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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Speech Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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Neutralization of Vowels /ɨ/ and /u/ after a Labial Consonant in Korean: A Cross-generational Study
Kang, Hyunsook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 3~10
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.003
This study investigated whether Korean vowels, /ɨ/ and /u/, are distinctively perceived after a labial consonant given the fact that native and Sino-Korean nouns showed only vowel /u/ after a labial consonant while this pattern was massively broken by the recent introduction of loanwords. For this purpose, a perception experiment was conducted with
sequences in which different vowels /a, i, u/ and consonants /p, t, k/ occurred in
before the target
, /ɨ/ and /u/. The data was produced by six speakers each from two different age groups, Age20 and Age40/50 in the read speech style. The results showed that consonant /p/ attracted significantly more responses of /u/ from /VCɨ/ sequences and significantly less responses of /u/ from /VCu/ sequence than the other consonants did in both age groups. Furthermore, Age20 group showed significantly less percentage of /u/ responses than Age40 group when the preceding consonant was /p/ regardless of the target vowel. We suggest therefore that unlike the traditional belief of labial assimilation, there is neutralization after a labial consonant in which vowels /ɨ/ and /u/ are often realized as any sound between two vowels, /ɨ/ and /u/. That is, this vowel change is not categorial but it rather produces an ambiguous stimulus which attracts different responses from different listeners. Ambiguous stimulus was produced due to coarticulatory efforts in speech production and perceptual compensation. We also argue that there is generational difference such that Age40/50 group speakers showed stronger tendency to produce /u/ after a labial consonant regardless of whether the target vowel was /ɨ/ or /u/.
Perception of English Consonants in Different Prosodic Positions by Korean Learners of English
Jang, Mi ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 11~19
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.011
The focus of this study was to investigate whether there is a position effect on identification accuracy of L2 consonants by Korean listeners and to examine how Korean listeners perceive the phonetic properties of initial and final consonants produced by a Korean learner of English and an English native speaker. Most studies examining L2 learners` perception of L2 sounds have focused on the segmental level but very few studies have examined the role of prosodic position in L2 learners` perception. In the present study, an identification test was conducted for English consonants /p, t, k, f, ɵ, s, ʃ/ in CVC prosodic structures. The results revealed that Korean listeners identified syllable-initial consonants more accurately than syllable-final consonants. The perceptual accuracy in syllable initial consonants may be attributable to the enhanced phonetic properties in the initial consonants. A significant correlation was found between error rates and F2 onset/offset for stops and fricatives, and between perceptual accuracy and RMS burst energy for stops. However, the identification error patterns were found to be different across consonant types and between the different language speakers. In the final position, Korean listeners had difficulty in identifying /p/, /f/, /ɵ/, and /s/ when they were produced by a Korean speaker and showed more errors in /p/, /t/, /f/, /ɵ/, and /s/ when they were spoken by an English native speaker. Comparing to the perception of English consonants spoken by a Korean speaker, greater error rates and diverse error patterns were found in the perception of consonants produced by an English native speaker. The present study provides the evidence that prosodic position plays a crucial role in the perception of L2 segments.
A Study of Intonation Curve Slopes in Korean Spontaneous Speech
Oh, Jeahyuk ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 21~30
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.021
This study aims to discuss pitch slope on Korean intonation curve in spontaneous speech data. For this study, 656 utterances were taken in the spoken corpus and used `close-copy stylization`. And then the physical feature of pitch movements was extracted for the study. The pitch slope was calculated on the basis of time and pitch range in each utterance. As a result, the average and distribution of pitch slope is similar between men and women in the range of the pitch movement except for essential differences. The slope of pitch movement confirms that there are no differences between men and women. Pitch slope on a scale of -10 to 10 is 90% of the entire pitch slope; pitch slope that moves by time scale without curve is 33.1%; pitch slope that moves half of the pitch bandwidth during the average time for pitch movement is 23.4%; pitch slope that moves 100% of pitch bandwidth during a half of the average time for pitch movement is 10.4%. Those results imply the possibility of standardization methods of Korean intonation by pitch slope.
A Phonetic Investigation of Korean Monophthongs in the Early Twentieth Century
Han, Jeong-Im ; Kim, Joo-Yeon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 31~38
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.031
The current study presents an instrumental phonetic analysis of Korean monophthong vowels in the early twentieth century Seoul Korean, based on audio recordings of elementary school textbooks Botonghakgyo Joseoneodokbon (Korean Reading Textbook for Elementary School). The data examined in this study were a list of the Korean mono syllables (Banjeol), and a short passage, recorded by one 41-year-old male speaker in 1935, as well as a short passage recorded by one 11-year-old male speaker in 1935. The Korean monophthongs were examined in terms of acoustic analysis of the vowel formants (F1, F2) and compared to those recorded by 18 male speakers of Seoul Korean in 2013. The results show that in 1935, 1) /e/ and /ɛ/ were clearly separated in the vowel space; 2) /o/ and /u/ were also clearly separated without any overlapping values; 3) some tokens of /y/ and /ø/ were produced as monophthongs, not as diphthongs. Based on the results, we can observe the historical change of the Korean vowels over 80-90 years such as 1) /e/ and /ɛ/ have been merged; and 2) /o/ has been raised and overlapped with /u/.
A Study on Realizations of English Stress and Vowel Formant Frequency by Korean Learners
Kim, Ji-Eun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.039
This study investigates twenty four Korean females` production of English front vowels focusing on the distinction in /i/ vs /ɪ/ and /ɛ/ vs /
/ and formant values of stressed and unstressed vowels compared with those of native English speakers. The Korean learners were asked to read a textbook passage which includes ten sentences including target vowels. The major results indicate that: (1) Korean learners have trouble producing a distinct version (tense and lax) of front vowels in the paragraph reading; (2) The vowel space of the stressed vowels in a paragraph is smaller than that of embedded sentences; and (3) The vowel quality of the unstressed vowels produced by the Korean learners is similar to that of the native English speakers. The findings from this study can be applied to the pronunciation teaching for the Korean learners of English vowels and realization of English stress.
A Study on the Production of the English Word Boundaries: A Comparative Analysis of Korean Speakers and English Speakers
Kim, Ji Hyang ; Kim, Kee Ho ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 47~58
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.047
The purpose of this paper is to find out how Korean speakers` speech production in English word boundaries differs from English speakers` and to account for what bring about such differences. Seeing two consecutive words as one single cluster, the English speakers generally pronounce them naturally by linking a word-final consonant of the first word with a word-initial vowel of the second word, while this is not the case with most of the Korean speakers; they read the two consecutive words individually. In consequence, phonological processes such as resyllabification and aspiration can be found in the English speakers` word-boundary production, while glottalization, and unreleased stops are rather common phonological process seen in the Korean speakers` word-boundary production. This may be accounted for by Korean speakers` L1 interference, depending on English proficiency.
Sensitive Period of Auditory Perception and Linguistic Discrimination
Cha, Kyung-Whan ; Jo, Hannah ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 59~67
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.059
The purpose of this study is to scientifically examine Kuhl`s (2011), originally Johnson and Newport`s (1989) critical period graph, from a perspective of auditory perception and linguistic discrimination. This study utilizes two types of experiments (auditory perception and linguistic phoneme discrimination) with five different age groups (5 years, 6-8 years, 9-13 years, 15-17 years, and 20-26 years) of Korean English learners. Auditory perception is examined via ultrasonic sounds that are commonly used in the medical field. In addition, each group is measured in terms of their ability to discriminate minimal pairs in Chinese. Since almost all Korean students already have some amount of English exposure, the researchers selected phonemes in Chinese, an unexposed foreign language for all of the subject groups. The results are almost completely in accordance with Kuhl`s critical period graph for auditory perception and linguistic discrimination; a sensitive age is found at 8. The results show that the auditory capability of kindergarten children is significantly better than that of other students, measured by their ability to perceive ultrasonic sounds and to distinguish ten minimal pairs in Chinese. This finding strongly implies that human auditory ability is a key factor for the sensitive period of language acquisition.
Qualitative Classification of Voice Quality of Normal Speech and Derivation of its Correlation with Speech Features
Kim, Jungin ; Kwon, Chulhong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 71~76
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.071
In this paper voice quality of normal speech is qualitatively classified by five components of breathy, creaky, rough, nasal, and thin/thick voice. To determine whether a correlation exists between a subjective measure of voice and an objective measure of voice, each voice is perceptually evaluated using the 1/2/3 scale by speech processing specialists and acoustically analyzed using speech analysis tools such as the Praat, MDVP, and VoiceSauce. The speech parameters include features related to speech source and vocal tract filter. Statistical analysis uses a two-independent-samples non-parametric test. Experimental results show that statistical analysis identified a significant correlation between the speech feature parameters and the components of voice quality.
Automatic Clustering of Speech Data Using Modified MAP Adaptation Technique
Ban, Sung Min ; Kang, Byung Ok ; Kim, Hyung Soon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 77~83
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.077
This paper proposes a speaker and environment clustering method in order to overcome the degradation of the speech recognition performance caused by various noise and speaker characteristics. In this paper, instead of using the distance between Gaussian mixture model (GMM) weight vectors as in the Google`s approach, the distance between the adapted mean vectors based on the modified maximum a posteriori (MAP) adaptation is used as a distance measure for vector quantization (VQ) clustering. According to our experiments on the simulation data generated by adding noise to clean speech, the proposed clustering method yields error rate reduction of 10.6% compared with baseline speaker-independent (SI) model, which is slightly better performance than the Google`s approach.
Perceptual Characteristics of Korean Vowels Distorted by the Frequency Band Limitation
Kim, YeonWhoa ; Choi, DaeLim ; Lee, Sook-Hyang ; Lee, YongJu ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 85~93
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.085
This paper investigated the effects of frequency band limitation on perceptual characteristics of Korean vowels. Monosyllabic speech (144 syllables of CV type, 56 syllables of VC type, 8 syllables of V type) produced by two announcers were low- and high-pass filtered with cutoff frequencies ranging from 300 to 5000 Hz. Six listeners with normal hearing performed perception tests by types of filter and cutoff frequencies. We reported phoneme recognition rates and types of perception error of band-limited Korean vowels to examine how frequency distortion in the process of speech transmission affect listener`s perception.
Perceptual Characteristics of Korean Consonants Distorted by the Frequency Band Limitation
Kim, YeonWhoa ; Choi, DaeLim ; Lee, Sook-Hyang ; Lee, YongJu ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 95~101
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.095
This paper investigated the effects of frequency band limitation on perceptual characteristics of Korean consonants. Monosyllabic speech (144 syllables of CV type, 56 syllables of VC type, 8 syllables of V type) produced by two announcers were low- and high-pass filtered with cutoff frequencies ranging from 300 to 5000 Hz. Six listeners with normal hearing performed perception test by types of filter and cutoff frequencies. We reported phoneme recognition rates and types of perception error of band-limited Korean consonants to examine how frequency distortion in the process of speech transmission affect listener`s perception. The results showed that recognition rates varied with the following factors: position in a syllable, manner of articulation, place of articulation, and phonation types. Consonants in the final position were stronger to the frequency band limitation than those in the initial position. Fricatives and Affricates are stronger than stops. Fortis consonants were less stronger than their lenis or aspirated counterparts. Types of perception error also varied depending on such factors as consonant`s place of articulation: In case of bilabial stops, they were perceived as alveolar stops with while in cases of alveolar and velar stops, there were changes in phonation types without any change in the place of articulation.
Korean Adult Normative Data for the KayPENTAX Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600
Kim, Jaeock ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 105~117
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.105
The purpose of this study was to (1) establish a Korean adult normative database for phonatory aerodynamic measures obtained with the KayPENTAX Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS) Model 6600, (2) investigate the intra-subject reliability of these measures across three testing sessions, and (3) examine the effect of gender on those measures. 170 healthy normal speakers (70 men and 100 women) between the ages 18 and 49 years participated in the study. The PAS protocol of maximum phonation and voicing efficiency were conducted and 25 measures were obtained. All aerodynamic measures taken in this study demonstrated high intra-subject reliability in clinical aspect. There were no significant effect of gender in the measures related to sound pressure and subglottal pressure. However, significant differences for gender were found for phonation time, airflow rate, expiratory volume, aerodynamic power, SPL range, pitch range, mean pitch, aerodynamic resistance, and aerodynamic efficiency. Clinicians should be aware of significant gender effects in some aerodynamic parameters when interpreting the data obtained from PAS.
Characteristics of Orthographic Retrieval with Age in the Elderly
Yoon, Ji Hye ; Lee, Eun Ok ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 1, 2014, Pages 119~125
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.1.119
Many studies have reported an age-related decline in the ability to spell words correctly. The aim of this study was to investigate the deterioration on retrieving orthographic knowledge in 64 normal elderly Korean persons. The subjects were 64 in total: they were composed of 22 persons in their 50s, 20 persons in their 60s, and 22 persons in their 70s or older. We instructed them to write from a dictation of 60 words stimuli (20 regular words, 20 irregular words, 20 nonwords). Older adults made more errors than younger adults, and the age-related decline in performance was greater for irregular than regular and nonwords. With respect to the error pattern in the irregular words, the subjects showed more phonological plausible errors than phonological implausible errors. The number of self-correction was high in nonwords. Based on the results, we found that aging differentially affects the retrieval of orthographic knowledge on regular, irregular and nonwords.