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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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The Korean Society of Speech Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 3, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 3, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 3, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 3, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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A Study on Perceptual Sensitivity to Prosodic Cues in Disambiguation
Kim, Mi-Hye ; Kang, Sun-Mi ; Kim, Kee-Ho ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 3~11
This experimental study has a goal to explore the perceptual sensitivity to phonetic evidence such as duration, phrase accent, or pause in disambiguation. We argue that the realization of the intonational phrasal boundary at the meaningful grammatical boundary in structurally ambiguous sentences facilitates English native listeners to distinguish the meanings of the ambiguous sentences. Moreover, the duration of the phrase-final syllable, pitch range reset, or phrasal tones also provides listeners with important phonetic evidence in disambiguation. In our perception experiment, however, Korean English learners largely depend on the realization of pause. In the results from the perception experiment, all of the groups showed an increase in the response time from the perception of no pause to pause realization. This means that pause at the phonological phrasal boundary plays a role of facilitator to English native speakers with other prosodic cues such as duration, pitch accent, or phrasal tones, while an absolutely important cue to Korean English learners.
Articulatory Manifestation of Prosodic Strengthening in English /i/ and /I/
Kim, Sa-Hyang ; Cho, Tae-Hong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 13~21
The present study investigated the effects of two different sources of prosodic strengthening, i.e., boundary and accent, in the articulation of English high front vowels, /i/ and /I/. The vowels were investigated in vowel-initial ('eat' vs. 'it'), /h/-initial ('heat' vs. 'hit') and /p/-initial words ('Pete' vs. 'pit'), which were placed in varying prosodic conditions. Using Electromagnetic Articulograph (EMA), the tongue dorsum positions in the x and y dimensions, the lip opening and the jaw opening (lowering) were measured. With respect to the boundary-induced strengthening, results showed that /i/ and /I/ in vowel-initial words ('eat' - 'it') are produced with a higher tongue position in the domain-intial than domain-medial positions. The fact that the vowels only in the vowel-initial condition showed the domain-intial strengthening (DIS) effect suggests that the DIS effect is localized mainly to the initial position (the locality account). As for the accent-induced strengthening, vowels were produced with a more fronted tongue position and larger lip opening in accented than unaccented positions. This suggests that the presence of accent increases overall sonority of the vowels in various prosodic contexts, and enhances primarily the frontedness of the front high vowels. Taken together, the results indicate that the two types of prosodic strengthening are articulatorily realized differently, supporting the view that they are encoded separately in the speech planning process. The present study also showed the distinction between the two high front vowels in the tongue position (in both the frontedness and the height dimensions), while the jaw did not seem to contribute to the distinction robustly, suggesting that the tongue contributes more in distinguishing the two vowels than the jaw does.
Word-final Coda Acquisition by English-Speaking Childrea with Cochlear Implants
Kim, Jung-Sun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 23~31
This paper examines the production patterns of the acquisition of coda consonants in monosyllabic words in English-speaking children with cochlear implants. The data come from the transcribed speech of children with cochlear implants. This study poses three questions. First, do children with cochlear implants acquire onset consonants earlier than codas? Second, do children's productions have a bimoraic-sized constraint that maintains binary feet? Third, what patterns emerge from production of coda consonants? The results revealed that children with cochlear implants acquire onset consonants earlier than codas. With regard to the bimoraic-sized constraints, the productions of vowel type (i.e., monomoraic and bimoraic) were more accurate for monomoraic vowels than bimoraic ones for some children with cochlear implants, although accuracy in vowel productions showed high proportion regardless of vowel types. The variations of coda production exhibited individual differences. Some children produced less sonorant consonants with high frequency and others produced more sonorant ones. The results of this study were similar to those pertaining to children with normal hearing. In the process of coda consonant acquisition, the error patterns of prosody-sensitive production may be regarded as articulatory challenges to produce higher-level prosodic structures.
Supralaryngeal Articulatary Characteristics of Coronal Consonants /n, t,
/ in Korean
Son, Min-Jung ; Kim, Sa-Hyang ; Cho, Tae-Hong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 33~43
The present study investigates supralaryngeal articulatory characteristics of denti-alveolar (coronal) stops /t,
/ and /n/ in /aCa/ context in Seoul Korean. An Electromagnetic Articulograph (EMA, Carstens) was used to explore kinematics of the consonants by examining the kinematic data of the tongue tip (the primary articulator for the coronal consonants), along with some additional supplementary position data of the tongue body, the tongue dorsum and the jaw. The results showed that the constriction duration was the most robust articulatory correlates of the three-way stop contrast with a pattern of /t/
/. The contrast was further reinforced by the tongue body position (higher for /
/) and the tongue tip opening displacement (less displaced for /
/). The articulation of /n/ was quite similar to that of the lenis /t/ in terms of the constriction duration, and it was different from the oral stops in that it was produced with larger tongue tip displacement and lower jaw position than the oral stops, indicating its weak articulatory nature. The results are also discussed in comparison with those of bilabial stops with implications that the three-way contrast may be kinematically expressed differently depending on the physiological constraints imposed on the primary articulator (the tongue tip versus the lips). The present study, therefore, provides new articulatory (kinematic) data of denti-alveolar consonants in Korean, and demonstrates that the three-way stops, that have been known to differ primarily in their laryngeal settings, are indeed produced with kinematic distinctions at the supralaryngeal level.
A Study on English Reduced Vowels Produced by Korean Learners and Native Speakers of English
Shin, Seung-Hoon ; Yoon, Nam-Hee ; Yoon, Kyu-Chul ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 45~53
Flemming and Johnson (2007) claim that there is a fundamental distinction between the mid central vowel [ə] and the high central vowel [?] in that [ə] occurs in an unstressed word-final position while [?] appears elsewhere. Compared to English counterparts, Korean [ə] and [?] are full vowels and they have phonemic contrast. The purpose of this paper is to explore the acoustic quality of two English reduced vowels produced by Korean learners and native speakers of English in terms of their two formant frequencies. Sixteen Korean learners of English and six native speakers of English produced four types of English words and two types of Korean words with different phonological and morphological patterns. The results show that Korean learners of English produced the two reduced vowels of English and their Korean counterparts differently in Korean and English words.
A Comparative Study of Listener Perception of Durational Change in the Korean Auxiliary Particle '-yo'
Yoon, Eun-Kyung ; Kim, Sul-Ki ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 55~62
This paper investigates whether listeners perceive a different level of politeness when the duration of the Korean sentence-final auxiliary particle '-yo' is varied. A total of 10 Korean sentences were manipulated by lengthening and shortening '-yo' by 10%, 20%, and 30%. The participants included native Korean speakers and Chinese and Japanese learners of Korean (n=10, respectively). They were asked to rate the level of politeness of the stimuli on a 9-point scale. It was found that Korean listeners perceived decreased politeness as the duration of '-yo' was shortened and increased politeness as it was lengthened. However, Chinese and Japanese listeners did not perceive a different level of politeness from the manipulated sentences. This finding suggests that it is important to teach L2 speakers that the duration of the auxiliary particle '-yo' plays a role in Korean listeners' perception of politeness.
A Study on Low Pitch Accent Produced in Different Locations in English Sentences
Yi, So-Pae ; Kim, Soo-Jung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 63~70
Recent studies on English
(low pitch accent) have revealed the difference of changes in acoustic manifestation between utterances produced by Koreans and those produced by native speakers of English. However, not much effort has been made to compare
focused constituents and non-focused constituents. At the same time, most previous works on focus realization are lacking in terms of normalization of acoustic measurement. Therefore, this research is dedicated to comparing the
focused items and non-focused items realized by Koreans and Americans and to examining the realization of English
produced by the two language groups with improved normalization of the acoustic features (F0, intensity and duration). Within-group analysis comparing focused words and non-focused words showed both Americans and Koreans prolonged the
focused syllables but the effect size of syllable lengthening made by Koreans was far less than that made by Americans. Furthermore, significant F0 lowering was found in Americans but not in Koreans. However, the effect of intensity change caused by
focus was not significant within each group. The effect of focused words was tested between the two groups revealing that Koreans implemented English
focus with higher F0, lower intensity and shorter duration than Americans. In the instances in which a significant Group x Focus Location (initial, middle and final of a sentence) interaction was found, further analysis testing the effect of Group on each Focus Location was conducted. The testing showed that the Koreans produced shorter syllables at initial and middle of a sentence and higher F0 at initial of a sentence than Americans. Implications for the intonation training were also discussed.
The Effect of Prosodic Position and Word Type on the Production of Korean Plosives
Jang, Mi ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 71~81
This paper investigated how prosodic position and word type affect the phonetic structure of Korean coronal stops. Initial segments of prosodic domains were known to be more strongly articulated and longer relative to prosodic domain-medial segments. However, there are few studies examining whether the properties of prosodic domain-initial segments are affected by the information content of words (real vs. nonsense words). In addition, since the scope of domain-initial effect was known to be local to the initial consonant and the effects on the following vowel have been found to be limited, it is thus worth examining whether the prosodic domain-initial effect extends into the vowel after the initial consonant in a systematic way across different prosodic domains. The acoustic properties of Korean coronal stops (lenis /t/, aspirated /
/, and tense /t'/) were compared across Intonational Phrase, Phonological Phrase and Word-initial positions both in real and nonsense words. The durational intervals such as VOT and CV duration were cumulatively lengthened for /t/ and /
/ in the higher prosodic domain-initial positions. However, tense stop /t'/ did not show any variation as a function of prosodic position and word type. The domain-initial lenis stop showed significantly longer duration in nonsense words than in real words. But the prosodic domain-initial effect was not found in the properties of F0 and [H1-H2] of the vowel after initial stops. The present study provided evidence that speakers tend to enhance speech clarity when there is less contextual information as in prosodic domain-initial position and in nonsense words.
A Preliminary Study on Correlation between Voice Characteristics and Speech Features
Han, Sung-Man ; Kim, Sang-Beom ; Kim, Jong-Yeol ; Kwon, Chul-Hong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 85~91
Sasang constitution medicine utilizes voice characteristics to diagnose a person's constitution. To classify Sasang constitutional groups using speech information technology, this study aims at establishing the relationship between Sasang constitutional groups and their corresponding voice characteristics by investigating various speech feature variables. The speech variables include features related to speech source and vocal tract filter. Experimental results show that statistically significant correlation between voice characteristics and some speech feature variables is observed.
Phonological Discrimination Ability and Phonological Working Memory of Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairments
Park, Kyung-A ; Hwang, Bo-Myung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 95~102
The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of the phonological discrimination ability and phonological working memory of 10 typically developing children aged 4, and 10 other children with Specific Language Impairments whose language age is similar. In orders to compare their phonological discrimination ability among phonological awareness, discrimination tasks were conducted at the syllable and phoneme levels. Also, in order to compare their phonological working memory, the subjects repeated nonsense syllables. The research results may be summarized as follows: First, the children with Specific Language Impairments demonstrated a lower performance than the typically developing children in phonological discrimination ability at both syllable and phoneme levels, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. Second, the children with Specific Language Impairments exhibited a lower phonological working memory performance in all syllables compared with normal children. Although there was no significant difference in 2 and 3 syllables, a significant difference appeared as the length of the syllables became longer from 4 to 6 syllables. It is deemed necessary to conduct research into qualitative and quantitative differences through an formal assessment of the phonological awareness and phonological working memory of children with Specific Language Impairments.
The Efficacy of the Bel canto Singing Technique as a Method of Improving Voice Quality of Vocal Bowing Sulcus Vocalis
Yoo, Jae-Yeon ; Seo, Dong-Il ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 103~108
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the Bel canto singing technique on voice quality in patients with vocal bowing and sulcus vocalis. Five patients with vocal bowing, and five patients with sulcus vocalis participated in the study. Each subject was assessed acoustically (Jitter, Shimmer, NNE) in the first and last session. Dr. Speech (version 4.0, Tiger-DRS) was used to compare acoustic parameters of pre- and post-treatment. The Bel canto singing technique consisted of breathing exercises, relaxation exercises, and phonation exercises. The results showed that the Bel canto singing technique tended to be effective on improving voice quality in patients with organic voice disorders.
A Study of Acoustic Measurement in Connected Speech with Dysphonia
Lee, Myoung-Soon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 109~115
The purposes of this study were to identify acoustic parameters of connected speech and to contribute to acoustic analysis of dysphonic voice about patient's natural speech voice as well as sustained phonation of vowels. Acoustic parameters of sentences included LTAS (long-term average spectrum) mean and spectral slope over frequence ranges such as 0-4kHz, 0-6kHz, 0-8kHz, 0-12.5kHz as well as HNR. Acoustic parameters of the vowel 'a' included jitter, RAP, shimmer, NHR, and HNR. Based on 'G' of GRBAS for the severity of dysphonia, two experienced raters judged and classified as four groups including controls, mild, moderate and severe dysphonic group. Connected speech was two sentences extracted from 'stroll' passage. Parameters of the vowel and LTAS mean of the sentences were measured by CSL. The spectral slope of the sentences and HNR of the vowel and the sentences were measured by Praat. Data were statistically analyzed by Spearman correlation and Kruskal-Wallis test using SPSS 12.0. The results of this study are as follows: First, jitter, RAP, shimmer and NHR were significantly different between the groups. Second, for several frequencies, LTAS mean and spectral slope of the sentences were significantly different between the groups. Third, the HNR of the sentences were significantly different between the groups. Forth, there was a presence of correlation between HNR and NHR of the vowel and HNR of the sentences. Accordingly, this study concluded that LTAS, spectral slope, and HNR were predictive parameters of connected speech voice for dysphonic voice.
Effects of the Types of Noise and Signal-to-Noise Ratios on Speech Intelligibility in Dysarthria
Lee, Young-Mee ; Sim, Hyun-Sub ; Sung, Jee-Eun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 3, issue 4, 2011, Pages 117~124
This study investigated the effects of the types of noise and signal to noise ratios (SNRs) on speech intelligibility of an adult with dysartrhia. Speech intelligibility was judged by 48 naive listeners using a word transcription task. Repeated measures design was used with the types of noise (multi-talker babble/environmental noise) and SNRs (0, +10 dB, +20 dB) as within-subject factors. The dependent measure was the percentage of correctly transcribed words. Results revealed that two main effects were statistically significant. Listeners performed significantly worse in the multi-talker babble condition than the environmental noise condition, and they performed significantly better at higher levels of SNRs. The current results suggested that the multi-talker babble and lower level of SNRs decreased the speech intelligibility of adults with dysarthria, and speech-language pathologists should consider environmental factors such as the types of noise and SNRs in evaluating speech intelligibility of adults with dysarthria.