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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Speech Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Denasalization error pattern for typically developing and SSD children
Kim, Min Jung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 3~8
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.003
Denasalization that nasals are replaced by stops is an unusual error pattern related to manner of articulation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of denasalization and to scrutinize the nasal production according to phonological context for typically developing children and children with speech sound disorders(SSD). 220 typically developing children and 48 SSD children from 2~6 years of age were tested with a formal word test, and those who demonstrate denasalization were selected. In addition, the nasal production of SSD children with denasalization were analyzed for the correctness and the error types using the formal word test and spontaneous conversation. The results were as follows: (1) Denasalization was shown in below 10% of 2-3 years of age with typically developing children and in above 20% of 2-5 years of age with SSD. (2) The SSD children who demonstrate denasalization were categorized into 4 types according to the error context of nasals; nasal errors with all word positions, nasal errors with word-final and word-medial positions, nasal errors with word-medial position preceding vowels, and nasal errors with word-medial position preceding obstruents. These results indicate that denasalization is a clinically important error pattern, and word-medial position preceding obstruents is an essential context for denasalization in terms of Korean phonotactics.
The Effect on Intervention Program and Auditory-Perceptual Discrimination Feature of Postlingual Cochlear Implant Adults about Pathological Voice
Bae, Inho ; Kim, Geunhyo ; Lee, Yeonwoo ; Park, Heejune ; Kim, Jindong ; Lee, Ilwoo ; Kwon, Soonbok ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 9~17
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.009
In the present study, we investigated ability of recognition of auditory perception with regards to the quality of voice in postlingual CI adults and proposed a training program to improve within subject reliability. A prospective case-control study was conducted in adults with 7 postlingual deaf who received a CI surgery and 10 normal hearing controls. The pre and post test and training program included parameters of consensus auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice(CAPE-V) with pathological voice sample by using Alvin. In results of pre-post test for monitoring improvements of internal reliability for listeners via the training program, there was statistically significant difference in both test and group. There was statistically significant difference in internal reliability between pre-post test in the normal hearing group, the result was no significant in the CI group. The present study found that CI adults showed less ability in awareness of voice quality compared to normal hearing group. Also the training program improved pitch and loudness in CI adults.
Comparison of error characteristics of final consonant at word-medial position between children with functional articulation disorder and normal children
Lee, Ran ; Lee, Eunju ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 19~28
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.019
This study investigated final consonant error characteristics at word-medial position in children with functional articulation disorder. Data was collected from 11 children with functional articulation and 11 normal children, ages 4 to 5. The speech samples were collected from a naming test. Seventy-five words with every possible bi-consonants matrix at the word-medial position were used. The results of this study were as follows : First, percentage of correct word-medial final consonants of functional articulation disorder was lower than normal children. Second, there were significant differences between two groups in omission, substitution and assimilation error. Children with functional articulation disorder showed a high frequency of omission and regressive assimilation error, especially alveolarization in regressive assimilation error most. However, normal children showed a high frequency of regressive assimilation error, especially bilabialization in regressive assimilation error most. Finally, the results of error analysis according to articulation manner, articulation place and phonation type of consonants of initial consonant at word-medial, both functional articulation disorder and normal children showed a high error rate in stop sound-stop sound condition. The error rate of final consonant at word-medial position was high when initial consonant at word-medial position was alveolar sound and alveopalatal sound. Futhermore, when initial sounds were fortis and aspirated sounds, more errors occurred than linis sound was initial sound. The results of this study provided practical error characteristics of final consonant at word-medial position in children with speech sound disorder.
Elementary School Aged Children's Reading Fluency in Terms of Family Income and Receptive Vocabulary
Ku, Kayoung ; Seol, Ahyoung ; Pae, Soyeong ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 29~38
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.029
This study explores reading fluency among elementary school students considering language level and family income(low SES). Forty eight students from 1st to 3rd grades participated in two paragraph reading tasks. Half of the children were from low income family and half of the children had low lexical knowledge. Reading fluency as in the number of correctly read syllables per minute, the total error frequency and error types were used to compare group differences. There were significant differences in the number of correctly read syllables per minute between two income groups and two language groups. There was a significant difference between low income group and non-low income group in total number of errors only when children's lexical knowledge were low. There were no group differences in error types of repetition and omission. Substitution and insertion error seemed to reflect the total error pattern. These results imply the importance of early screening and early involvement for children with low lexical knowledge from low income family. Monitoring and early intervention will support these children's reading development.
A survey on the voice related needs of occupational voice users
Lee, Eun-Jeong ; Kim, Wha-Soo ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.039
This research was conducted to investigate the voice related needs of occupational voice users. The data collected from teachers(379), tele-marketers(156), therapists(50) was classified according to its content, by colaizzi's inductive categorical analysis. The voice related needs are classified into 3 big categories, 1) how to use, 2) how to care, 3) how to be healthy. Again the category 'how to use' my voice was into 6 sub-categories: (1) efficiently, (2) as I desired, (3) without pain(discomfort), (4) expressively, (5) phonation (methods) and (6) clear articulation. The result showed that the needs from 3 groups of occupational voice users reflect their own environment which they have to use their voice as well as the voice characteristics wanted from their specific listeners.
A Study of depression symptom in patients with voice disorders
Kang, Young Ae ; Koo, Bon Seok ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 47~54
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.047
The objectives of this study are to research the frequency of depression symptom in patients with voice disorders and to investigate parameters associated with depression from voice evaluation. A hundred ninety six patients(106 males and 90 females) who had been diagnosed with voice disorders first in their lifetime were selected. All the patients were examined by laryngeal stroboscopy. For depression and voice study, personal interview, acoustic and aerodynamic analysis, voice handicap index(VHI), reflux symptom index(RSI), and beck depression index(BDI) were done respectively. Mild to severe BDI were seen in 26.2%(52 patients) of the whole patients. A BDI mean score of female patients was
which was higher than that of male patients(
), the difference observed being statistically significant(p<0.001). In the acoustic analysis, the score of sent_duration parameter was increasing in the patients with depression, which was significantly higher than the score of the patients without depression(p<0.05). In the addition, the scores of VHI and RSI were higher in the patients with depression(p<0.001). Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression in patients with voice disorders is related to female, speaking velocity, and self-questionnaire. This result can be used for psychologically based approach to therapy.
Acoustic Characteristics of 'Short Rushes of Speech' using Alternate Motion Rates in Patients with Parkinson's Disease
Kim, Sun Woo ; Yoon, Ji Hye ; Lee, Seung Jin ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 55~62
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.055
It is widely accepted that Parkinson's disease(PD) is the most common cause of hypokinetic dysarthria, and its characteristics of 'short rushes of speech' have become more evident along with the severity of motor disorders. Speech alternate motion rates (AMRs) are particularly useful for observing not only rate abnormalities but also deviant speech. However, relatively little is known about the characteristics of 'short rushes of speech' in terms of AMRs of PD except for the perceptual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to examine which acoustic features of 'short rushes of speech' in terms of AMRs are a robust indicator of Parkinsonian speech. Numbers of syllabic repetitions (/pə/, /tə/, /kə/) in AMR tasks were analyzed through acoustic methods observing a spectrogram of the Computerized Speech Lab in 9 patients with PD. Acoustically, we found three characteristics of 'short rushes of speech': 1) Vocalized consonants without closure duration(VC) 76.3%; 2) No consonant segmentation(NC) 18.6%; 3) No vowel formant frequency(NV) 5.1%. Based on these results, 'short rushes of speech' may affect the failure to reach and maintain the phonatory targets. In order to best achieve the therapeutic goals, and to make the treatment most efficacious, it is important to incorporate training methods which are based on both phonation and articulation.
Early Vocalization and Phonological Developments of Typically Developing Children: A longitudinal study
Ha, Seunghee ; Park, Bora ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 63~73
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.063
This study investigated longitudinally early vocalization and phonological developments of typically developing children. Ten typically developing children participated in the study from 9 months to 18 months of age. Spontaneous utterance samples were collected at 9, 12, 15, 18 months of age and phonetically transcribed and analyzed. Utterance samples were classified into 5 levels using Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development-Revised(SAEVD-R). The data analysis focused on 4 and 5 levels of vocalizations classified by SAEVD-R and word productions. The percentage of each vocalization level, vocalization length, syllable structures, and consonant inventory were obtained. The results showed that the percentages of level 4 and 5 vocalizations and word significantly increased with age and the production of syllable structures containing consonants significantly increased around 12 and 15 months of age. On average, the children produced 4 types of syllable structure and 5.4 consonants at 9 months and they produced 5 types of syllable structure and 9.8 consonants at 18 months. The phonological development patterns in this study were consistent with those analyzed from children's meaningful utterances in previous studies. The results support the perspective on the continuity between babbling and early speech. This study has clinical implications in early identification and speech-language intervention for young children with speech delays or at risk.
Investigation about Japanese perception of Korean Tense Consonants
Kwon, Yeonjoo ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 77~83
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.077
The aim of this paper is to investigate Japanese speakers' perception of Korean tense consonants. In a range of perceptual experiments Japanese participants were directed to label Korean stimuli using Japanese katakana characters. The analysis of the results showed a strong influence of Japanese phonology in the responses. Japanese perception of sokuon was increased, (1) when the tense consonants were in word medial position, (2) when tense consonants were other than /s/, (3) when the tense consonant followed voiceless consonants, (4) when the consonants were part of a cluster sharing their point of articulation, (5) when preceding vowel were other than /u/, (6) when following vowel were /u/. This result, showing preference for phonology, is in harmony with previous research on the Japanese sokuon perception using Japanese (Takeyasu 2009, Matsui 2011), and Italian (Tanaka & Kubozono 2008) stimuli.
An Analysis of Tonal Characteristics in Pre-school Children's Word Utterance
Yi, Soo Yon ; Chong, Hyun Ju ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 85~94
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.085
This study is to investigate the characteristic of tonal elements in word utterance of 30 pre-school children. For the analyses, 240 utterances of 4 syllable words were processed to extract acoustic values and then the data was transformed into tonal height in order to examine the contour. The results show that the mean pitch of a note is
and high and low pitched notes are
. The pitch patterns of the 4 syllables measured at the frication and aspiration portion are
and F4-E4-B3-A3. The pitch patterns of consonant clusters are
. The analyses of tonal elements in this study provide evidentiary data on tonal height helpful for developing melodic contour.
A Study on the Male Vowel Formants of the Korean Corpus of Spontaneous Speech
Kim, Soonok ; Yoon, Kyuchul ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 95~102
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.095
The purpose of this paper is to extract the vowel formants of the ten adult male speakers in their twenties and thirties from the Korean Corpus of Spontaneous Speech , also known as the Seoul corpus, and to analyze them by comparing to earlier works on the Buckeye Corpus of Conversational Speech  in terms of the various linguistic factors that are expected to affect the formant distribution. The vowels extracted from the Korean corpus were also compared to those of the read Korean. The results showed that the distribution of the vowel formants from the Korean corpus was very different from that of read Korean speech. The comparison with English corpus and read English speech showed similar patterns. The factors affecting the Korean vowel formants were the interviewer sex, the location of the target vowel or the syllable containing it with respect to the phrasal word or utterance and the speech rate of the surrounding words.
The Korean Corpus of Spontaneous Speech
Yun, Weonhee ; Yoon, Kyuchul ; Park, Sunwoo ; Lee, Juhee ; Cho, Sungmoon ; Kang, Ducksoo ; Byun, Koonhyuk ; Hahn, Hyeseung ; Kim, Jungsun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 103~109
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.103
This paper describes the development of the Korean corpus of spontaneous speech, also called the Seoul corpus. The corpus contains the audio recording of the interview-style spontaneous speech from the 40 native speakers of Seoul Korean. The talkers are divided into four age groups; talkers in their teens, twenties, thirties and forties. Each age group has ten talkers, five males and five females. The method used to elicit and record the speech is described. The corpus containing around 220,000 phrasal words was phonemically labeled along with information on the boundaries for Korean phrasal words and utterances, which were additionally romanized. According to the test result of labeling consistency, the inter-labeler agreement on phoneme identification was 98.1% and the mean deviation on boundary placement was 9.04 msec. The corpus will be made available for free to the research community in March, 2015.
Korean plain plosive produced by Chinese female speakers: Sentence vs. Paragraph
Jiang, Pan ; Kim, Ji-Eun ; Lee, Choong-Woo ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 111~117
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.111
The purpose of this study is to investigate how Chinese learners of Korean produce Korean plain plosives differently in a reading passage and isolated sentences. There are several studies on Korean plosives produced by Chinese speakers, but the study comparing the production of reading passage and isolated sentences are rare. For these purposes, ten Chinese speakers' VOT values of Korean plain plosives were measured using Speech Analyzer. The results show that there is no significant difference between the plain plosive production of a reading passage and that of isolated sentences. In the further studies, the measurement of pitch with VOT is needed.
On the Merger of Korean Mid Front Vowels: Phonetic and Phonological Evidence
Eychenne, Julien ; Jang, Tae-Yeoub ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 119~129
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.119
This paper investigates the status of the merger between the mid front unrounded vowels ㅔ[e] and ㅐ[
] in contemporary Korean. Our analysis is based on a balanced corpus of production and perception data from young subjects from three dialectal areas (Seoul, Daegu and Gwangju). Except for expected gender differences, the production data display no difference in the realization of these vowels, in any of the dialects. The perception data, while mostly in line with the production results, show that Seoul females tend to better discriminate the two vowels in terms of perceived height: vowels with a lower F1 are more likely to be categorized as ㅔ by this group. We then investigate the possible causes of this merger: based on an empirical study of transcribed spoken Korean, we show that the pair of vowels ㅔ/ㅐ has a very low functional load. We argue that this factor, together with the phonetic similarity of the two vowels, may have been responsible for the observed merger.
A Comparative Study on the Male and Female Vowel Formants of the Korean Corpus of Spontaneous Speech
Yoon, Kyuchul ; Kim, Soonok ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 131~138
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.131
The aim of this work is to compare the vowel formants of the ten adult female speakers in their twenties and thirties from the Seoul corpus with those of corresponding Korean male speakers from the same corpus and of American female speakers from the Buckeye corpus. In addition, various linguistic factors that are expected affect the formant frequencies were examined to account for the distribution of the vowel formants. Formant frequencies extracted from the Seoul corpus were also compared to those from read speech. The results showed that the formant distribution of the spontaneous speech was very different from that of the read speech, while the comparison between the female and male speakers was similar in both languages. To a greater or lesser degree, the potential linguistic factors influenced the formant frequencies of the vowels.
Reinterpretation of Stop Production in Korean Elderly Speakers
Kim, Ji-Eun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 139~145
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.139
Researchers have claimed that Korean younger speakers tend to less clearly differentiate aspirated and lax stops with VOT values while older speakers clearly differentiate these two stops with VOT values. To explain this phenomena, the current study consider both an aging effect and a general sound shift. For this study, VOT values and F0 of Korean stops produced by eight male speakers(years of birth were 1942 ~ 1952) analyzed using Praat. Their productions were compared with the values of participants whose year of birth were 1943 ~ 1952) in Silva(2006)'s research. Silva's research was conducted in 2004 using the same methods. The result shows that 2014's VOT gap between aspirated and lax stops and less F0 gap between aspirated and lax stops than those of 2004. When the F0 values related to physical conditions of the larynx is considered, it could be analyzed as the following: to distinguish the three-way phonation type clearly, older speakers depend on the VOT value more instead of F0 which they have difficulty to control.
Fluency Scoring of English Speaking Tests for Nonnative Speakers Using a Native English Phone Recognizer
Jang, Byeong-Yong ; Kwon, Oh-Wook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 149~156
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.149
We propose a new method for automatic fluency scoring of English speaking tests spoken by nonnative speakers in a free-talking style. The proposed method is different from the previous methods in that it does not require the transcribed texts for spoken utterances. At first, an input utterance is segmented into a phone sequence by using a phone recognizer trained by using native speech databases. For each utterance, a feature vector with 6 features is extracted by processing the segmentation results of the phone recognizer. Then, fluency score is computed by applying support vector regression (SVR) to the feature vector. The parameters of SVR are learned by using the rater scores for the utterances. In computer experiments with 3 tests taken by 48 Korean adults, we show that speech rate, phonation time ratio, and smoothed unfilled pause rate are best for fluency scoring. The correlation of between the rater score and the SVR score is shown to be 0.84, which is higher than the correlation of 0.78 among raters. Although the correlation is slightly lower than the correlation of 0.90 when the transcribed texts are given, it implies that the proposed method can be used as a preprocessing tool for fluency evaluation of speaking tests.
Investigation on Dynamic Behavior of Formant Information
Jo, Cheolwoo ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 2, 2015, Pages 157~162
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.2.157
This study reports on the effective way of displaying dynamic formant information on F1-F2 space. Conventional ways of F1-F2 space (different name of vowel triangle or vowel rectangle) have been used for investigating vowel characteristics of a speaker or a language based on statistics of the F1 and F2 values, which were computed by spectral envelope search method. Those methods were dealing mainly with the static information of the formants, not the changes of the formant values (i.e. dynamic information). So a better way of investigating dynamic informations from the formant values of speech signal is suggested so that more convenient and detailed investigation of the dynamic changes can be achieved on F1-F2 space. Suggested method used visualization of static and dynamic information in overlapped way to be able to observe the change of the formant information easily. Finally some examples of the implemented display on some cases of the continuous vowels are shown to prove the usefulness of suggested method.