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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Speech Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 4 - Dec 2013
Volume 5, Issue 3 - Sep 2013
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Jun 2013
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Mar 2013
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Acoustic Characteristics of Korean Alveolar Sibilant 's', 's'' according to Phonetic Contexts of Children with Cerebral Palsy
Kim, Sookhee ; Kim, Hyungi ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 3~10
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.003
The purpose of this study is to analyze the acoustic characteristics of Korean alveolar sibilant sounds of children with cerebral palsy by acoustic analysis. Thirteen children with spastic cerebral palsy aging from 6 to 10 years old, were selected by an articulation test, and compared with a control group of thirty children. The meaningless monosyllable CV, disyllable VCV(/asa/) and frame sentence including target syllables CV were measured. C was from the /s, s'/, and V was from the set /a, i, u,
, o, ɯ, ʌ/. Multi-Speech was used for data recording and analysis. As a result, the frication duration of lenis-glottalized alveolar sibilant of children with cerebral palsy was significantly shorter than that of the control group in CV, VCV and frame sentence. The vowel duration in the following lenis-glottalized alveolar sibilant of children with cerebral palsy was significantly longer than that of the control group in CV, VCV and frame sentence. The children with cerebral palsy showed frequency and intensity of friction intervals which were significantly lower than in the control group in CV, VCV and frame sentence. In the comparison of the lenis-glottalized alveolar sibilant by the children with cerebral palsy group's phonation types, the frication duration showed a significant difference between the phonation types in CV, VCV and between the phonetic contexts. The glottalized-sibilant was longer than the lenis-sibilant in all the phonetic contexts. The subsequent vowel duration showed a significant difference between the phonation types in VCV and between the phonetic contexts(p<.05). The vowel duration in the following glottalized-sibilant was longer than the vowel duration in the following lenis-sibilant in all the phonetic contexts. In the frequency there was a significant difference between the phonation types in CV, and in the intensity there was a significant difference between the phonation type in CV and VCV. The children with spastic cerebral palsy had difficulty in articulating the alveolar sibilant due to poor control ability in laryngeal, respiration and articulatory movements which require fine motor coordination. This study quantitatively analyzes the acoustic parameters of the alveolar sibilant in various phonetic contexts. Therefore, the results are expected to help provide fundamental data for an intervention of articulation treatment for children with cerebral palsy.
Relationship between the Maximal Tongue and Lip Strength and Percentage of Correct Consonants and Speech Intelligibility in Dysarthric Adults with Cerebral Palsy
Choi, Yoejin ; Sim, Hyunsub ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 11~22
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.011
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the strength of the tongue/lip strength and speech production for dysarthric adults with cerebral palsy. The maximal tongue and lip strengths of 22 normal adults, 27 dysarthric adults (10 adults with mild dysarthria, 10 adults with moderate dysarthria, and 7 adults with severe dysarthria) were measured with Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). The percentage of correct consonants (PCC) and speech intelligibility were calculated from the words and sentences spoken by the subjects. The results of the study are as follows: First, both the maximal tongue and the maximal lip strength differed significantly between the control group and the group with dysarthria. While the group with mild dysarthria did not show meaningful difference in maximal tongue and lip strengths from the control group, the group with moderate and severe dysarthria showed significantly weaker tongue and lip strength than the control group and the group with mild dysarthria. Second, the current study suggests the existence of a significant correlation between the maximal tongue and lip strength and the PCC and speech intelligibility within all subjects with dysarthria. These findings can serve as an effective foundation to diagnose dysarthria quickly and accurately. The results of this study also indicate that in addition to the maximal tongue strength, the maximal lip strength can prove to be an important index in predicting the speech intelligibility of dysarthric adults with cerebral palsy.
Cross-generational Change of /o/ and /u/ in Seoul Korean I: Proximity in Vowel Space
Han, Jeong-Im ; Kang, Hyunsook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 25~31
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.025
This study examined cross-generational changes in the vowel system of Seoul Korean. Acoustic analyses of the vowel formants of /o/ and /u/, and their Euclidean distances in the vowel space were undertaken to explore an on-going merger of these two vowels as proposed in previous acoustic studies and a phonological analysis by Chae (1999). A robust cross-generational change of /o/ and /u/ was found, more evident for female speakers than for male speakers. For female speakers, with each successive generation, /o/ became increasingly approximated with /u/, regardless of the syllable positions that the target vowels were posited, whereas the cross-generational differences in the Euclidean distances were only shown in the second syllable position for the male speakers. These results demonstrate that 1) women are more advanced than men in the on-going approximation of /o/ and /u/; 2) the approximation of /o/ and /u/ is common in the non-initial position. Taken together, the merger of /o/ and /u/ appears to be in progress in Seoul Korean.
Cross-generational Change of /o/ and /u/ in Seoul Korean II: Spectral Interactions in Normalized Vowel Space
Kang, Hyunsook ; Han, Jeong-Im ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 33~41
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.033
This is a follow-up study on Han and Kang (2013) which argued that the Euclidean distances between /o/ and /u/ in Seoul Korean decreased in the first syllable position as speakers were among younger female speakers but not for male speakers, whereas in the second syllable position both gender groups showed a cross-generational decreasing effect of the Euclidean distance between /o/ and /u/. This study normalized the same data in Han and Kang (2013) which measured 12 speakers (six males and six females) for each Age group and investigated the spectral changes vowels /o/ and /u/ between age and gender, using the log-mean normalized statistical results. This study also examined overlap fraction values generated in SOAM 2D (
) (cf. Wassink, 2006), which may also indicate the proximity of two vowels in question. The results showed that /o/ and /u/ vowels were making closer with /o/ raising for female speakers in
positions but only in the
position for male speakers. That is, females led the upward movement of peripheral /o/ vowel, just like the raising of 'e' and 'o' in New York City (Labov, 1991). The results also showed that younger speakers used a rather narrow vowel space for the vowels. This also contributed to the proximity of the vowels /o/ and /u/, resulting in rather large overlap fraction values for younger speakers between these two vowels.
The Effect of Strong Syllables on Lexical Segmentation in English Continuous Speech by Korean Speakers
Kim, Sunmi ; Nam, Kichun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 43~51
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.043
English native listeners have a tendency to treat strong syllables in a speech stream as the potential initial syllables of new words, since the majority of lexical words in English have a word-initial stress. The current study investigates whether Korean (L1) - English (L2) late bilinguals perceive strong syllables in English continuous speech as word onsets, as English native listeners do. In Experiment 1, word-spotting was slower when the word-initial syllable was strong, indicating that Korean listeners do not perceive strong syllables as word onsets. Experiment 2 was conducted in order to avoid any possibilities that the results of Experiment 1 may be due to the strong-initial targets themselves used in Experiment 1 being slower to recognize than the weak-initial targets. We employed the gating paradigm in Experiment 2, and measured the Isolation Point (IP, the point at which participants correctly identify a word without subsequently changing their minds) and the Recognition Point (RP, the point at which participants correctly identify the target with 85% or greater confidence) for the targets excised from the non-words in the two conditions of Experiment 1. Both the mean IPs and the mean RPs were significantly earlier for the strong-initial targets, which means that the results of Experiment 1 reflect the difficulty of segmentation when the initial syllable of words was strong. These results are consistent with Kim & Nam (2011), indicating that strong syllables are not perceived as word onsets for Korean listeners and interfere with lexical segmentation in English running speech.
The Formant Frequency Differences of English Vowels as a Function of Stress and its Applications on Vowel Pronunciation Training
Kim, Ji-Eun ; Yoon, Kyuchul ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 53~58
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.053
The purpose of this study is to compare the first two vowel formants of the stressed and unstressed English vowels produced by ten young males (in their twenties and thirties) and ten old males (in their forties or fifties) from the Buckeye Corpus of Conversational Speech. The results indicate that the stressed and unstressed vowels, /i/ and
in particular, from the two groups are different in their formant frequencies. In addition, the vowel space of the unstressed vowels is somewhat smaller than that of the stressed vowels. Specifically, the range of the second formant of the unstressed vowels and that of the first formant of the unstressed front vowels were compressed. The findings from this study can be applied to the pronunciation training for the Korean learners of English vowels. We propose that teachers of English pay attention to the stress patterns of English vowels as well as their formant frequencies.
A Study on the Pitch Contour Variation in Reading Sentence Produced by Chinese Korean-Learners
Yune, Youngsook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 59~69
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.059
The purpose of this study is to examine the variation of pitch contour observed in the reading of Korean sentences produced by Chinese Korean-learners. In the reading context, Korean sentence intonation can be described by considering accentual phrases' pitch pattern and intonational phrases' boundary tone. But when APs and IPs connect to each other to form sentences, another aspect of speech production must be considered, that is declination of pitch contour. So, in order to examine how Chinese speakers produce Korean sentence intonation, we have analysed the sentences' pitch contours produced by fourteen Chinese speakers differing in proficiency, and compared them to pitch contours produced by six Korean native speakers. The results show that Chinese speakers tend to decline the pitch contour in shorter sentences, but for longer sentences, the declination was not observed. Moreover, even though Chinese speakers produced sentences with declination, internal tonal modulation differs from native speakers.
A Longitudinal Study of Korean Vowel Production by Chinese Learners of Korean
Kim, Jooyeon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 71~79
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.071
This study provided longitudinal examination of the Chinese learners' acquisition of the Korean vowels. Specifically the author examined whether Korean monophthongs are acquired rapidly in early stages of learning (Flege, Munro and Skelton, 1992; Munro and Derwing, 2008) or they develop rather gradually in proportion to the learners' experience (Byee, 2001; Ellis, 2006). This study collected the Korean vowel production by 23 Chinese learners for a year, and then analysed F1 and F2 of each Korean vowel. The results showed that 1) Most of the second language (L2) vowels were rapidly improved during the first six or nine months of Korean learning before reaching the constant stage; and 2) The exact acquisition trajectories varied across the seven vowels. Specifically the vowels which were acquired in the early stage of learning were /i, e, ɨ/ for F1 and /ʌ, e, o, u/ for F2. Thus this study supports the hypothesis of Flege et al. (1992) and Munro and Derwing (2008) except the fact that each vowel showed the different learning route.
A Study on the Influence of Korean Regional Dialects to English Vowel Pronunciation and Correction
Kim, Ji-Eun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 81~90
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.081
The purposes of this study are to: (1) Compare the vowel production of English front vowels produced by Korean speakers using regional dialects and; (2) Investigate and compare the effectiveness of pronunciation training for each regional dialect group. To test these objectives, the English front vowels produced by five Youngnam dialect male speakers, five Youngnam dialect female speakers, five Kangwon dialect male speakers, and five Kangwon dialect female speakers were scrutinized. These dialect groups' vowel formants and length of English front vowels were evaluated, and the post-pronunciation training values were compared with those of pre-training values. The results indicate that pronunciation training is more effective for Youngnam dialect speakers, whilst both dialect groups have more success mastering the pronunciation of /
/ over /
Acoustic Driving Simulator Design for Evaluating an In-car Speech Recognizer
Lee, Seongjae ; Kang, Sunmee ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 5, issue 2, 2013, Pages 93~97
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.5.2.093
This paper is on designing an indoor driving simulator to evaluate the performance of in-car speech recognizer when influenced by the elements, which lower the success rate of speech recognition. The proposed simulator simulates vehicle noise which was pre-recorded in diverse driving environments and driver's speech. Additionally, the proposed Lombard effect conversion module in this simulator enables the speech recorded in a studio environment to convert into various possible driving scenarios. The relevant experimental results have confirmed that the proposed simulator is a feasible approach for realizing an effective method as it achieved similar speech recognition results to the real driving environment.