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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Speech Sciences
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Volume & Issues
Volume 8, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 8, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
Selecting the target year
Characteristics of the Korean speakers' voice under easy Korean, difficult Korean and English reading situations
Kim, Ji-Eun ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 8, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2016.8.1.001
The purpose of this study is to know the acoustic characteristics of voice under stressful and relaxed conditions. Ten undergraduate male students participated in this study and produced 아, 에, 이 vowels in English reading, difficult Korean reading under stressful conditions, and easy Korean reading under relaxed conditions. After that, F0, jitter, shimmer, NHR, F1, F2, and F3 values were measured and analyzed. The results of this study demonstrate that speech parameters related to stress are jitter, shimmer, and NHR in that these values are lower under relaxed situations (easy Korean reading) than that of stressful situations (English and difficult Korean reading). This study will be a foundation to verify that the analysis of acoustic characteristics can serve as a quantitative tool for measuring stress levels.
A Study on the Voice Onset Times of the Buckeye Corpus Stops
Park, Soo Hee ; Yoon, Kyuchul ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 8, issue 1, 2016, Pages 9~17
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2016.8.1.009
The purpose of this work is to examine the voice onset times(VOTs) of the voiceless and voiced stops from the ten young male speakers of the Buckeye corpus. The factors that are known to affect VOTs were also extracted, including the place of articulation, height of following vowels, location within word, presence of a preceding [s], status of the target word with respect to the content versus function word, presence of a syllabic stress, word frequency and speech rate. Findings from this work mostly agreed with those from earlier studies on English, but with some exceptions and new discoveries. We hope that this work can contribute to figuring out the nature and properties of the spontaneous speech of English.
The identification of Korean vowels /o/ and /u/ by native English speakers
Oh, Eunhae ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 8, issue 1, 2016, Pages 19~24
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2016.8.1.019
The Korean high back vowels /o/ and /u/ have been reported to be in a state of near-merger especially among young female speakers. Along with cross-generational changes, the vowel position within a word has been reported to render different phonetic realization. The current study examines native English speakers' ability to attend to the phonetic cues that distinguish the two merging vowels and the positional effects (word-initial vs. word-final) on the identification accuracy. 28 two-syllable words containing /o/ or /u/ in either initial or final position were produced by native female Korean speakers. The CV part of each target word were excised and presented to six native English speakers. The results showed that although the identification accuracy was the lowest for /o/ in word- final position (41%), it increased up to 80% in word-initial position. The acoustic analyses of the target vowels showed that /o/ and /u/ were differentiated on the height dimension only in word-initial position, suggesting that English speakers may have perceived the distinctive F1 difference retained in the prominent position.
F0 as a primary cue for signaling word-initial stops of Seoul Korean
Byun, Hi-Gyung ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 8, issue 1, 2016, Pages 25~36
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2016.8.1.025
Previous studies showed that the voice onset time (VOT) of aspirated and lenis stops has been merged, and post-stop fundamental frequency (F0) has emerged as a primary cue to distinguish the two stops in the younger generation and female speech. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that VOT merger in aspirated and lenis stops occurs after an F0 difference between the two stops becomes stabilized. In other words, unless post-stop F0, which is a redundant feature, is fully developed, it is hard for VOT merger to happen. Females have got a stable F0 difference in stops earlier than males. Therefore, VOT merger could happen, and as a result, females could take the lead in changing from VOT to F0 in initial stops. This study also shows that speakers who acquired F0 as a primary cue use F0 to the full to distinguish lenis stops from two other stops (aspirated and fortis).
An acoustic and perceptual investigation of the vowel length contrast in Korean
Lee, Goun ; Shin, Dong-Jin ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 8, issue 1, 2016, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2016.8.1.037
The goal of the current study is to investigate how the sound change is reflected in production or in perception, and what the effect of lexical frequency is on the loss of sound contrasts. Specifically, the current study examined whether the vowel length contrasts are retained in Korean speakers' productions, and whether Korean listeners can distinguish vowel length minimal pairs in their perception. Two production experiments and two perception experiments investigated this. For production tests, twelve Korean native speakers in their 20s and 40s completed a read-aloud task as well as a map-task. The results showed that, regardless of their age group, all Korean speakers produced vowel length contrasts with a small but significant differences in the read-aloud test. Interestingly, the difference between long and short vowels has disappeared in the map task, indicating that the speech mode affects producing vowel length contrasts. For perception tests, thirty-three Korean listeners completed a discrimination and a forced-choice identification test. The results showed that Korean listeners still have a perceptual sensitivity to distinguish lexical meaning of the vowel length minimal pair. We also found that the identification accuracy was affected by the word frequency, showing a higher identification accuracy in high- and mid- frequency words than low frequency words. Taken together, the current study demonstrated that the speech mode (read-aloud vs. spontaneous) affects the production of the sound undergoing a language change; and word frequency affects the sound change in speech perception.
Patterns of consonant deletion in the word-internal onset position: Evidence from spontaneous Seoul Korean speech
Kim, Jungsun ; Yun, Weonhee ; Kang, Ducksoo ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 8, issue 1, 2016, Pages 45~51
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2016.8.1.045
This study examined the deletion of onset consonant in the word-internal structure in spontaneous Seoul Korean speech. It used the dataset of speakers in their 20s extracted from the Korean Corpus of Spontaneous Speech (Yun et al., 2015). The proportion of deletion of word-internal onset consonants was analyzed using the linear mixed-effects regression model. The factors that promoted the deletion of onsets were primarily the types of consonants and their phonetic contexts. The results showed that onset deletion was more likely to occur for a lenis velar stop [k] than the other consonants, and in the phonetic contexts, when the preceding vowel was a low central vowel [a]. Moreover, some speakers tended to more frequently delete onset consonants (e.g., [k] and [n]) than other speakers, which reflected individual differences. This study implies that word-internal onsets undergo a process of gradient reduction within individuals' articulatory strategies.
Chinese KFL learners' production aspects of post-lexical phonological process in Korean - Focusing on the nasalization -
Yune, Youngsook ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 8, issue 1, 2016, Pages 53~62
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2016.8.1.053
In this study, we examined whether Chinese learners of Korean can correctly produce the phonological process on the lexical and post-lexical level. For this purpose 4 Korean native speakers and 10 advanced and 10 intermediate Chinese learners of Korean participated in the production test. The materials analyzed constituted 10 Korean sentences in which nasalization can be applied on the syllable boundary, word boundary(w-boundary) as well as accentual phrase boundary(AP-boundary). The results show that for Korean speakers, nasalization was applied 100% at all level whereas for Chinese speakers, the rate of application of nasalization is different according to prosodic constituents and Korean proficiency. Nasalization was more frequently applied at the lexical level than the post-lexical level, and it is more frequent in the w-boundary conditions than in the AP-boundary conditions. However, the rate of nasalization in the w-boundary is close to the lexical level. The pronunciation errors were committed either as non application of nasalization or coda obstruent ommission. In the case of non application of nasalization, Chinese learners of Korean produced the target syllables as underling forms, which were not transformed as surface forms. In addition, we can observe the ommission of coda obstruents in 'lenis obstruents+nasal sound' sequences. As a result, nasalization is blocked by this omission.
Speech perception difficulties and their associated cognitive functions in older adults
Lee, Soo Jung ; Kim, HyangHee ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 8, issue 1, 2016, Pages 63~69
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2016.8.1.063
The aims of the present study are two-fold: 1) to explore differences on speech perception between younger and older adults according to noise conditions; and 2) to investigate which cognitive domains are correlated with speech perception. Data were acquired from 15 younger adults and 15 older adults. Sentence recognition test was conducted in four noise conditions(i.e., in-quiet, +5 dB SNR, 0 dB SNR, -5 dB SNR). All participants completed auditory and cognitive assessment. Upon controlling for hearing thresholds, the older group revealed significantly poorer performance compared to the younger adults only under the high noise condition at -5 dB SNR. For older group, performance on Seoul Verbal Learning Test(immediate recall) was significantly correlated with speech perception performance, upon controlling for hearing thresholds. In older adults, working memory and verbal short-term memory are the best predictors of speech-in-noise perception. The current study suggests that consideration of cognitive function for older adults in speech perception assessment is necessary due to its adverse effect on speech perception under background noise.
Effects of auditory and visual presentation on phonemic awareness in 5- to 6- year-old children
Kim, Myung-Heon ; Ha, Ji-Wan ;
Phonetics and Speech Sciences, volume 8, issue 1, 2016, Pages 71~80
DOI : 10.13064/KSSS.2016.8.1.071
The phonemic awareness tasks (phonemic synthesis, phonemic elision, phonemic segmentation) by auditory presentation and visual presentation were conducted to 40 children who are 5 and 6 years old. The scores and error types in the sub-tasks by two presentations were compared to each other. Also, the correlation between the performances of phonemic awareness sub-tasks in two presentation conditions were examined. As a result, 6-year-old group showed significantly higher phonemic awareness scores than 5-year-old group. Both group showed significantly higher scores in visual presentation than auditory presentation. While the performance under the visual presentation was significantly lower especially in the segmentation than the other two tasks, there was no significant difference among sub-tasks under the auditory presentation. 5-year-old group showed significantly more 'no response' errors than 6-year-old group and 6-year-old group showed significantly more 'phoneme substitution' and 'phoneme omission' errors than 5-year-old group. Significantly more 'phoneme omission' errors were observed in the segmentation than the elision task, and significantly more 'phoneme addition' errors were observed in elision than the synthesis task. Lastly, there are positive correlations in auditory and visual synthesis tasks, auditory and visual elision tasks, and auditory and visual segmentation tasks. Summarizing the results, children tend to depend on orthographic knowledge when acquiring the initial phonemic awareness. Therefore, the result of this research would support the position that the orthographic knowledge affects the improvement of phonemic awareness.