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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Speech Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 7, Issue 4 - Dec 2015
Volume 7, Issue 3 - Sep 2015
Volume 7, Issue 2 - Jun 2015
Volume 7, Issue 1 - Mar 2015
Selecting the target year
Comparison of English and Korean speakers for the nasalization of English stops
Yun, Ilsung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 3~11
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.003
This study compared English and Korean speakers with regard to the nasalization of the English stops /b, d, g, p, t, k/before a nasal within and across a word boundary. Nine English and thirty Korean speakers participated in the experiment. We used 37 speech items with different grammatical structures. Overall the English informants rarely nasalized the stops while the Korean informants generally greatly nasalized them though widely varying from no nasalization to almost complete nasalization. In general, voiced stops were more likely to be nasalized than voiceless stops. Also, the alveolar stops /d, t/tended to be nasalized the most, the bilabial stops /b, p/ the second most, and the velar stops /g, k/ the least. Besides, the closer the grammatical relationship between neighboring words, the more likely the stop nasalization occurred. In contrast, the Korean syllabification - the addition of the vowel /i/ to the final stops - worked against the stop nasalization. On the other hand, different stress (accent) or rhythm effects of the two languages are assumed to contribute to the significantly different nasalization between English and Korean speakers. The spectrum of stop nasalization obtained from this study can be used as an index to measure how close a certain Korean speaker`s stop nasalization is to English speakers`.
A study of L1 and L2 influences on the speech of Korean-English bilinguals: With special reference to VOT and F0
Kim, Mi-Ryoung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 13~26
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.013
Speech production studies have suggested that bilinguals who are L2-dominant are the most likely to suppress the influence of the first language (L1) on the second language (L2). The voice onset times (VOTs) and fundamental frequencies (f0s) of monolingual and bilingual speakers of English and Korean were examined to address the question whether cross language influences occur particularly in L2 predominant bilinguals and to compare their outcomes with those of L2 proficient bilinguals and monolinguals. A total of 28 speakers participated in this experiment and they produced English and Korean stops in the carrier sentence. In English, for voiceless aspirated and unaspirated stops, L2 predominant bilingual speakers produced VOTs that were significantly shorter than those of monolingual English speakers. The outcome was analogous in Korean speech. For aspirated and lax stops, they produced shorter Korean VOTs than monolingual speakers. The results of f0s were slightly different from those of VOTs. In English, L2 predominant bilinguals produced f0s that were not significantly different from those of monolingual English speakers. In Korean, however, they produced f0s that were significantly different from those of monolingual Korean speakers. Taken VOT and f0 into consideration together, the overall results suggest that, although they tend to show a corresponding pattern of monolinguals, L2 predominant bilinguals had cross language phonetic influences between L1 and L2, similar to L2 proficient bilinguals. Between the two acoustic cues, f0 seemed to be a more reliable cue than VOT to examine the influences.
Processing of allophonic variants from optional vs. obligatory phonological processes
Han, Jeong-Im ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 27~35
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.027
The purpose of this study is to examine the lexical representation of phonological variants derived from optional vs. obligatory phonological processes. Given that place assimilation is optionally processed, whereas nasal assimilation is obligatory in Korean, a long-term repetition priming experiment was conducted, using a shadowing task. Korean speakers shadowed words containing either assimilated or unassimilated consonants in three priming conditions and their shadow responses were evaluated. It was shown that in both place and nasal assimilations, shadowing latencies for unassimilated stimuli were longer than those for assimilated stimuli in the mismatched condition. These results suggest that even in the optional assimilation, assimilated variants were processed more easily and faster than the canonical variants. The present results argue against the frequency-based account of multiple lexical representation (Connine, 2004; Connine & Pinnow, 2006; Ranbom & Connine, 2007;
, Ernestus, & Frauenfelder, 2010;
, Alario, & Frauenfelder, 2011).
Effect of Age on the Voice Onset Time of Korean Stops in VCV contexts
Lee, Seulgi ; Lee, Youngmee ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.037
This study investigated the effects of the age of Korean speakers, place of articulation, and phonation types on voice onset time (VOT) of stops. Twenty-five preschoolers, 25 schoolers, and 25 adults who had no history of speech and language impairment produced plosives in /VCV/ words in isolation. A three-way (
) mixed design was used with the age of speakers (preschoolers, schoolers, adults) as a between-subject factor, the place of articulation (bilabials, alveolars, velars) and phonation types (plain, tense, aspirated consonants) as a within-subject factor. The dependent measure was the VOT values. Results revealed that three main effects were statistically significant. Preschoolers exhibited longer VOTs than adults (p<.05). There were significant differences in VOTs among the place of articulation, showing that speakers had the longest VOTs for velars (velars > alvelars > bilabials) (all p<.05). In addition, the VOTs for aspirated consonants were longer than those for plain and tense consonants, and the differences were significant among three phonation types (aspirated > tense > plain) (all p<.05). The current results suggested that VOTs would be linked to age and development, and schoolers over the age of 11 years had achieved adult-like VOTs. Moreover, the place of articulation and phonation types in Korean stops showed marked factors in normal speakers` VOT patterns.
The effect of word frequency on the reduction of English CVCC syllables in spontaneous speech
Kim, Jungsun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 45~53
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.045
The current study investigated CVCC syllables in spontaneous American English speech to find out whether such syllables are produced as phonological units with a string of segments, showing a hierarchical structure. Transcribed data from the Buckeye Speech Corpus was used for the analysis in this study. The result of the current study showed that the constituents within a CVCC syllable as a phonological unit may have phonetic variations (namely, the final coda may undergo deletion). First, voiceless alveolar stops were the most frequently deleted when they occurred as the second final coda consonants of a CVCC syllable; this deletion may be an intermediate process on the way from the abstract form CVCC (with the rime VCC) to the actual pronunciation CVC (with the rime VC), a production strategy employed by some individual speakers. Second, in the internal structure of the rime, the proportion of deletion of the final coda consonant depended on the frequency of the word rather than on the position of postvocalic consonants on the sonority hierarchy. Finally, the segment following the consonant cluster proved to have an effect on the reduction of that cluster; more precisely, the following contrast was observed between obstruents and non-obstruents, reflecting the effect of sonority: when the segment following the consonant cluster was an obstruent, the proportion of deletion of the final coda consonant was increased. Among these results, the effect of word frequency played a critical role for promoting the deletion of the second coda consonant for clusters in CVCC syllables in spontaneous speech. The current study implies that the structure of syllables as phonological units can vary depending on individual speakers` lexical representation.
The Effect of Interpretation Bias on the Production of Disambiguating Prosody
Choe, Wook Kyung ; Redford, Melissa A ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 55~64
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.055
Previous research on syntactic processing shows that the interpretation of a syntactically ambiguous sentence is frequently strongly biased towards one meaning over another. The current study investigated the effect of bias strength on the production of disambiguating prosody for English ambiguous sentences. In Experiment 1, 40 speakers gave default readings of 18 syntactically ambiguous sentences. Questioning was used to prove intended meanings behind default readings. Intended meanings were treated as interpretation biases when a majority of speakers read a sentence with the same intended meaning. The size of the majority was used to establish bias strength. In Experiment 2, 10 speakers were instructed to use prosody to disambiguate given alternate meanings of the sentences from Experiment 1. The results indicated an effect of bias strength on disambiguating prosody: speakers used temporal juncture cues to reliably disambiguate alternate meanings for sentences with a weak interpretation bias, but not for those with a strong bias. Overall, the results indicated that interpretation biases strongly affect the production of prosody.
A Comparative Study on the Effects of Age on the Vowel Formants of the Korean Corpus of Spontaneous Speech
Kim, Soonok ; Yoon, Kyuchul ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 65~72
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.065
The purpose of this study is to extract the first two vowel formant frequencies of the forty speakers from the Seoul corpus and to compare them by the age and sex. The results showed that the vowel formants showed similar patterns between male and female speakers. All the vowels in each age group and all the age groups in each vowel had main effects on either of the formant frequencies. Whereas in English, the vowel space of the older age group moved slightly to the upper right side relative to the younger group, the location of the vowel spaces of the Korean vowels were not as consistent.
Lexical Status and the Degree of /l/-darkening
Ahn, Miyeon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 73~78
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.073
This study explores the degree of velarization of English word-final /l/ (i.e., /l/-darkness) according to the lexical status. Lexical status is defined as whether a speech stimulus is considered as a word or a non-word. We examined the temporal and spectral properties of word-final /l/ in terms of the duration and the frequency difference of F2-F1 values by varying the immediate pre-liquid vowels. The result showed that both temporal and spectral properties were contrastive across all vowel contexts in the way of real words having shorter [l] duration and low F2-F1 values, compared to non-words. That is, /l/ is more heavily velarized in words than in non-words, which suggests that lexical status whether language users encode the speech signal as a word or not is deeply involved in their speech production.
Production and Perception of English Vowels by College Students Before and After Lessons
Yang, Byunggon ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 79~88
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.079
English vowels are difficult to teach and learn because both teachers and learners cannot show or see shapes of vocal tract inside their own mouth cavities. The aim of this study is to examine what kind of changes occur in production and perception of English vowels by college students before and after lessons in order to provide fundamental materials for teaching students English vowels. Fifteen volunteer female students attending an English phonetics course participated in the lessons for one and half a month period. Formant values of vowels produced and perceived before and after the lessons were obtained using Flying Popcorn and Praat. Results showed that a produced vowel space after the lessons was greater than that before the lessons with no significant difference. Distances between some adjacent corner vowels were too close to be distinguished. Secondly, perceived vowels before and after the lessons were almost the same. Here again, some adjacent vowels were closely spaced. Thirdly, three groups which were divided by the length of the distance between the vowel /i-
/ showed similar patterns in their perception and production. Generally the vowel space expanded from [u] to [
]. The author concluded that there was no drastic improvement of vowel perception and production within a short period of time. Further studies would be desirable to examine how successful any long-term English vowel lessons would be and which methods should be taken to evaluate students` achievements proposed here.
Prosodic aspects of structural ambiguous sentences in Korean produced by Japanese intermediate Korean learners
Yune, YoungSook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 89~97
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.089
The aim of this study is to investigate the prosodic aspects of structural ambiguous sentences in Korean produced by Japanese Korean learners and the influence of their first language prosody. Previous studies reported that structural ambiguous sentences in Korean are different especially in prosodic phrasing. So we examined whether Japanese Korean leaners can also distinguish, in production, between two types of structural ambiguous sentences on the basis of prosodic features. For this purpose 4 Korean native speakers and 8 Japanese Korean learners participated in the production test. Analysis materials are 6 sentences where a relative clause modify either NP1 or NP1+NP2. The results show that Korean native speakers produced ambiguous sentences by different prosodic structure depending on their semantic and syntactic structure (left branching or right branching sentence). Japanese speakers also show distinct prosodic structure for two types of ambiguous sentences in most cases, but they have more errors in producing left branching sentences than right branching sentences. In addition to that, interference of Japanese pitch accent in the production of Korean ambiguous sentences was observed.
L2 proficiency and effect of auditory source in processing L2 stops
Kong, Eun Jong ; Kang, Jieun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 99~105
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.099
The current study investigates whether Korean-speaking adults show differential sensitivities to the sources of auditory stimuli (L1 Korean and L2 English) in utilizing VOT and f0 in the perceptual mode of L2 stops, and how the L2 proficiency interacts with the learners` low-level phonetic sensitivities in L2 perceptual mode. 48 Korean learners of English participated in the perception experiments where they rated the goodness of English /t/ and /d/ using an analogue scale. Two sets of stimuli (English and Korean sources) were prepared by manipulating VOT (6-steps) and f0 (5-steps) values of productions by an English male (L2 source condition) and a Korean male (L1 source condition). Findings showed that, in judging /t/-likeness, the listeners responded differently to the two auditory stimulus conditions by relying on VOT significantly more in English source condition than in Korean source condition. The listeners` English proficiency did not interact with these differential sensitivities to the auditory stimulus source either along the VOT dimension or the f0 dimension. The results of the current study suggest that low-level contextual information of the auditory source can affect the learners in faithfully being in the L2 perceptual mode.
Research on English Word-final Alveolar Fricatives Produced by Native Speakers of English and Korean
Yun, Yungdo ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 107~115
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.107
In this paper English word-final /s/ and /z/ produced by English and Korean speakers were investigated. The durations and maximum intensities of these fricatives with those of their preceding vowels were compared. In the English speakers` productions, they relied on the ratio of the durations of them as well as the ratio of the maximum intensities of them. In their productions, the /s/ was long in duration and high in maximum intensity and its preceding vowel was short in duration whereas the /z/ was short in duration and low in maximum intensity and its preceding vowel was long in duration. However, the maximum intensities of the preceding vowels were not different in their productions. But in the Korean speakers` productions, they relied on neither the ratio of the durations of them nor the ratio of the maximum intensities of them. In their productions, the /s/ and the /z/ were not different in durations, but the duration of the preceding vowel of the /s/ was shorter than that of /z/, and the maximum intensities of the /s/ and /z/ as well as their preceding vowels were not different. Based on these results we can conclude that in distinguishing /CVs/ and /CVz/ words, English speakers used durations and intensities of the word-final fricatives in addition to durations of the vowels whereas Koreans used only durations of the vowels.
Segmental Interpretation of Suprasegmental Properties in Non-native Phoneme Perception
Kim, Miran ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 117~128
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.117
This paper investigates the acoustic-perceptual relation between Korean dent-alveolar fricatives and the English voiceless alveolar fricative /s/ in varied prosodic contexts (e.g., stress, accent, and word initial position). The denti-alveolar fricatives in Korean show a two-way distinction, which can be referred to as either plain (lenis) /s/ or fortis /
/. The English alveolar voiceless fricative /s/ that corresponds to the two Korean fricatives would be placed in a one-to-two non-native phoneme mapping situation when Korean listeners hear English /s/. This raises an interesting question of how the single fricative of English perceptually maps into the two-way distinction in Korean. This paper reports the acoustic-perceptual mapping pattern by investigating spectral properties of the English stimuli that are heard as either /s/ or /
/ by Korean listeners, in order to answer the two questions: first, how prosody influences fricatives acoustically, and second, how the resultant properties drive non-native listeners to interpret them as segmental features instead of as prosodic information. The results indicate that Korean listeners` responses change depending on the prosodic context in which the stimuli are placed. It implies that Korean speakers interpret some of the information provided by prosody as segmental one, and that the listeners take advantage of the information in their judgment of non-native phonemes.
L1-norm Regularization for State Vector Adaptation of Subspace Gaussian Mixture Model
Goo, Jahyun ; Kim, Younggwan ; Kim, Hoirin ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 131~138
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.131
In this paper, we propose L1-norm regularization for state vector adaptation of subspace Gaussian mixture model (SGMM). When you design a speaker adaptation system with GMM-HMM acoustic model, MAP is the most typical technique to be considered. However, in MAP adaptation procedure, large number of parameters should be updated simultaneously. We can adopt sparse adaptation such as L1-norm regularization or sparse MAP to cope with that, but the performance of sparse adaptation is not good as MAP adaptation. However, SGMM does not suffer a lot from sparse adaptation as GMM-HMM because each Gaussian mean vector in SGMM is defined as a weighted sum of basis vectors, which is much robust to the fluctuation of parameters. Since there are only a few adaptation techniques appropriate for SGMM, our proposed method could be powerful especially when the number of adaptation data is limited. Experimental results show that error reduction rate of the proposed method is better than the result of MAP adaptation of SGMM, even with small adaptation data.
Pronunciation Variation Patterns of Loanwords Produced by Korean and Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion Using Syllable-based Segmentation and Phonological Knowledge
Ryu, Hyuksu ; Na, Minsu ; Chung, Minhwa ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 139~149
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.139
This paper aims to analyze pronunciation variations of loanwords produced by Korean and improve the performance of pronunciation modeling of loanwords in Korean by using syllable-based segmentation and phonological knowledge. The loanword text corpus used for our experiment consists of 14.5k words extracted from the frequently used words in set-top box, music, and point-of-interest (POI) domains. At first, pronunciations of loanwords in Korean are obtained by manual transcriptions, which are used as target pronunciations. The target pronunciations are compared with the standard pronunciation using confusion matrices for analysis of pronunciation variation patterns of loanwords. Based on the confusion matrices, three salient pronunciation variations of loanwords are identified such as tensification of fricative [s] and derounding of rounded vowel [ɥi] and [
]. In addition, a syllable-based segmentation method considering phonological knowledge is proposed for loanword pronunciation modeling. Performance of the baseline and the proposed method is measured using phone error rate (PER)/word error rate (WER) and F-score at various context spans. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the baseline. We also observe that performance degrades when training and test sets come from different domains, which implies that loanword pronunciations are influenced by data domains. It is noteworthy that pronunciation modeling for loanwords is enhanced by reflecting phonological knowledge. The loanword pronunciation modeling in Korean proposed in this paper can be used for automatic speech recognition of application interface such as navigation systems and set-top boxes and for computer-assisted pronunciation training for Korean learners of English.
Analysis of Mobile Application Trends for Speech and Language Therapy of Children with Disabilities in Korea
Lee, Youngmee ; Lee, Soobok ; Sung, Minkyoung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 153~163
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.153
This study investigated the trends of mobile applications which were developed for prompting speech and language skills for children with disabilities, and analyzed the function and contents of these applications as a tool of speech and language therapy. For this analysis, twenty applications among 71 ones were selected according to the exclusion criteria. These applications were classified by the 8 using types of contents and analyzed the function of mobile applications by the revised mobile contents evaluation standard (ease of use, value of education, interest level, and interactivity). As a results, applications for augmentative and alternative communication were developed much more than any other types. And the ease of use got the highest score whereas the interest level got the lowest score in whole evaluation analysis. The result of this study would suggest way to evaluate applications for speech language therapy and to contribute to developing the contents and function of mobile applications aims to help children with disabilities improving their speech and language skills.
A comparison of phonological error patterns in the single word and spontaneous speech of children with speech sound disorders
Park, kayeon ; Kim, Soo-Jin ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 165~173
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.165
This study was aim to compare the phonological error patterns and PCC(Percentage of Correct Consonants) derived from the single word and spontaneous speech contexts of the speech sound disorders with unknown origin(SSD). The present study suggest that the development phonological error patterns and non-developmental error patterns of the target children, in according to speech context. The subjects were 15 children with SSD up to the age of 5 from 3 years of age. This research use 37 words of APAC(Assessment of Phonology & Articulation for Children) in the single word context and 100 eojeol in the spontaneous speech context. There was no difference of PCC between the single word and the spontaneous speech contexts. Significantly different developmental phonological error patterns between the single word and the spontaneous speech contexts were syllable deletion, word-medial onset deletion, liquid deletion, gliding, affrication, fricative other error, tensing, regressive assimilation. Significantly different non-developmental phonological error patterns were backing, addtion of phoneme, aspirating. The study showed that there was no difference of PCC between elicited single word and spontaneous conversational context. And there were some different phonological error patterns derived from the two contexts of the speech sound disorders. The more important interventions target is the error patterns of the spontaneous speech contexts for the immediate generalization and rising overall intelligibility.
Phonological variability with consonant inventory size in late-talkers and normal children
Kim, Hyejin ; Lee, Ran ; Lee, Eunju ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 175~181
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.175
This study aims to compare the differences between `consonant inventory size` and `phonological variability` in order to examine the phonological development and characteristics of the late-talkers and typically developing expressive language agematched children and to consider the correlations between them. The study participants included fifteen late-talkers and fifteen typically developing expressive language age-matched children(TED group). The results are as follows. First, as regards consonant inventory size, there was a significant difference between late-talkers and TED group. The late-talkers` consonant inventory size was less than TED group. Second, as regards phonological variability, there was a significant difference between late-talkers and TED group. The late-talkers` phonological variability was higher than TED group. Third, in the case of late-talkers, there was no significant correlation between consonant inventory size and phonological variability; however in the case of TED group, there was a significant negative correlation between consonant inventory size and phonological variability. Therefore, phonological ability should be considered in evaluation and intervention of late-talkers.
Effects of SKLCT
for Voice Improvement in Patients with Presbyphonia
Kim, Seong-Tae ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 7, issue 3, 2015, Pages 183~191
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2015.7.3.183
This study evaluated the effect of the therapeutic methods between vocal function exercise(VFE), which has been used for the patients with presbyphonia in the precedent studies and laryngeal calibration technique(
), which is designed by the author. We identified 58 patients who was been diagnosed as presbylaryngis by laryngoscopic examinations. 21 patients were underwent voice therapy using
, 20 patients were taken VFE, and the control group of 17 patients were not taken any voice therapy. All subjects received the therapy, ranging from seven to nine sessions, and were evaluated the voice change on pretherapy and posttherapy. The grade of hoarseness, roughness, and breathiness voice were reduced on perceptual judgments after
, but only grade of hoarseness was reduced after the VFE. Jitter, Shimmer, NHR were reduced and MPT were increased after the
(p<.05), while Jitter and SFF were reduced after the VFE. Frequency and intensity range were increased significantly on the posttest performance after taking voice therapy by the
, on the other hand only intensity range was increased after VFE. Especially, we can find the significant change that glottic gap and supraglottic compressions was reduced in most of patients after the
, but there`s no changes in the group of VFE and control group. In the study, we can suggest that the
may be useful in improving the voice qualities and laryngeal function of presbyphonia.