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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Speech Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 6, Issue 4 - Dec 2014
Volume 6, Issue 3 - Sep 2014
Volume 6, Issue 2 - Jun 2014
Volume 6, Issue 1 - Mar 2014
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Articulatory modification of /m/ in the coda and the onset as a function of prosodic boundary strength and focus in Korean
Kim, Sahyang ; Cho, Taehong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 3~15
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.003
An articulatory study (using an Electromagnetic Articulography, EMA) was conducted to explore effects of prosodic boundary strength (Intonational Phrase/IP versus Word/Wd), and focus (Focused/accented, Neutral, Unfocused/unaccented) on the kinematic realization of /m/ in the coda (
) and the onset (
) conditions in Korean. (Here # refers to a prosodic boundary such as an IP or a Wd boundary). Several important points have emerged. First, the boundary effect on /m/s was most robustly observed in the temporal dimension in both the coda (IP-final) and the onset (IP-initial) conditions, generally in line with cross-linguistically observable boundary-related lengthening patterns. Crucially, however, in contrast with boundary-related slowing-down effects that have been observed in English, both the IP-final and IP-initial temporal expansions of Korean /m/s were not accompanied by an articulatory slowing down. They were, if anything, associated with a faster movement in the lip opening (release) phase (into the vowel). This suggests that the mechanisms underlying boundary-related temporal expansions may differ between languages. Second, observed boundary-induced strengthening effects (both spatial and temporal expansions, especially on the IP-initial /m/s) were remarkably similar to prominence (focus)-induced strengthening effects, which is again counter to phrase-initial strengthening patterns observed in English in which boundary effects are dissociated from prominent effects. This suggests that initial syllables in Korean may be a common focus for both boundary and prominence marking. These results, taken together, imply that the boundary-induced strengthening in Korean is different in nature from that in English, each being modulated by the individual language's prosodic system. Third, the coda and the onset /m/s were found to be produced in a subtly but significantly different way even in a Wd boundary condition, a potentially neutralizing (resyllabification) context. This suggests that although the coda may be phonologically 'resyllabified' into the following syllable in a phrase-medial position, its underlying syllable affiliation is kinematically distinguished from the onset.
Phonetic investigation of epenthetic vowels produced by Korean learners of English
Shin, Dong-Jin ; Iverson, Paul ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 17~26
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.017
The present study examined epenthetic vowels produced by Korean learners of English in read sentences, in terms of acoustic measures and extra-phonological factors. The results demonstrated three main findings. First, epenthetic vowels had relatively high F1 values and a wide range of F2 values. Most of the epenthetic vowels were inserted near Korean high central vowels, but some vowels were inserted near front vowels due to co-articulation with surrounding vowels. Second, vowel epenthesis was affected by the context. The results showed that the epenthesis was frequently seen with word junctions between obstruents (e.g., stops-fricatives). Third, Korean learners were not affected by English background and were very weakly affected by orthography. English experience, which is one of the extra-phonological factors, was not related to epenthesis production. However, orthography, the other extra-phonological factor, very weakly affected the amount of epenthesis production. Nine percent of all epenthesis production was affected by the English past-tense suffix '-ed'; approximately 70% of the participants were affected by this suffix. The findings of the present study contributed to understanding vowel epenthesis. First, the study revealed that the epenthetic vowels produced by Korean learners of English were close to the high central vowel, supporting previous studies that the epenthetic vowel is quite close to the shortest vowel. Second, the study examined the various phonetic environments of epenthetic vowels, revealing that vowel epenthesis occurred more frequently in a certain phonetic circumstance.
A Comparative Study of Second Language Acquisition Models: Focusing on Vowel Acquisition by Chinese Learners of Korean
Kim, Jooyeon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 27~36
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.027
This study provided longitudinal examination of the Chinese learners' acquisition of Korean vowels. Specifically, I examined the Chinese learners' Korean monophthongs /i, e, ɨ,
, a, u, o/ that were created at the time of 1 month and 12 months, tried to verify empirically how they learn by dealing with their mother tongue, and Korean vowels through dealing with pattern of the Perceptual Assimilation Model (henceforth PAM) of Best (Best, 1993; 1994; Best & Tyler, 2007) and the Speech Learning Model (henceforth SLM) of Flege (Flege, 1987; Bohn & Flege, 1992, Flege, 1995). As a result, most of the present results are shown to be similarly explained by the PAM and SLM, and the only discrepancy between these two models is found in the 'similar' category of sounds between the learners' native language and the target language. Specifically, the acquisition pattern of /u/ and /o/ in Korean is well accounted for the PAM, but not in the SLM. The SLM did not explain why the Chinese learners had difficulty in acquiring the Korean vowel /u/, because according to the SLM, the vowel /u/ in Chinese (the native language) is matched either to the vowel /u/ or /o/ in Korean (the target language). Namely, there is only a one-to-one matching relationship between the native language and the target language. In contrast, the Chinese learners' difficulty for the Korean vowel /u/ is well accounted for in the PAM in that the Chinese vowel /u/ is matched to the vowel pair /o, u/ in Korean, not the single vowel, /o/ or /u/.
Korean native speakers' perceptive aspects on Korean wh & yes-no questions produced by Chinese Korean learners
Yune, YoungSook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 37~45
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.037
Korean wh-questions and yes-no questions have morphologically the same structure. In speech, however, two types of questions are distinguished by prosodic difference. In this study, we examined if Korean native speakers can distinguish wh-question and yes-no questions produced by Chinese Korean leaners based on the prosodic information contained in the sentences. For this purpose, we performed perception analysis, and 15 Korean native speakers participated in the perception test. The results show that two types of interrogative sentences produced by Chinese Korean leaners were not distinguished by constant pitch contours. These results reveal that Chinese Korean leaners cannot match prosodic meaning and prosodic form. The most saliant prosodic feature used perceptually by native speakers to discriminate two types of interrogative sentences is pitch difference between the F0 pick of wh-word and boundary tone.
Effects of attention on the perception of L2 phonetic contrast
Lee, Hyunjung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 47~52
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.047
This study investigated how the degree of attention modulates English learners' perception of Korean stop contrasts. The contributions of VOT and F0 in perceiving Korean stops were examined while availability of attentional resources was manipulated using a dual-task paradigm. Results demonstrated the attentional modulation in the use of VOT, but not in F0: under less attention, the contribution of VOT to the perception of aspirated stops decreased, whereas that of lenis stops increased, which suggests more native-like performance. This implies that the role of attention in perceiving non-native contrasts might differ depending on how equivalent the acoustic and perceptual cues are between L1 and target L2 contrasts.
The continuous or categorical effects for HH vs. HL and HH vs. LH in lexical pitch accent contrasts of Korean
Kim, Jungsun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 53~65
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.053
The current research examines whether pitch contour shapes in North Kyungsang pitch accent contrasts provide a phonetic dimension for phonological discreteness in a mimicry task. Two pitch accent continua resynthesized were created for HH vs. HL and HH vs. LH. To confirm a phonetic dimension for accounting for pitch accent categories in North Kyungsang Korean, the mimicries of speakers of two dialects (i.e., North Kyungsang & South Cholla) were compared. One of the findings showed that, for North Kyungsang speakers, the range of mean f0 peak times was a phonetic dimension undergoing a continuous shift within a stimulus continuum for both HH vs. HL and HH vs. LH. On the other hand, for South Cholla speakers, there were no apparent shifts around categorical boundaries for either HH vs. HL or HH vs. LH. Regarding individual mimicries on f0 peak timing, there are many variations. For HH vs. LH, three North Kyungsang speakers showed a discrete pattern reflecting a shift in phonological categories, but for HH vs. HL, there was no such distinction showing a categorical shift, though there were statistically significant differences for two speakers. Interestingly, one of the North Kyungsang speakers showed a continuous phonetic dimension for both HH vs. HL and HH vs. LH. Lastly, the f0 valley timing did not exhibit a discrete or gradient phonetic dimension for speakers of either dialect. On the basis of these results, what is interesting is that the tonal target such as high tone in North Kyungsang pitch accent categories within the autosegmental-metrical (AM) theory may be realized within individual cognitive systems for representing the interaction of perception and production.
Discourse-level Prosody Produced by Korean Learners of English
Kim, Boram ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 67~77
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.067
This study investigated (1) whether Korean learners of English use discourse-level prosody in L2 production as native speakers of English do, and (2) whether discourse-level prosody is also found in the Korean language, as is evident in the prosody of native speakers of English. The study compared the production of the same 15 sentences in two types of reading materials, sentence-level and discourse-level. This study analyzed the onset pitch, sentence mean pitch and pause length to examine the paratone (intonational paragraph) realization in discourse-level speech. The results showed that in L2 discourse-level prosody, the Korean speakers were limited in displaying paratone and did not made significant difference between sentence-level and discourse-level prosody. On the other hand, in L1 discourse-level text, both English and Korean participants demonstrated paratone using pitch. However, there were differences in using prosodic cues between two groups. In using pauses, the ES group paused longer before both the orthographically marked and not marked topic sentences. The KS group paused longer only before the orthographically marked topic sentence in both L1 and L2 text reading. In the comparison of sentence-level and discourse-level prosody, the topic sentences were marked by different prosodic cues. English participants used higher sentence mean pitch, and the Korean participants used higher onset pitch.
An acoustical analysis of speech of different speaking rates and genders using intonation curve stylization of English
Yi, So Pae ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 79~90
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.079
An intonation curve stylization was used for an acoustical analysis of English speech. For the analysis, acoustical feature values were extracted from 1,848 utterances produced with normal and fast speech rate by 28 (12 women and 16 men) native speakers of English. Men are found to speak faster than women at normal speech rate but no difference is found between genders at fast speech rate. Analysis of pitch point features has it that fast speech has greater Pt (pitch point movement time), Pr (pitch point pitch range), and Pd (pitch point distance) but smaller Ps (pitch point slope) than normal speech. Men show greater Pt, Pr, and Pd than women. Analysis of sentence level features reveals that fast speech has smaller Sr (sentence level pitch range), Sd (sentence duration), and Max (maximum pitch) but greater Ss (sentence slope) than normal speech. Women show greater Sr, Ss, Sp (pitch difference between the first pitch point and the last), Sd, MaxNr (normalized Max), and MinNr (normalized Min) than men. As speech rate increases, women speak with greater Ss and Sr than men.
Spectral Characteristics and Formant Bandwidths of English Vowels by American Males with Different Speaking Styles
Yang, Byunggon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 91~99
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.091
Speaking styles tend to have an influence on spectral characteristics of produced speech. There are not many studies on the spectral characteristics of speech because of complicated processing of too much spectral data. The purpose of this study was to examine spectral characteristics and formant bandwidths of English vowels produced by nine American males with different speaking styles: clear or conversational styles; high- or low-pitched voices. Praat was used to collect pitch-corrected long-term averaged spectra and bandwidths of the first two formants of eleven vowels in the speaking styles. Results showed that the spectral characteristics of the vowels varied systematically according to the speaking styles. The clear speech showed higher spectral energy of the vowels than that of the conversational speech while the high-pitched voice did the same over the low-pitched voice. In addition, front and back vowel groups showed different spectral characteristics. Secondly, there was no statistically significant difference between B1 and B2 in the speaking styles. B1 was generally lower than B2 when reflecting the source spectrum and radiation effect. However, there was a statistically significant difference in B2 between the front and back vowel groups. The author concluded that spectral characteristics reflect speaking styles systematically while bandwidths measured at a few formant frequency points do not reveal style differences properly. Further studies would be desirable to examine how people would evaluate different sets of synthetic vowels with spectral characteristics or with bandwidths modified.
The relationship between segmental production by Japanese learners of Korean and pronunciation evaluation
Hong, Hyejin ; Ryu, Hyuksu ; Chung, Minhwa ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 101~108
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2013.6.4.101
This study investigates the effects of Japanese learners' Korean segmental production on pronunciation evaluation by Korean native raters. Read speech from 24 learners whose native language is Japanese are transcribed at the phonemic level, and confusion matrices are generated based on the phonemic transcriptions. The deviance from the canonical pronunciation found in the learners' speech is analyzed in terms of phoneme substitutions, vowel insertions, and consonant deletions. Each learner's pronunciation is rated impressionistically by 5 Korean native raters. The result shows that the deviance from the canonical pronunciation is strongly correlated with the pronunciation evaluation scores. Especially, the rates of phoneme substitutions and vowel insertions which are very strongly correlated with the pronunciation evaluation scores.
An acoustic study of fricated vowels in Nuosu Yi: an exploratory study
Perkins, Jeremy ; Lee, Seunghun J. ; Li, Xiao ; Liu, Hongyong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 109~115
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.109
Fricated nuclei in Nuosu Yi were found to be more correctly described as fricated vowels, rather than syllabic fricatives due to the presence of clear formant structures typical of front vowels. In this exploratory study, two types of fricated nuclei were examined: retroflex "yr" and non-retroflex "y". The retroflex nucleus "yr" had higher F1 and lower F3 than non-retroflex "y", indicating a lower tongue height. On the other hand, F2 was found to correlate not with nucleus retroflexion, but instead with onset consonant retroflexion: F2 was higher following retroflex onsets, in both vowels. This effect was persistent through the entire vowel, suggesting a phonological effect, rather than a coarticulatory one. Interpretation of the F2 results require accompanying articulatory data since the usual coupling of F2 and tongue backness does not always hold for retroflex vowels. Examining the articulation of the fricated nuclei in Nuosu Yi is a direction for future research.
The intonation patterns of accentual phrase in Jeju dialect
Lee, Sook-Hyang ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 117~123
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.117
This study investigated the intonation patterns of accentual phrase in Jeju dialect. 9 speakers (Experiment 1) and 6 speakers (Experiment 2) read a carrier sentence '__ youngah miwonghumnida' with a target accentual phrase varying its number of syllables from 1 to 8. The results showed that like Seoul dialect
pattern could be the basic pattern of accentual phase in Jeju dialect even though several differences were observed in the realization of each tone: Flat staircase-like tones in L, M, and even in H were often observed, and a very small difference in F0 between intial L and +H was found in many speakers. For some of these differences, this paper tried to give an explanation still in the Intonational Phonology framework. However, introducing M tone as a lexical tone was also suggested as one possible solution. Finally, unlike Seoul dialect, most speakers showed
pattern in an accentual phrase beginning with a strong consonant, i.e., aspirated and unaspirated obstruents including /h/ and /s/.
HMM-based missing feature reconstruction for robust speech recognition in additive noise environments
Cho, Ji-Won ; Park, Hyung-Min ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 127~132
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.127
This paper describes a robust speech recognition technique by reconstructing spectral components mismatched with a training environment. Although the cluster-based reconstruction method can compensate the unreliable components from reliable components in the same spectral vector by assuming an independent, identically distributed Gaussian-mixture process of training spectral vectors, the presented method exploits the temporal dependency of speech to reconstruct the components by introducing a hidden-Markov-model prior which incorporates an internal state transition plausible for an observed spectral vector sequence. The experimental results indicate that the described method can provide temporally consistent reconstruction and further improve recognition performance on average compared to the conventional method.
Bilingual Voice Conversion Using Frequency Warping on Formant Space
Chae, Yi-Geun ; Yun, Young-Sun ; Jung, Jin Man ; Eun, Seongbae ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 133~139
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.133
This paper describes several approaches to transform a speaker's individuality to another's individuality using frequency warping between bilingual formant frequencies on different language environments. The proposed methods are simple and intuitive voice conversion algorithms that do not use training data between different languages. The approaches find the warping function from source speaker's frequency to target speaker's frequency on formant space. The formant space comprises four representative monophthongs for each language. The warping functions can be represented by piecewise linear equations, inverse matrix. The used features are pure frequency components including magnitudes, phases, and line spectral frequencies (LSF). The experiments show that the LSF-based voice conversion methods give better performance than other methods.
An Android Application for Speech Communication of People with Speech Disorders
Choi, Yoonjung ; Hong, Ki-Hyung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 141~148
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.141
Voice is the most common means for communication, but some people have difficulties in generating voice due to their congenital or acquired disorders. Individuals with speech disorders might lose their speaking ability due to hearing impairment, encephalopathy or cerebral palsy accompanied by motor skill impairments, or autism caused by mental problems. However, they have needs for communication, so some of them use various types of AAC (Augmentative & Alternative Communication) devices in order to meet their communication needs. In this paper, a mobile application for literate people having speech disorder was designed and implemented by developing accurate and fast sentence-completion functions for efficient user interaction. From a user study and the previous study on Korean text-based communication for adults having difficulty in speech communication, we identified functionality and usability requirements. Specifically, the user interface with scanning features was designed by considering the users' motor skills in using the touch-screen of a mobile device. Finally, we conducted the usability test for the application. The results of the usability test show that the application is easy to learn and efficient to use in communication with people with speech disorders.
Intervention Effect on Reading Fluency for Children from Low-Income Families
Yoon, Hyojin ; Shin, Gayoung ; Pae, Soyeong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 151~159
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.151
The study investigated the effects of reading intervention to enhance reading fluency for children from low-income families. The participants were 20 children from low-income families who are in grades 1 to 3. To qualify for participation in this study, all children had to score below 30 % ile on the Receptive vocabulary Test of the Expressive and Receptive Vocabulary Test or the Word reading fluency of the Korean Language-Based Reading Assessment. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=10) or control (n=10) group. The intervention group participated in the individualized intervention program using the guided repeated reading and the corrective feedback strategies. The results showed that participants in the intervention group performed better on reading fluency than those in the control group after participating in the intervention program. Specifically, guided repeated reading with corrective feedback strategies produced significant improvement on generalization to unpracticed passages as well as practiced passages. The results of this study suggest that guided repeated reading with corrective feedback is effective for enhancing reading fluency for children in Korea. Further study is needed in order to develop language-specific reading intervention.
Vocal Development of Typically Developing Infants
Ha, Seunghee ; Seol, Ahyoung ; Pae, Soyeong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 161~169
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.161
This study investigated changes in the prelinguistic vocal production of typically developing infants aged 5-20 months based on Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised (SAEVD-R). Fifty-eight typically developing infants participated in the study, and they were divided into four age groups, 5-8 months, 9-12 months, 13-16 months, and 17-20 months of age. Vocalization samples were collected from infants' play activities and were classified into 5 levels and 23 types using SAEVD-R. The results revealed that the four age groups showed significant differences in production proportion of vocalization levels. Level 1, 2, 4, and 5 vocalizations exhibited significantly different across the four age groups. Level 3 was predominantly produced across every age group. Therefore, the vocalization level was not significantly different across the four age groups. Especially, vowels in Level 3 vocalization predominantly produced across all ages during a long period. Also, significant increases in the proportion of Levels 4 and 5 occurred after 9 months, which suggested that the production of cannonical syllables is a key indicator of advancement in prelinguistic vocal development. The results have clinical implication in early identification and speech-language intervention for young children with speech delays or at risk.
Variables for Predicting Speech Acceptability of Children with Cochlear Implants
Yoon, Mi Sun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 171~179
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.171
Purposes: Speech acceptability means the subjective judgement of listeners regarding the naturalness and normality of the speech. The purpose of this study was to determine the predicting variables for speech acceptabilities of children with cochlear implants. Methods: Twenty seven children with CI participated. They had profound pre-lingual hearing loss without any additional disabilities. The mean of chronological ages was 8;9, and mean of age of implantation was 2;11. Speech samples of reading and spontaneous speech were recorded separately. Twenty college students who were not familiar to the speech of deaf children evaluated the speech acceptabilities using visual analog scale. 1 segmental (articulation) and 6 suprasegmental features (pitch, loudness, quality, resonance, intonation, and speaking rate) of speech were perceptually evaluated by 3 SLPs. Correlation and multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the predicting variables. Results: The means of speech acceptability for reading and spontaneous speech were 73.47 and 71.96, respectively. Speech acceptability of reading was predicated by the severity of intonation and articulation. Speech acceptability of spontaneous speech was predicated by the severity of intonation and loudness. Discussion and conclusion: Severity of intonation was the most effective variable to predict the speech acceptabilities of both reading and spontaneous speech. A further study would be necessary to generalize the result and to apply this result to intervention in clinical settings.
A Comparison Study of Breath Groups during Reading Paragraph Tasks in Normal Adults and Adult Patients with Voice Disorders: A Preliminary Study
Pyo, Hwayoung ; Kim, Soyeon ; Baek, Seungkuk ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 181~187
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.181
The present study was performed to investigate the characteristics of breath groups while reading paragraph in normal adults and adult patients with voice disorders. 10 normal females(avr. 20.6 yrs.), 10 young voice disorder females(avr. 33.5 yrs., P1 group), and 10 old voice disorder females(avr. 56.3 yrs., P2 group) read a paragraph of 210 syllables. By using the 'Running Speech' program of the Phonatory Aerodynamic System(PAS), total duration, numbers of breath groups, duration per breath group, and numbers of syllables per breath group were measured, and their correlations with aerodynamic measurement results of reading were analyzed. As a result, in total duration, numbers of breath groups, normals scored highest and P2 group speakers, lowest. Normals showed the longest duration per breath group which was not significant. P2 group speakers showed the highest numbers of syllables per breath group. Correlation analysis showed significantly high correlation scores of total duration and expiratory airflow; numbers of breath groups and inspiratory volume.
Acoustic characteristics of Motherese
Shim, Hee-Jeong ; Lee, GeonJae ; Hwang, JinKyung ; Ko, Do-Heung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 189~194
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.189
Objective: This study aims to investigate the speech rate, the length of a pause, habitual pitch, and voice intensity of motherese. Subjects and Methods: The research participants comprised 20 mothers (mean age 33 years). Speech data were collected and analyzed using the Real-time Pitch software (KayPENTAX(R)). Results: The average speech rate was 5.33 syllables per second without their infant present and 4.26 syllables per second with their infant present. The average pause length was 1.09 s without their infant present and 1.56 s with their infant present. The average habitual pitch was 199.79 Hz without their infant present and 227.15 Hz with their infant present. The average voice loudness was 61.09 dB without their infant present and 64.49 dB with their infant present. Conclusion: This study presented clinical information for efficiently managing the speech therapy issues of infants and children. This includes proper acoustic and phonological information to recommend to main caregivers.
The Comparison of Aerodynamic Measures in Korean Stop Consonants based on Phonation Types
Choi, Seong Hee ; Choi, Chul-Hee ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 6, issue 4, 2014, Pages 195~203
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2014.6.4.195
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phonation types ([+/- aspirated], [+/- fortis]) on aerodynamic measures with Korean bilabial stops. Sixty-three healthy young adults (30 males, 33 females) participated to evaluate the VOEF (Voicing Efficiency) tasks with bilabial stop consonants /
/, /p/, /p'/ using Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS) Model 6600 (Kay PENTAX Corp, Lincoln Park, NJ). All VOEF measures were significantly influenced by phonation types except RANP(pitch range)(p <.01). For sound pressure, maximum SPL, mean SPL, and Mean SPL during Voicing have been shown to be significantly greatest in fortis stop /p'/ than aspirated /
/ and lenis stop /p/ (p<.001). On the other hand, mean pitch after lenis stop was significantly lower than after aspirated and fortis stops (p<.001). Peak expiratory airflow, Target airflow, and FVC (Expiratory volume) were significantly lowest in fortis stop /p'/ which might be associated with higher aerodynamic resistance while peak air pressure and mean peak air pressure during closure were significantly lower in lenis stop /p/. Additionally, AEFF (Aerodynamic efficiency) was significantly higher in fortis stop /p'/ than lenis stop /p/ as well as aspirated stop /
/ (p<.001). Thus, sound pressure, airflow parameters, and aerodynamic resistance made crucial roles in distinguishing fortis /p'/ from lenis stop /p/ and aspirated. Additionally, pitch and subglottal air pressure parameters were important aerodynamic characteristics in distinguishing lenis /p/ from fortis /p'/ and aspirated /
/. Therefore, accurate aspirated /p/ stop consonant should be elicited when collecting the airflow, intraoral pressure related data with patients with voice disorders in order to enhance the reliability and relevance or validity of aerodynamic measures using PAS.