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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean journal of applied entomology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Dec 1983
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 1983
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 1983
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 1983
Selecting the target year
Rust Diseases and their Causal Fungi
Hiratsuka Naohide ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 49~51
Biotypes of the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvara lugens (Stal)
Saxena R.C. ; Barrion A.A. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 52~66
The brown planthopper, N. lugens (Stal), has become a serious pest of rice in tropical Asia during the last decade. At high pest density, its feeding damage causes 'hopperburn' or complete wilting and drying of the rice plant. It also transmits grassy and ragged stunt virus diseases. The estimated losses caused by the pest in tropical Asia exceed
millions. While cultivation of resistant rice varieties has proved to be highly effective against the pest, their long-term stability is threatened because of the evolution of prolific biotypes which can destroy these varieties. At present, identification of biotypes is based principally on the differential reactions of host rice varieties to the pest and on host-mediated behavioral and physiological responses of the pest. Recent findings of morphological differences in adult rostrum, legs, and antennae, body parts that possess receptors for host plant location and discrimination, and cytological differences in N. lugens populations maintained as stock cultures strongly complement other biotype studies. So far, three N. lugens biotypes have been identified in the Philippines. Biotype I can survive on and damage varieties that do not carry and genes for resistance, while Biotype 2 survives on resistant varieties carrying Bph 1 gene and Biotype 3 on varieties carrying gene bph 2. However, none of these biotypes can survive on varieties with genes Bph 3 or bph 4. Several varieties which are resistant in the Philippines are susceptible in India and Sri Lanka as the South Asian biotypes of N. lugens are more virulent than Southeast Asian biotypes. To monitor the pest biotypes in different geographical regions and to identify new sources of resistance, an International Brown Planthopper Nursery has been established in many cooperating countries. The evolution of biotypes is an exceedingly complex process which is governed by the interactions of genetic and biological factors of the pest populations and the genetic makeup of the cultivated varieties. While the strategy for sequential release of varieties with major resistance genes has been fairly successful so far, the monegenic resistance of these varieties makes them vulnerable to the development of the pest biotypes. Therefore, present breeding endeavors envisage utilizing both major and minor resistance genes for effective control of the pest.
Microbiological Control of Insect Pests
Kawase Shigemi ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 67~73
Despite the great importance of chemical insecticides, with the ever increasing resistance of pest insects to chemical insecticides and the growing concern over environmental pollution, it becomes evident that the problem of pest attack on crops cannot be solved by anyone system. Under these circumstances, main pathogens of insects, i.e., viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, have been studied to control many insect pests. Some of these pathogens are now being produced as microbial insecticides at the rate of hundreds of tons per year in the world. Some microbial insecticides are very effective against numerous or target insects under suitable environmental condition, and microbial control has been played an important role in integrated control program. They have many unique properties such as selectivity, multiplication and harmless to higher animals. However, we must be aware also that there are many problems to be solved, such as safety, persistence and difficulty of efficacy, etc_ on the microbial insecticides.
Rice Breeding for the Resistance to the Disease and Insect Pests
Heu M. H. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 74~83
Yield losses due to diseases and insect pests were mentioned and emphasized the efficiency of resistant cultivars in curving the yield losses and increasing chemical efficiency. Present status of resistance breeding for blast, bacterial leaf blight viruses, brown planthopper and white backed planthopper were introduced and the resistance sources for those are discussed. Breeding strategies for above items were presented. Specially for the blast resistance, discussions were made in some detail. With brief future prospects of resistance breeding in Korea, a suggestion was made for pathologists to make clear about whether the blast spores will be brought from mainland China as we see with Bph and Wbph or not.
Feasibility of New Pesticide Development in Korea
Park Young-Sun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 84~97
Under the limited arable land, the enhancement of agricultural productivity is indispensable to provide the food demand which is concomitant with the rapid increase in population. From this viewpoint, the upbringing and dissemination of high-yielding varieties has been promoted continuously and several modifications in cultural practices, including heavy fertilization, dense planting, and early transplanting, also have been gradually developed. However these changes in cultivation have led to the increased outbreak of insect pests and diseases. And this unexpected results have accelerated the number and complexity of pesticides employed as well as their consumption. Even though pesticides are essential materials contributing to the steady production of agricultural crops, large scale consumption of them has given rise to several adverse impacts, such as mammalian hazard and/or environmental contamination. In this respect, recent development of new pesticides has been concentrated on 'safe pesticide', as it were, that has the highly selective properties without unfavorable side influences on other ecosystem. According to literature cited up to now, feasibilities of safe pesticide development would be summarized as two categories. One of them is the development of chemical pesticides, which include the molecular structure modification of established pesticides for increased safety and synthesis of new safe chemicals which can attack the vulnerable point of physio-ecological characteristics in insect pests and diseases. The other is the biological pesticides which comprise natural enemies and microorganisms to act selectively on confined insect pests and diseases, In addition, improvement of physico-chemical properties of available pesticide formulations would be one of the desirable means for safe pesticide development in view of efficacy enhancement and minimization of hazardous properties or safe pesticide development, various approaches are feasible and needed to study, however, long period and much financial outlay are necessary to develop a new item. And under the present situation in Korea, there are many difficulties for performing research on all the possible routes. Therefore, combined pesticides by the reasonable combination of already registered resticides evaluated as the fairly safe pesticides and safe formulation based on their physico-chemical properties would be developed primarily. And many efforts would be given gradually for the development of new chemical and biological pesticides.
Insect Pest Resistance to Insecticides and Future Researches
Choi Seung Yoon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 98~105
The rapid increase in cases of insect resistance to insecticides indicates that the contribution of present chemical control practices inevitably leads to exhaustion of available insecticide resources against key insect species. Now the problem of insecticide resistance exists worldwide among insects and mites affecting field crops and animals including human beings, ranging from minimal or absent in some developing countries, where use of insecticides has been low, to extremely severe in many developed countries. Since the occurrence of insect resistance to insecticides was firstly recognized in 1908, the increase in recent decades has been almost linear and now the number of species of insects and acarines in which resistant strains have evolved have been increased to a total of 432. Of these,
are agricultural importance and
of medical/veterinary importance. The phenomenon of insecticide resistance is asserting itself as the greatest challenge to effective chemical control of many important insect pests. Resistance of insects to insecticides has a history of nearly 80 years, but its greatest increase and its strongest impact have occurred during the last 40 years following the discovery and extensive use of synthetic organic insecticides and acaricides. The impact of resistance should be considered not only in terms of greater cost of pest control due to increased dosages and number of applications but also in terms of the ecological disruption of pest-beneficial species density relationships, the loss of investment in the development of the insecticides concerned, and socio-economic disruption in agricultural communities. Despite its grave economic consequences, the phenomenon of insecticide resistance has received surprisingly little attention in Korea. Since the study of insecticides started firstly in 1963, many entomologists have been concerned with this study. According to their results, some of the rice pests and some of the mites on orchard trees, for example, have developed worrisome level of resistance in several areas of this peninsula. With many arthropods, considerable advances in the developed countries have been made in the study of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms of resistance. Progress involves the biochemical characteristics of specific defense mechanisms, their genetics, interactions, and their quantitative and qualitative contribution to resistance. But their studies arc still inadequately known and relatively little have been contributed in terms of unique schemes of population management in achieving satisfactory pest control. It is apparent that there is no easy solution to resistance as a general phenomenon. For future challenging to effective control of insect pests which are resistant to the insecticides concerned, new insecticide groups with distinctly novel mode of action are urgently needed. It is clear, however, that a great understanding of the factors which govern the intensity of selection of field population for resistance could lead to far more permanently successive use of chemicals within the framework of integrated pest management than heretofore practiced.
Discussions on Pesticides Management and Marketing in Korea
Bai Daihan H. ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 106~129
An emphasized analysis and reviews on the progress of pesticide managements for the past 10 years through the statistics in Korea are summarized in this continued studies in connection with the fundmental aspects and direction of advanced pesticide industry and improved plantprotection policies for 1980's. Remarkable development and changes are observed in the plant species and varieties, plantation practices and production techniques as well as pest infestations and controls in the last decade, but no normal achievement and operations are recognised on the pesticide management and marketing system especially. Realistic plant protection adminstration and pesticide regulations in accordance to the industrial modernization and pest management advancement must be adjusted in accordance with national economic progress and desirable agricultural structure for 1980's. Special considerations are stated on the strengthening of research and inspection program for the quality products and control with the efficacy and safety use of pesticides. More serious attentions are noted on the over production and flooded stocks under struggled market demands and sales competitions with lethal financial difficulties by producers. Through the status analyzed for the last decade, the integrated past management and cooperative basic control pattern under positive self-forecasting system by farmers are also urged for the effective and economic pest control measures. The problems and solutions discussed here ell the advanced pesticide management as well as the cooperation on the self-ordered quality control and market managing systems in 1980's as it is a desired projection for the further improvement. Most of outstanding and necessary statistics and data in the past decade are also summarized here for references in connection with the previous report.
Present Status and Problems of Chemical Seed Treatment of Seedborne Diseases
Lee Du Hyung ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 130~137
A wide variety of pathogens are known io be seedborne, carried either as infectious mycelium internally or as contaminants on the seed coat. When seed is infected with a pathogen, the seed nay be rendered nonviable or it may remain viable but produce weak seedling. In some cases, the Infected seedling nay not be severely weakened, but nay serve as a source of primary inoculum within a community of plants. A recent problem nay be the dissemination of seedborne pathogens occurring as a result of the massive movements of seed, as a part of the 'Green revolution' Disease of great danger to agriculture may be introduced with seed from other parts of world. Seed treatment with organic mercury compounds in liquid form had become popular since about 1955. Organic mercury compounds contributed considerably to the increase in production of many crops and vegetables. In 1975, however, the use of organic mercury compound was forbidden because of doubts regarding their residual mammalian toxicity in agricultural products. Benomyl-thiram mixture, thiophanate methyl-;hiram mixture and TCMB have now been registered as seed disinfectants for the use of rice blast, brown spot and Bakanae disease. Oxathiinsthiram mixture has been registered as seed disinfectant for barley and wheat loose smut and leaf stripe of barley. Agricultural techniques have made such rapid progress that the nursery methods changed from the use of paddy nursery to box nursery designed for machine-transplanting. The spread of rice transplanting machines has caused increase of seedborne diseases. Among seedborne diseases, Bakanae disease has remarkably increased and causes much damage recently. In order to counter this trend, seed disinfectants must also be diversified. First, effective non-selective disinfectants need to be developed, and second, appropriate control methods always need to be prepared in parallel with the development of new techniques for cultivation.
Problems on Pesticide Safe-Use and Their Counter-Measures
Han Ki-Hak ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 138~146
With the increase of pesticide consumption, not only pesticide handling population would grow greater but also the chances to be exposed to the pesticides would be also increased. Thus, safe use and handling of the pesticides are becoming more important and serious in these days. The pesticides are well known to most pepole, however there are very limited number of persons who have correct understanding of chamicals. Intoxication cases caused by pesticides have been reported very rarely through the mess media, even they were lack of scientific evidences. In this paper, problems related to pesticide manufacture, transportation, storage, sprays, and residues and their countermeasures were discussed in connection with public health and enviromental aspects. Acute intoxication cases by pesticide handling might be caused accidently either through manufacture, marketing, transportation, or spraying. Safety aspects of workers in manufacturing plants include not only exposure to toxic chemicals, but also posibilities of of explosion and brought about by pesticides and their diluents. The problems of water pollution by waste chemicals from the manufacturing factories were discussed. Packing and loading methods of pesticides for transportation are considered in safety scheme and discussions are given in association with traffic accidents. With regard to warehouse, the pesticide storage, location structure, keepers, and standing materials for emergency are concerned with safety aspects. Concerning the spraying of chemicals, there are some problems to be discussed about clothes, spray equipment, wind direction, spray period, and spray workers condition. After the spray, treatment of used containers, remainder of Pesticides, and spray tools are also discussed. For the dissolutions of problems on public health and environmental danger arising from pesticide residues, there are two legal sanctions; 'Pesticide Tolerances' and 'Pesticide Safe Use Standards'. These regulations are legally effective, however, some problems still remain in practices to implement the acts properly, because these provisions are followed by the far mers mostly. With these regards, most problems are concerned with various sectors and persons, affecting public health and environment from the producers to the end users and consumers. As a whole persons concerned with pesticides, every possible effort has to be assembled to protect hazards from the chemicals. For the foremost place, special training and education are required for managing groups; such as factory managers and agricultural extension workers who are responsible for training the factory workers and farmers. The education is the only way to solve the hazard problems caused by the pesticides.
A New Approach for Practical Classification of Herbicide and for Effective Use by Two-dimensional Ordination Analysis
Kim Soon Chul ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 147~159
In general, herbicides have been classified according to selectivity, mobility. time of application, methods of application, mode of action and chemical property and structure. However, there was no generally accepted classification system for practical use in the field. The primary processes affected by the majority of herbicides are the growth process through cell elongation and/or cell division, the photosynthetic process specifically the light reaction, the oxidative phosphorylation and the integrity of the membrane systems. The usual approach in the study of the mechanism by which herbicides kill or inhibit the growth of plants is to initially determine the morphological phototoxicity systems, The mechanism by which a herbicide kills a plant or suppresses its development is actually the resultant effect of primary and secondary(or side) effects. In most instances, the death of the plant is due to the secondary effects. To induce the desired response, a herbicide must be able to gain entry into the plants and once inside, to be transported within the plant to its site(s) of activity in concentrations great enough. Obstacles to the entry and movement of herbicides in plants are generally classified by leaf and soil obstacles, translocation obstacles and biochemical obstacles, and these obstacles are also strongly influenced by plant species and by environmental factors such as light, temperature, rainfall and relative humidity. And hence, in most instances, results obtained from laboratory or greenhous vary from those of field experiment. Author attempted to classify herbicides from the field experiment using the two-dimensional ordination analysis to obtain practical information for selecting effective herbicides or to choose effective herbicide combinations for increasing herbicidal efficacy or reducing the chemical cost. Based on this two-dimensional diagram, desired herbicides or combinations were selected and further investigated for the interaction effects whether these combinations are synergistic, additive or antagonistic. From the results, it was concluded that these new approach could possibly be give more comprehensive informations about effective use of herbicide than any other systems.
Past and Recent Situations and Prospect of the Development of Pesticides in Japan with Special References to the Prevention of Pollution
Ishikura Hidetsugu ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 22, issue 2, 1983, Pages 160~170