English give priority to the segmentals but native speakers of English were more sensitive to the difference in prosody in the evaluation of English pronunciation.
The Perceptual Hierarchy of Distinctive Features in Korean Consonants
Bae, Moon-Jung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 109~118
Using a speeded classification task (Garner, 1978), we investigated the perceptual interaction of distinctive features in Korean consonants. The main questions of this study were whether listeners can perceptually identify the component features that make up complex consonant sounds, whether these features are processed independently or dependently and whether there is a systematic hierarchy in their dependency. Participants were asked to classify syllables based on their difference in distinctive features in the task. Reaction times for this task were also gathered. For example, participants classified spoken syllables /ta/ and /pa/ as one category and /
/ and /
/ as another in terms of aspiration condition. In terms of articulation, participants classified /ta/ and /
/ as one category and /pa/ and /
/ as another. We assumed that the difference between their RTs represents their interdependency. We compared the laryngeal features and place features (Experiment 1), resonance features and place features (Experiment 2), and manner features and laryngeal features (Experiment 3). The results showed that distinctive features were not perceived in a completely independent way, but they had an asymmetric and hierarchical interdependency. The laryngeal features were found to be more independent compared to place and manner features. We discuss these results in the context of perceptual basis in phonology.
Some Notes on Articulatory Correlates of Three-way Bilabial Stop Contrast in /Ca/ Context in Korean: An Electromagnetic Articulography (EMA) Study
Son, Min-Jung ; Cho, Tae-Hong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 119~127
Recently, we have launched a large-scale articulatory study to investigate how the three-way contrastive stops (i.e., lenis, fortis, and aspirated) in Korean are kinematically expressed (i.e., in terms of articulatory movement characteristics) in various contexts, using a magnetometer (Electromagnetic Articulography). In this paper, we report some preliminary results about how the three-way bilabial series /p,
/ produced in /Ca/ context in isolation are kinematically characterized not only during the lip closure but also during the following vocalic articulation. Some important notes could be made from the results. First, the degree of lip constriction (as measured by the lip aperture between the upper and lower lips) was smaller for the lenis /p/ and larger for the fortis/aspirated /
/, showing a two-way distinction during the closure. Second, the tongue lowering for the following vowel was more extreme after the lenis /p/ than after the fortis/aspirated /
/. Regarding this vocalic articulatory difference in the tongue height, we discussed the possibility that the articulatory tension associated with the fortis/aspirated stops is further reflected in the lingual vocalic movement maintaining the tongue position to a certain level for the following vowel /a/, while the lenis consonant does not impose such articulatory constraints, resulting in more tongue lowering. Finally, the temporal relationship between the release of the stop closure and the lowest tongue position of the following vowel remained constant, suggesting that CV coordination is invariantly maintained across the consonant type. This pattern was interpreted as supporting the view that the consonant and vowel gestures are coordinated in much the same way across languages.
Redefining Lingua Franca Core for Korean Learners of English
Chung, Hyun-Song ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 129~134
Jenkins (2000, 2007) suggested lingua franca core (LFC) of English as an international language (EIL) context. According to her, intelligibility of English pronunciation of L2 English speakers and English learners is more important than pronunciation accuracy in English communication. Her suggestion has been widely accepted in Korean classroom situations, so the systematic teaching of English pronunciation has been rarely emphasized. In this paper it is argued that the LFC of English is widely misinterpreted in Korea while some of her suggestions themselves are also misleading. This paper tries to redefine Jenkins' LFC and provide suggestions for teaching LFC in Korea.
Optimization of State-Based Real-Time Speech Endpoint Detection Algorithm
Kim, Su-Hwan ; Lee, Young-Jae ; Kim, Young-Il ; Jeong, Sang-Bae ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 137~143
In this paper, a speech endpoint detection algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm is a kind of state transition-based ones for speech detection. To reject short-duration acoustic pulses which can be considered noises, it utilizes duration information of all detected pulses. For the optimization of parameters related with pulse lengths and energy threshold to detect speech intervals, an exhaustive search scheme is adopted while speech recognition rates are used as its performance index. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the baseline state-based endpoint detection algorithm. At 5 dB input SNR for the beamforming input, the word recognition accuracies of its outputs were 78.5% for human voice noises and 81.1% for music noises.
Robust Speech Recognition Using Weighted Auto-Regressive Moving Average Filter
Ban, Sung-Min ; Kim, Hyung-Soon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 145~151
In this paper, a robust feature compensation method is proposed for improving the performance of speech recognition. The proposed method is incorporated into the auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) based feature compensation. We employ variable weights for the ARMA filter according to the degree of speech activity, and pass the normalized cepstral sequence through the weighted ARMA filter. Additionally when normalizing the cepstral sequences in training, the cepstral means and variances are estimated from total training utterances. Experimental results show the proposed method significantly improves the speech recognition performance in the noisy and reverberant environments.
Various Approaches to Improve Exclusion Performance of Non-similar Candidates from N-best Recognition Results on Isolated Word Recognition
Yun, Young-Sun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 153~161
Many isolated word recognition systems may generate non-similar words for recognition candidates because they use only acoustic information. The previous study [1,2] investigated several techniques which can exclude non-similar words from N-best candidate words by applying Levenstein distance measure. This paper discusses the various improving techniques of removing non-similar recognition results. The mentioned methods include comparison penalties or weights, phone accuracy based on confusion information, weights candidates by ranking order and partial comparisons. Through experimental results, it is found that some proposed method keeps more accurate recognition results than the previous method's results.
The Effects of Voice Therapy in Vocal Process Granuloma
Kim, Seong-Tae ; Choi, Seung-Ho ; Nam, Soon-Yuhl ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 165~171
Vocal process granuloma can occur commonly by laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), vocal abuse or misuse. It has been reported that voice therapy is employed with medication therapy for the patients who has vocal process granuloma, however research about effect of voice therapy can be hardly founded. For that matter, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of therapeutic method we implement. Thirty one patients who has been diagnosed with vocal process granuloma from January, 2007 to June, 2009 participated in this study. 19 patients among them are provided voice therapy and medication, 12 patients take only medication. Voice therapy is implemented ranging from 5 to 19 sessions (mean: 8.6 sessions). We provided explanation about problem each patient has, voice rest, SKMVTT
, abdominal breathing, and relaxation in session. All subjects were examined by videostroboscopy, perceptual assessment, acoustic and aerodynamic measures. Consequantly, the greater part of the patients (78.9%) who is treated by voice therapy and medication are confirmed disappearance or decrease of granuloma, it shows better results compared with the group provided only medication (66.7%). Especially, the period of drug administration is 3.7 months in the group runs parallel with voice therapy, the period of other group is 7.8 months. The results of acoustic and aerodynamic measures after treating indicates there are significant decrease in Jitter, Shimmer, and NHR, and increase in MPT, Psub (p<.05). However, there is no large difference statistically even though voice quality has improved since the therapy. In conclusion, it is verified that the voice therapy to the vocal process granuloma patients taking medication is effectual method, we recommend combining voice therapy with medication when treatment is needed for the vocal process granuloma patients.
Speech Rate and Pause Characteristics in Patients with Parkinson's Disease
Ko, Yol-Mae ; Kim, Deog-Young ; Choi, Yae-Lin ; Kim, Hyang-Hee ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 173~184
The purpose of this study is to investigate the speech rate characteristics (whole speech rate, articulation speech rate, and articulation percentage) and the pause characteristics (pause duration, pause frequency, and pause percentage) of Korean-speaking patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (referred to as IPD hereafter). The study aims first to examine the differences between the patient group with IPD and the other group without IPD concerning those measurements, and secondly to investigate the relevant measurements of the two groups following the sentence length changes. There were two groups of subjects in this study. The first group consisted of 7 subjects between the ages of 50 and 60 who were diagnosed as IPD with mild severity, and the second group consisted of 13 subjects without IPD who matched the age and gender of those in the first group. Those two groups were asked to read 8 different sentences in length at habitual speed. Speech rate and pause characteristics of the two groups were measured and compared each other. The followings results were observed. First, in a study of speech rate characteristics, the whole speech rate and the articulation speech rate of the patient group scored within the normal range, which is same as the group without IPD. On the other hand, with regard to the pause characteristics, differences between two groups were shown; the patient group had shorter pause duration, lower pause frequency, lower pause percentage, and higher articulation percentage. Secondly, in a study of relevant measurements following the sentence length, both groups showed a tendency for whole speech rate and articulation rate to increase as the length of the sentence increased, but the result of pause characteristics showed a difference between two groups. While the group without IPD showed a longer pause duration, higher pause frequency, and higher pause percentage as the length of sentences increases, no differences were shown among the patient group concerning the length of sentences. This study suggests a result that the patients with IPD of mild severity retained a normal speech rate and examined pause characteristics of the patient group which showed a different result from the group without IPD in terms of quality. Future studies on the speech rate and pause characteristics of Korean-speaking patients with IPD in various severities.
A Comparison of Parameters of Acoustic Vowel Space in Patients with Parkinson's Disease
Kang, Young-Ae ; Yoon, Kyu-Chul ; Lee, Hak-Seung ; Seong, Cheol-Jae ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 185~192
The acoustic vowel space has been used as an acoustic parameter in dysarthric speech. The aim of this work was to examine mathematical formulae for acoustic vowel space and to apply these to Korean speakers with idiopathic Parkinson's disease(IPD). Five acoustic parameters were chosen from earlier works and one new parameter was proposed, the pentagonal vowel space. The six parameters included triangular vowel space (3 area), irregular quadrilateral vowel space (4 area), irregular pentagonal vowel space (5 area), vowel articulatory index (VAI), formant centralization ratio (FCR) and F2i/F1u ratio (F2 ratio). An experimental group of 32 IPD patients(male:female=16:16) and a control group of twenty healthy people (male:female=8:12) participated in the study and repeated vowels (/a-i-u-e-o/) three times. A correlation analysis was performed among the six parameters, 2-way ANOVA was done with gender and groups as independent factors, and an independent sample t-test was conducted between the male and the female group as post hoc comparison. All parameters were highly correlated with each other and only the FCR showed a high negative correlation with the others. The results of ANOVA showed a significant difference in F2 ratio, 3 area, 4 area and 5 area between gender and in 4 area and 5 area between groups. For the male members of the two groups, significant statistical differences were found in all parameters whereas no such differences were found for the female members. These findings indicated that the vowel space of the female group was wider than the vowel space of the male group. These differences may have been caused by gender-specific speech styles rather than by patho-physiological mechanisms. We also claim that the pentagonal vowel space is better than the other vowel spaces at representing the disordered speech in natural speech situations.
Speech Evaluation Variables Related to Speech Intelligibility in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy
Park, Ji-Eun ; Kim, Hyang-Hee ; Shin, Ji-Cheol ; Choi, Hong-Shik ; Sim, Hyun-Sub ; Park, Eun-Sook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 193~212
The purpose of our study was to provide effective speech evaluation items examining the variables of speech that successfully predict the speech intelligibility in CP children. The subjects were 55 children with spastic type cerebral palsy. As for the speech evaluation, we performed a speech subsystem evaluation and a speech intelligibility test. The results of the study are as follows. The evaluation task for the speech subsystems consisted of 48 task items within an observational evaluation stage and three levels of severity. The levels showed correlations with gross motor functions, fine motor functions, and age. Second, the evaluation items for the speech subsystems were rearranged into seven factors. Third, 34 out of 48 task items that positively correlated with the syllable intelligibility rating were as follows. There were four items in the observational evaluation stage. Among the nonverbal articulatory function evaluation items, there were 11 items in level one. There were 12 items in level two. In level three there were eight items. Fourth, there were 23 items among the 48 evaluation tasks that correlated with the sentence intelligibility rating. There was one item in the observational evaluation stage which was in the articulatory structure evaluation task. In level one there were six items. In level two, there were eight items. In level three, there was a total number of eight items. Fifth, there was a total number of 14 items that influenced the syllable intelligibility rating. Sixth, there was a total number of 13 items that influenced the syllable intelligibility rating. According to the results above, the variables that influenced the speech intelligibility of CP children among the articulatory function tasks were in the respiratory function task, phonatory function task, and lip and chin related tasks. We did not find any correlation for the tongue function. The results of our study could be applied to speech evaluation, setting therapy goals, and evaluating the degree of progression in children with CP. We only studied children with the spastic type of cerebral palsy, and there were a small number of severe degree CP children compared to those with a moderate degree of CP. Therefore, when evaluating children with other degrees of severity, we may have to take their characteristics more into account. Further study on speech evaluation variables in relation to the severity of the speech intelligibility and different types of cerebral palsy may be necessary.
The effects of Speech Intervention for Speech Naturalness of North Korean Refugees Using Visual and Auditory Feedback
Kim, Tae-Hui ; Kim, Soo-Jin ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 213~221
The number of North Korean refugees entering South Korea is continuously increasing. North Korean speakers show significant differences in vowel and consonant phonetics, length of vowels, and the rhythm and intonation of sentences. The object of this research was to examine the effectiveness of a speech intervention program for North Korean refugees using visual feedback through acoustical analysis for intonation. The subjects were three adults with no speech disabilities who had been in South Korea for less than five years. They had not received any prior treatment for inflection change. The program was set in a discourse situation and used Praat to evaluate intonation and provide visual feedback as demonstrating proper intonation changes through pitch contour. The results after intervention are as follows. First, intonation was significantly improved according to a 5-point subjective evaluation scale. Second, the pitch contour was similar to the contour of standard South Korean pronunciation. The subjects were very satisfied with this initial treatment and showed a high level of motivation. In subsequent study, the development of intervention and the comparison of interventions will be needed as well.
The Analysis of Eletroglottographic Measures of Vowel and Sentence in Korean Healthy Adults
Kim, Jae-Ock ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 223~228
This study investigated the closed quotient and other voice quality parameters using electroglottography (EGG) in sustaining the vowel /a/ and reading a sentence at the comfortable pitch and loudness in healthy Korean adults. Seventy two healthy adults (36 men, 36 women) aged 20~40 years were included in the study. The tasks were recorded and analyzed using Lx Speech Studio. In vowel sustaining task, closed quotient (Qx), fundamental frequency (Fx), sound pressure level (SPL), Jitter, and Shimmer were measured. In sentence reading task, closed quotient (DQx), fundamental frequency (DFx), and sound pressure level (DAx) were measured. The sex effects were observed on Qx, Fx, Shimmer, DQx, and DFx. Men had significantly higher Qx and DQx than women, but had significantly lower Shimmer than women. However, there was no sex effect on Jitter. The task effects on Qx and SPL as well as DQx and DAx were also assessed. Qx and SPL were significantly higher than DQx and DAx in both gender. This study showed that the closed quotients in both vowel sustaining and sentence reading tasks were significantly related to other voice quality parameters. Therefore, clinicians and researchers should describe the voice quality parameters like fundamental frequency, sound pressure level, Jitter, Shimmer, and so on when reporting closed quotients using EGG.
The Articulation Characteristics of the Profound Hearing-Impaired Adults' Korean Monophthongs: with Reference to the F1, F2 of Acoustic Vowel Space
Choi, Eun-Ah ; Seong, Cheol-Jae ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 229~238
This study investigates the differences in acoustic parameters in vowel space across hearing loss, gender and vowels. The parameters include F1, F2, Euclidean Distance between vowels, and vowel triangular area comprised of /i/, /a/ and /u/. For this study, 20 hearing-impaired and normal hearing adults as a control group were asked to read 7 Korean vowels (/a,
, o, u, w, i,
/). Subjects' readings were recorded by NasalView and analyzed by Praat. Results showed that F1 were significantly higher in the hearing impaired group than in the normal hearing group, higher in the female group than in male group, and higher in low vowels than in high vowels. And the means of F2 was significantly higher in the hearing impaired group than in normal hearing group, higher in high vowels than in low vowels, and there was no difference between male and female group. Secondly, Euclidean distance between vowels was significantly shorter in the hearing-impaired group than in the normal group. Finally, acoustic vowel space area was significantly smaller in the hearing-impaired group than in the normal hearing group. The hearing-impaired group showed that front vowels tended to be backed and back vowels to be fronted.
Phonological Error Patterns: Clinical Aspects on Coronal Feature
Kim, Min-Jung ; Lee, Sung-Eun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 239~244
The purpose of this study is to investigate two phonological error patterns on coronal feature of children with functional articulation disorders and to compare them with those of general children. We tested 120 children with functional articulation disorders and 100 general children from 2~4 years of age with 'Assessment of Phonology & Articulation for Chidren(APAC)'. The results were as follows: (1) 37 disordered children substituted [+coronal] consonants for [-coronal] consonants (fronting of velars) and 9 disordered children substituted [-coronal] consonants for [+coronal] consonants (backing to velars). (2) Theses two phonological patterns were affected by the articulatory place of following phoneme. (3) The fronting pattern of children with articulation disorders was similar with that of general children, but their backing pattern was different with that of general children. These results show the clinical usefulness of coronal feature in phonological pattern analysis, the need of articulatory assessment with various phonetic context, and the importance of error contexts in clinical judgment.
Characteristics of Respiration and Phonation in Normal Health Elderly
Woo, Mee-Ryung ; Choi, Hong-Shik ; Baek, Seung-Jae ; Nam, Chung-Mo ; Choi, Yae-Lin ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 2, issue 4, 2010, Pages 245~252
Korea does not have a certain criteria on the respiratory ability and phonation of the normal aged, and also has no clear standard to examine the boundaries of geriatric diseases. This study analyzed the characteristics in respiration and phonation of the aged in normal healthy elderly from diverse angles with different variables. Thirty-three participants in total, seven males and eight females in the age group 55-64 participated in the study. Seven males and eleven females in the age group 65-74 were selected for the respiration and phonation experiments, and 10 different variables such as FVC,
/FVC, MPT, MFR, Psub, f0, jitter, shimmer and NHR were comparatively analyzed for each group of different age and gender. To see the difference in respiration and phonation by age and gender, the study conducted a two-way ANOVA. First, from the result of the analysis on respiratory ability, FVC of male appeared to be significantly greater than female. In both age groups of 55-64 and 65-74, male displayed greater FVC than female did. Second, as for
/FVC, the age group of 55-64 showed greater values than the values measured in the age group of 65-74. Third, MFR showed a significant difference by gender. In both age groups, male showed significantly higher MFR than female. Fourth, for different gender, a significant difference in MFR was observed. In both age groups of 55-64 and 65-74, male exhibited higher MFR than female. This study has a clinical implication in that it analyzed the criteria on respiration and phonation in normal healthy elderly according to gender and age. The normal aged showed a difference in their respiratory and phonatory functions by age and gender, it was closely related to the decline of pulmonary function due to the physical aging and the weak respiration coming from weakness of respiratory muscles. Also, the physical differences in height, weight, and the muscles in laryngeal and respiratory system between males and females had an influence on the performance. These results from this study might be a helpful guideline for the clinical criterion in the future.