Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean journal of applied entomology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 1977
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 1977
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 1977
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 1977
Selecting the target year
Relationship Between Susceptibility to Pythium Seedling Blight and Pea Seed Exudates
Ohh Seung Hwan ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 193~197
Seeds of pea cultivars susceptible to damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum produced sugars intheir exudates in half the time required for resistant cultivars. Also, the amount of reducing sugars was much greater in seed exudates of susceptible than resistant cultivars. Raffinose, melibiose, sucrose, glucose, and fructose (but not maltose, xylose or ribose) were identified in both resistant and susceptible cultivars; however, more glucose and sucrose were detected in seeds from susceptible than from resistant cultivars. Pythium ultimum grew more profusely around seeds from, and in exudates of, susceptible than resistant cultivars.
Activities of the Hydrolytic Enzymes Produced by Plant Pathogenic Fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia Sclerotinia and Sclerotiorum, and Helminthosporium sigmoideum var. irregulare
Cho B. H. ; Kim K. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 199~208
Activities of various hydrolytic enzymes produced by three plant pathogenic fungi, Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lieb.) deBary and Helminthosporium sigmoideum var. irregulare Crallery et Tullius, were measured. Activties and amounts of the enzymes in mycelia, cultural filtrates, and sclerotia(except of sclerotia of H. sigmoideum var. irregulare) were estimated at various pH levels in order to find out optimal pH for their enzymatic activities. Enzymes such as cellulase (ex), invertase, xylanase,
, polymethylgalacturonase, polygalacturonase, phosphatase and protease were estimated. Culture solution for production of enzymes was prepared by adding of 10g, D-glucose, 1.3g
into 1 liter of potato decoction plus 2ml of micro element solution consisting of 0.2mg. Fe, 0.2mg Zn, and 0.1mg Mn as the sulphates into 1 liter of distilled water. All tested mycelia and cultural filtrates were obtained from the cultures incubarted in previous solution for ten days at
, and sclerotia were harvested from PDA plates of 3. days old, The crude enzyme solutions were prepared according to the method of Miyazaki etal. Ten days after incubation, activities of Cx produced by Scl. sclerotiorum were higher than those of the other fung and each of Cx from three fungi showed different pH optima, such as S. rolfsii and Scl. schlerotiorum in acid side (around pH 3.0), H. sigmoideum var. irregulare in neutral side (around pH 6.3). Invertase activities of S. rolfsii were 20 times higher than those of the other fungi in all samples. All tested fungi, however, showed no significant difference between the enzymatic activities of their cultural filtrate and mycelia and the activities in sclerotia of S. rolfsii and Scl. sclerotiorum were hardly recognized. There were multiple peaks on the xylanase activity curves of three fungi in terms of pH values. High activities of the xylanase were revealed in sclerotia of S. rolfsii and Scl. sclerotiorum, and in mycelia of H. sigmoideum var. irregulare. The highest activities of
were shown both in mycelia and cultural filtrate of H. sigmoideum var. irregulae among the tested fungi, and their optimal pH was 6.2 in both mycelia and cultural filtrate. In the S. rofsii and Sel. sclerotiorum, however, the activities of cultural filtrates were higher than those of the other fungi, and optimal pH was 3.0 and 6.2 for cultural filtrate and both mycelia and sclerotia, respectively. Activities of PMG were high in cultural filtrates of all tested fungi, especially in Scl. sclerotiorum and H. sigmoideum var. irregulare. Mycelia of themalso showed the considerable activities. Optimal pH for enzymatic activities were variable with thekind of fungi or with the samples measured. The highest activities of PG were presented by mycelia of S. rolfsii and Scl. sclerotiorum.
, respectively. Optimal pH for activity of PG in mycelia was around 4.5 in S. rolfsii and around 3.0 in Scl. sclerotiorum. Phosphatase of S. rolfsii and Scl. sclerotiorum was more active in acid side (optimal PH3. 5) and that of H. sigmoideum var. irregulare showed one peak each in acid, neutral and alkaline side. But the highest peak was at pH 9.5. Protease of all tested fungi was more active at pH 10.0, especially that of the cultural filtrate of H. sigmoideum var. irregualre.
New Disese of Wheat and Barley Caused by Fusarium (Calonectria) nivale in Korea
Sung J. M. ; Chung B. J. ; Snyder W. C. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 209~210
Early in the growing season of 1976, rain and cool weather favored the blighting of leaves of young plants of barley by Fusarium nivale. The fungus was recovered in culture from infected foliage, and the perithecia of Calonectria nivalis were demonstrated to be present as well as the Fusarium state. On 22 April 1976, in Suweon, plants pulled at random revealed stem lesions from which F. nivale was cultured. On S May 1976 near Kwangju. Perithecia were found embedded within leaf sheaths and blades of mature wheat and barley plants. It was evident in the 1976, 1977 season that Fusarium(Calonectria) nivale was common but unrecognized as an early season pathogen of barley in Korea. The probable source of primary inoculum was the infected refuse from the previous season's barlry and wheat crops. Stem lesions caused by this fungus were considered to he detrimental to the maximum yield of barley or wheat,
Effects of Light and Media on Pycnidial Formation of Didymella bryoniae (Auersw.) Rehm
Lee D. H. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 211~215
The Sporulation of Didymella bryomiae were observed under diurnal cycles of light/darkness of near ultraviolet light (NUV) and artificial daylight (ADL) and continous darkness in eight isolates growing on PDA and V-8 juice agar. Light stimulated pycindial and perithecial formation of this fungus on potato dextrose agar and V-8 juice agar. Sprulation was poor in darkness, but some isolates were able to produce pycnidia and perithecia in the absence of light. Perithecial formation was much better under artificial daylight (ADL) on V-8 juice agar than those grown under near ultraviolet light (NUV). In general, cultures grown on V-8 juice agar sporulated better than cultures grown on PDA under three setsof light condition. Most of the pycnidiospores obtained from each isolates of this fungus grown on PDA were non-septate and microtype, but macrotype of non-septate and uniseptate pycnidiospores were produced on V-8 juice agar. Pycnidiospore produced on V-8 juice agar were similar to those produced on the radicle of naturally infected seeds. The appearance of perithecia were quite distinctive from pycnidia. The mature perithecia were darker than pycnidia and whitish spore masses formed on the ostiole of perithecia.
Root-zone Placement of Carbofuran for Control of Rice Insect Pests
Ryu J. K. ; Choi S. Y. ; Lee H. R. ; Song Y. H. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 217~220
During 1976 the effects of carbofuran placement in the root zone of the rice plants, the varieties Palkweng and Yushin, were evaluated for control of common rice pests in the paddy field at the Honam Crops Experiment Station. The methods of insecticide placement included the use of capsule formulation and liquid injection by the root-zone liquid insecticide injector designed at the International Rice Research Institute. The single ro~t-zone application of carbofuran at 2 days after transplanting was compared with two and fcur broadcast applications of carbofuran and diazinon. Capsules were the most. effective in controlling the striped rice borer (Chilo suppressalis), small brown plant-hopper (Laodelphax striatellus), green rice leafhopper (Nephotettix cincticeps) and stripe virus disease which is transmitted by the small brown planthopper. However, one injector application of carbofuran was equal or better the broadcast applications. Their control effectiveness were more significant on Palkweng susceptible to common rice pests than on Yushin resistant to the stripe virus disease.
Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticide, in the Presence of Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs) I. Florisil Column Separation of the Pesticides-PCBs Mixture
Park C. K. ; Lee C. Y. ; Park R. D. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 221~227
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) interfere with gas chromatographic analysis of multiple organochlorine pesticide residues. In the present work, existing Florisil column chromatographic method has been modified as to improve separation of organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites from PCBs. It was amply demonstrated that separation of
Heptachlor epoxide Dieldrin, p.p-DDD, p.p'-DDT from PCBs such as Aroclor 1254 is complete and recovery of the pesticides is found quantitative. Aldrin and Heptachlor in the Aroclor eluant can be separately analyzed by comparison of the chromatographic pattern of standard Aroclor 1254 with that of Aroclor 1254 a dmixed with the two pesticides. The Florsil column technique can be utilized in the routine evaluation of the organochlorine pesticide residues by gas chromatography.
Studies on the Chemical Resistance of Phytopathogenic Bacteria II. Selective Effect of Chemical Resistance on the Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae (Uyeda et Ishiyama) Dowson, to Agrepto
Cho W. C. ; Shim J. W. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 229~234
The experiments were carried out to investigate the selection effects on the drug resistance to Agrepto in Xanthomonas oryzae, the causal bacteria of rice bacterial leaf blight. The results obtained were as follows. 1, The Agrepto was stable at the heat treatment of
for 20 minutes, when the drug was added in the media. 2. The local isolates of the bacteria, 75-6 and 75-9, showed the different resistante reaction, when they were selected by the Agrepto contained media which concentrations of 10r9/m1 and 100ug/ml. 3. The individuals shelving high degree of resistance, which can grow on the media contained 10,000ug/m1 of Agrepto, could selected by the concentrations as low as 10ug/ml and 100ug/m1, in one generation. 4. The highly resistant isolates which selected by 3-stepwise selections such as 100ug/ml, 3,000ug/ml and 10,000/ml plots, showed nearly normal growth at the media contained 100ug/ml of Agrepto 5. When the isolate 75-9 was selected at the 100ug/m1 of concentration, showed various degrees of resistance, indicating that the isolate may be composed of resistance groups that lower than 500ug/ml, between 500-1,000ug/ml and 1,000-3,000ug/ml, to the Agrept.
Studies on the Chemical Resistance of Phytopathogenic Bacteria III. Some Variations on the Streptomycin Resistant Isolates of the Rice Bacterial Leaf Blight Pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae(Uyeda et Ishiyama) Dowson
Cho W. C. ; Shim J. W. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 235~239
The experiments were contucted to investigate the variability of pathogenesity, growth amount and UV-sensitibity on the streptomycin resistant isolate of the rice bacterial leaf blight pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae, which selected by the stepwise transfer in 100, 3,000 and 10,000 ug/ml Argepto contained media. And the results obtained were as follows. (1) The SM-resistant isolates were tested the pathogenesity on the differential variety of rice, wase-Aikoku-3, Rant Emas-2, Hwang ok, and Kimmase. And the SM resistant isolate, obtained from 75-6 isolate, showed the reaction of moderately resistant to the differential variety of Hwang ok instead of susceptible reaction with its parental isolate. (2) The growth amount of the SM-resistant isolate was slightly higher than that of parental isolate, on the normal media. And the growth was inhibited on the 100ug/ml Agrepto contained media until 60 hours after transfer, however, its growth exceeded than parental isolate in the normal media, after 70 hours of transfer. (3) It is considered that the resistance factor might be stable character, since the sensitivity to UV irradiation (with 254 mr wave length) of the resistant isolate was the same as that of its parental isolate.
Study on the Storage Diseases Control of Cold Damaged Mandarin
Bai D. H. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 241~244
Cold damaged mandarins caused by low temprature and snow at harvest season were very severe at Jeju in 1975, and the storage diseases were also unusually serious in connection with water rot. The control measures for these problems in citrus culture are not developed yet in Korea. For the control of fruit rot diseases in the storage, fungicide applications with the use of various containers are tested. Thiofernate (Topsin WP
, X 1, 200) treatments with wooden boxes and PVC containers were very effective, but for the practical and satisfactory solutions on the storage diseases control of citrus, Benlate and Sumicidin applications are also considered.
Survey on the Fruit Rot Occurrence and Damages of Shipping Mandarin
Bai D. H. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 16, issue 4, 1977, Pages 245~247
Penicillium digitatum SACCARD, P. italicum WEHMER, Botrytis cinerae PERSOON and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum MASSE. were the main storage diseases on the cold injured mandarin at Jeju in 1975. The losses observed through the materials used were
which consists of
by diseases and
by water rot as the result of cold and snow damages at harvest stage in Jeju. The total amount of damages estimated at shipping stage were 915M/T in value of 135 million Won from the rot waste of 675M/T by the end of 1975. Since cold injury is known as the main factor of the fruit rot, shipping and storage process as well as disease control measures are discussed.