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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of applied entomology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Dec 1992
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Sep 1992
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Jun 1992
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Mar 1992
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Lipid and Carbohydrate Contents in the Adult Hemolymph during Flight of the Oriental Tobacco Budworm (Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee))
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 329~337
Studies were carried out to investigate changes of lipid and carbohydrate contents in the hemolymph of the Oriental tobacco budworm(Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee» adults during flight and hormonal effects on mobilization of energy sources in the hemolymph. During a few minutes after flight, both sexes showed a rapid increase in lipid content and the high level was maintained for about 2 hours. But carbohydrate content in the hemolymph during flight showed almost no change but a slight increase seen during the first 10 min of flight in males only. Synthetic adipokinetic(Lom-AKH- n), hypertrehalosemic(Bld-HrTH) hormones and brain/ corpora cardiaca extract of H. assulta adult elevated lipid and carbohydrate contents in hemolymph and the effect was much more pronounced for lipid. These results suggested that lipid is a main fuel for flight activity and lipid mobilization is under the hormonal control. And this study showed that both adipokinetic and hypertrehalosemic factors may exist in H. assulta and these factors may have similar structures to those of Mas-AKH, Hez-HrTH, Lom-AKH- n or Pea-HrTH.
Resistance of Diamondback Moth(Plutella xylostella L.) against the Pyrethroids
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 338~344
This test has been carried out to clear the effectiveness of pyrethroid insecticides to the Diamond back moth, that was complained by a farmer. The results obtained are summarized as follows. Effectiveness of Pyrethroids to suceptable strain and the results of chemical anaysis on the ingredients of pyrethroikds were normal at recommended concentrations. The effect ualue of pyrethroid by which the blocks were only one time treated was 57-59%, whereas the blocks sprayed 4 consecutive times of pyrethroid didn't show any effectiveness as shown in larval increasing rate of 489-552%. Among the results of field test conducted from 1990 to 1991 at 7 area, Dae Gu area showed the highest Effectiveness as 95-98%. However, Pyong Taek area, showed the least effectiveness as 0% in effect value. The resistant population which was collected at Tae kwan Ryung area was resurrected susceptability as much as JMC, in case of Placing it in non-treatment environment, whereas the pupulation which was revealed to pyrethroids for 6 genetations showed as much as 341-544 times of resistance compared with JMC. The non-effectiveness of pyrethroids to Diamondback moth which was complainted by a certain farmer named Mr Ju, was clearly resulted by the development of insect resistance. In Korea, the resistance of Diamondback moth to pyrethroids has developed in some area, as well as the resistance of pyrethroids has developed according to the continuous use of Insecticides, and the susceptability resurrected by stopping the use of pyrethroids. The result from this test would suggest that the pyrethroid insecticides should be applied in turb with other insecticides.
Studies on the Distribution of Ants(Formicidae) in Korea(8) -Ant Fauna in 10 Islands, Chollanam-do-
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 345~359
To clarify the ants fauna in 10 islands, Chollanam-do, field survery was carried out from 1986 to 1991. As a result, 740 colonies were collected in 31 survey areas. These colonies were composed on 54 species belonging to the 30 genera of 4 subfamilies. Kyidris mutica Brown and Epitritus hexamerus Brown collected in Taehuksan Is. and Soan Is. respectively were recorded for the first time from Korea. The cluster analysis of faunal similarity using Nomura-Simpson's Coefficient(NSC) showed that the ant communities between the island were continuous in similarities.
Leaf Feeding Insects of Welsh Onion and Shallot, and Their Species Abundance Patterns
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 360~365
Leaf feeding insect species of welsh onion and shallot were surveyed, and their species abundances were analyzed by fitness test for lognomal disstribution. A total of 13 and 6 species were identified on welsh onion and shallot, respectively. The dominant species on welsh onion were Thrips tabacid, Acrolepiopsis sapporensis, Spodoptera exigua, and Liriomyza chinensis. Thrips tabacid was also identified as the major species on the shallot. The community dominance was high in welsh onion and shallot observed on 12 October, Suwon. The species abundance patterns of the two communities were well described by lognormal distribution(P> 0.50).
Chromosomal Variation among Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal), Biotypes in Korea
;R.C. Saxena;A.A. Barrion;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 366~370
Salient chromosomal variations during the first meiotic division in primary spermatocyLes of the three brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stal) , biotypes were observed. The meiotic index was highest in biotype 3 (58.6), followed by biotype 1 (39.4) and biotype 2 (23.6). Total chromosomal aberration including agmatoploidy, aneuploidy, loose pairings of sex chromosomes, and cytoplasmic shrinkage was found high in the order of biotype 1 (60.6%),2 (47.9 %), and 3 (38.1 %). However, percent agmatoploidy was highest in biotype 2 (19.6%) whereas in biotypes 3 and 1, it was 9.5% and 2.5%, respectively. The number of cells with isolated sex chrosomomes was observed highest in biotype 2.
Ecdysteroid Titer during Metamorphosis and the Effect of Ecdysteroid on Oocyte Develoment on Phormia regina
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 371~378
The ecdysteroid titers of representive developmental stages of the blackblow fly, Phormia regina, were determined by radioimmunoassay and the effect of ecdysteroid on the oocyte maturation was investigated. Prior to every molts ecdysteroid levels began to increase sharply, suggesting ecdysteroid was the major component for egg-larval, larval-larval, and larval-pupal transformation. A difference in the levels of ecdysteroid between male and female was ob¬served during adult life span. Following the protein meal, ecdysteroid in the females increased rapidly to a maximum at 96 hr of age when terminal oocyte fully matured. Effect of ecdysteroid on oocyte development was determined for control and ecdysone-treated female flies after the liver-feeding. The growth of oocyte in the flies treated by
g of ecdysone, along with the control flies, was not facilitated. When the flies treated by 5
g of ecdysone, however, duration of oocyte maturation was shorter than those of other two groups. This can be suggested that oocyte development in P. regina is due to the critical level of ecdysone.
Ginseng Damage by the African Mole Cricket, Gryllotalpa africana Palisot de Beauvois
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 379~385
Ginseng damage by the African mole cricket (GTyllotalpa africana Palisot de Beauvois) was investigated in the field and laboratory from 1984 to 1991. Ginseng damage by G. africana occurred mainly in the 2nd year ginseng fields during May and June (spring period), and the damage was not nearly recognized in September and October (fall period) when densities of G. africana adults were higher in the field. In the laboratory and field cage, damage of 2nd year ginseng considerably decreased during fall period, which had no relation to ginseng diameter, and 3rd year ginseng was not damaged at all. Soil hardness seemed to influence on ginseng damage by G. africana adults.
Bionomics, Host range & Analysis of Damage Aspects on the Black Pine Bast Scale, Matsucocus thunbergianae (Homoptera : Cocoidea), in the Coastal Area of Southwest Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 386~395
The black pine bast scale, Matsucoccus thunbergianae, causes severe damage to the black pines of southern coastal areas. It has one generation a year, coming out of the pine bark to mate a and lay eggs from early March to early May. Especially, its peak time is from late March to m mid-April. The host plants were found to be 7 species, Pinus thunbergii, P. strobus, P. taeda, P. b banksiana, P. massoniana, P. taiwannesis, and P. densiflora. The percentage of damaged black p pine by the age were 0.8% for I-year old ones, 3.7% for 4-6 years, 5.2% for 7-9 years, 9.3% f for 10-12 years, 8.1% for 13-15 years, 7.8% for 16-18 years, 6.7% for 19-21 years, 3.3% for 2 22-24 years, 1.9% for 25-27 years, and 1.1 % for 28 years. The highest rate of damage happened to 7 -20 years old trees, whereas the highest rate of damage upon branches happened to 6 6-7 years old ones. Finally, as far as the trunk is concerned, the damages proceeded from the m middle parts of the trunk, whose branches were alive up to the top. The rates of damage s spread in pure forest/mixed forest area were turned out to be 81.3/52.5% in Koheung, 80.3/ 5 58.1 % in Haenam, and 76.3/48.5% in Muan. That is, the damage rate was higher in the pure f forest areas than the mixed forest ones. The higher the density of trees beyond 20 trees per m 100
, the higher the damage rate was.
Nematodes Associated with Medicinal herbs
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 396~415
To investigate identification of species distribution state, population density of plant parasitic nematodes and damaged state by parasitism of nematodes with soil samples taken from major cultivating area of medicinal herbs in Kyungbuk districts are summarized as follow; total species belonging to genera in families were identified from 43 different medicinal herbs. The dominant nematode species on medicinal herbs was Meloidogyne hapla by 55.6% of field infection. Damaged state by parasitizm of Root-knot nematode, M. hapla, M. incognita are severed 15 medical plant except P. japonica, infected field were in 54.5~88.0%, and highered in population densities of 2nd larvae, Gall, Egg sac. Percentage of yield-decrease were 57.8% in A. gigas, 49.1% in P.japonica. Lighten effect of M. spp. by cropping system were lowered in population density in Rice+Paeony than Paeony+Paeony in paddy field, and also lowered in Sesame+Paeony or one year fallowing after harvest Paeony than Red pepper+Pseony, Paeony+Paeony in upland field.
Nematodes Associated with Forest Trees in Korea III. A New Species of Xiphinemella Loos, 1950, and Four Unrecorded Species of Xiphinema Cobb, 1913
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 416~426
A new species of Xiphinemella is described and illustrated from soil around the roots of larch in Korea. Xiphinemella maiensis n. sp. has stylet length of 63-68
, body length of 2.5-3.2 mm, and vulva position of 49-50%. It differs from X. esseri in more posteriorly positioned vulva (42-47% in X. esseri), shorter stylet (72-75
in X. esseri), and more anteriorly located guide ring (25-27 vs. 35-38
). It also differs from X. ornata in having longer body (1.94-2.32 mm in X. ornata) and shorter stylet (82-92
in X. ornata). A key to species of the genus is provided. Xiphnema brevicolle, X. diffusum, X. chambersi, and X. insigne are firstly recorded from Korea.
Nematodes Associated with Forest Trees in Korea IV. Distribution and Species of Nematodes Associated with Forest Trees
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 427~451
The nematodes associated with forest trees were surveyed in the National Parks and Mountains in Korea. A total of 73 species on 28 genera were identified from rhizosphere of 154 tree s species. Platycarya strobilacea, Ulmus davidiana and Acer ginnala were known to new host p plants of Meloinema kerongens. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was detected only in Pusan on Pi
us t thunbergii, B. mucronatus was detected in Cheju, Masan, and Chinhae. Insect parasitic nemat todes, Prothallonema intermedium, on P. rigida in Daegu, P. thunbergii in Cheju city, Namwonu up, Gujoa-up and Aewol-up. The number of nematode species according to forest trees was t the highest on P. thunbergii to 32 species, followed by 24 species on Abies holophylla, 20 species on Zelkova serrata, 19 species on Diospyros kaki, 18 species on Quercus acutissima, respectively. L Localities of distribution according to nematode species were as follows; Crico
formis i in 81, X. americanum in 74, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni in 51, C. macrodora in 35, H Hemicriconemoides varionodus and Ogma serratum in 31, Pararotylenchus pini in 25, H Hemicycliophora koreana in 24, Aphelenchus avenae and C. pseudohercyniensis in 24, respectively.
Establishment of Bioassay System for Developing New Insecticides II. Differences in Susceptibilities of the Insect Species to Insecticides according to Different Application Methods
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 452~460
To establish the economical and reliable routine bioassay system for developing new insecticidal compounds, effects of leaf-dipping time, application methods, insect species and their developmental stages on susceptibilities of insects to insecticides were studied. The stable insecticidal activity appeared at the dipping time for 30-60 seconds in leaf-dipping method, and the most effective application methods were leaf-dipping method for apterous green peach aphid adults, and third instars of diamond-back moth and tobacco cutworm, whereas seedling+insect spray method for adults or third instars of brown planthoppers. For two-spotted spider mite, leaf-dipping or intact plant spray method was favorable. In the bioassay for chitin synthesis inhibitors, the inoculation of third instars of brown planthopper, diamond-back moth, tobacco cutworm and green peach aphid, and larvae of two-spotted spider mite to the young host plants treated by spray method were adequate bioassay methods.
Taxonomic Revision of the Genus Eupithecia (Lepidoptera : Gometridae : Larentiinae) from Korea(I)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 461~474
Fourteen species of the genus Eupithecia(Larentiinae) are included, with description of a new species; E. bicornuta sp. nov. and 9 newly reported species; E. clavifera Inoue, E. signigera But-ler, E. supercastigata Inoue, E. viidaleppi Vojnits, E. addictata Dietze, E. repentina Vojnits et Laever, E. antaggregata Inoue, E. consortaria Leech, and E. kamedai Inoue from Korea.
Effects of RH 5849, an Ecdysone Agonist, against Feeding and Growth of Tobacco Cutworm(spodoptera litura Fabricius)Larvae
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 475~479
The non-steroidal ecdysone agonist RH 5849 showed almost similar LC.o values( 18.1-26.5 ppm) at all stages of larval development of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura, when treated by a leaf-disk dipping method. The feeding-inhibition rate for the 4th instar larvae was dose-dependent, and simultaneously the weight gain of 3rd instar larvae ceased within 48 hour after feeding of the cabbage leafdisk dipped into RH 5849 4.2 ppm solution. The systemic larvicidal effect of RH 5849 was compared at cabbage and tobacco whole plant test. The
values below 20 ppm(mg/kg soil) was lasted for 15 days in cabbage, 30 days in tobacco respectively.
Susceptibility of Embryonic and Postembryonic Developmental Stages of Riptortus clavatus(Hemiptera : Alydidae) to Diflubenzuron
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 480~485
Laboratory studies were done to evaluate the effects of diflubenzuron on embryonic and postembryonic development of Riptortus clavatus Thunberg. Diflubenzuron prevented egg hatch; younger eggs(O-12 h old) were 2 times as susceptible as older(48-60 h old) eggs, but embryos of both younger and older eggs developed normally. Susceptibility of nymphs to diflubenzuron decreased with each successive molt. Compared with the first instar, relative tolerance to diflubenzuron was 1.5 times for the second instar, 18.2 times for the third instar, 39. 4 times for the fourth ins tar and 42.4 times for the fifth instar. Even as low concentrations, diflubenzuron prevented significant numbers of third instar nymphs from developing to fourth and fifth instar nymphs or adults. Weight, longevity and fecundity of adults surviving treatment in the final (fifth) instar were also adversely affected.
Aboveground Activities of Larger Black Chafer(Holotrichia morosa Waterhouse) and Korean Black Chafer (H. diomphalia Bates) Adults
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 486~491
The aboveground activities of the larger black chafer (Holotrichia morosa Waterhouse) and the Korean black chafer (H. diomphalia Bates) adults were investigated in the field and laboratory from 1991 through 1992. In a field cage, H. morosa adults emerged from the ground between 7 : 40-9 : 00 p.m. and H. diomphalia adults emerged between 7 : 30-10 : 00 p.m. After emergence, both females and males flied actively for less than one minute in H. morosa, while males flied inactively and females did not fly at all in H. diomphalia. Once emerged, adults of the two species mated or fed on plant leaves and seemed to stay aboveground till dawn. H. mOTOsa adults were attracted to a blacklight trap mainly between 8 : 10-10 : 00 p.m. in the field. H. morosa males and females emerged from soil every other day in a glass cistern.
Life Cycle of the Mirid Predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter, (Hemiptera: Miridae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 492~495
Life cycle of the mirid predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, was observed on the constant temper¬ature. Egg periods were 14.43, 9.33 and 6.94 days at
, respectively. Nymph periods were 24.3, 14.42, and 11.90 days at
, respectively and fe¬male longevity was 11.20, 11.93 and 11.87 days at above temperatures. Relationships between constant temperature and the developmental velocity of egg, nymph and egg-nymph were lin¬ear over temperatures tested. The calculated threshold temperatures of development were
in nymph and
in egg-nymph. Total effective day-degrees were 133.9 in egg, 235.8 in nymph and 368.0 in egg-nymph. Number of eggs laid was 26.0 and 22.4 at
Phytophagous Insect Fauna of Dicotyledoneae(Tracheophyta : Angiospermae) Weeds
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 496~508
Phytophagous insects associated with Dicotyledoneae weeds and host specificities in the field populations were investigated for the survey of biological control agents of weeds in Korea. Fifty four weed species in 39 genera were collected during the survey. The most insects were collected from Polygonales by 24 species in 22 genera and followed by Urticales and Centrospermales by 17 species of 17 genera. The insects collected in the other weed orders were ranged from 1 to 12 species. Out of 17 insect species collected in Urticales, Baris sp. damaged the leaves of Hamulus japonicus in Cannabinaceae as scattered holeshape and showed host specificity. In Polygonaceae, Rumex japonicus and R. crispus were severely damaged by Aphis rumicis and Gastrophysa atrocyanea. G. atrocyanea leaf beetle had host specificity on R. japonicus and ate all the leaves except veins. The leaf beetle, Lypesthes japonicus was a potential biological control agent by feeding leaves of Persicaria spp .. And Lixus spp. were also often collected from Persicaria spp .. Liothrips vaneeckei was first collected from weed, P. modosa. P. senticosa was damaged by unidentified geometrid moth larvae and P. perfoiliata by Miarus atricolor snout beetle. Cassida piperata damaged leaves of Chenopodium album of Centrospermales and showed host specificity. In a soybean field, C. album and Amaranthus mangostanus were severely damaged by Spodoptera litura larvae which were eating soybean leaves. This phenomenon indicates that the presence of weed in cultivated land influences the outbreak of insect pests. Altica oleracea leaf beetle was frequently collected from Oenothera spp. of Onagraceae in Myrtales. Aphis gossyphi was outbroken on Solanum nigrum and Phylliodes brettinghami leaf beetle was first recorded on the same plant. Leaf beetles, Longitarsus scutellais and Hemipyxis plagioderoides were first collected from Plantago asiatica of Plantaginaceae in Plantaginales. They showed host specificities in the fields. The hemipterans were collected from many weeds during the survey and their roles on weeds should be investigated. A tractomorpha bedeli was also collected from many kinds of weeds in forest areas.
Phytophagous Insects Associated with Composite(Campanulales : Dicotyledoneae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 509~515
Phytophagous insects were surveyed from field populations of Compositae weeds in the order Campanulales. Forty five insect species including unidentified ones of 43 genera in 5 orders and 17 families were recorded from 16 species in 12 genera of Compositae weeds. The hemipterans and coleopterans were the most abundant insects representing 13 and 13 species, repectively. Aphids and leaf beetles were important phytophagous insects on Compositae weeds. The potential biological control insects were Uromelan gobonis and Aethes cnicana on Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriensis and Cryptosiphum artemisiae on Artemisia lavandulaefolia. The leaf beetles, Chrysolina aurichalcea, Longitarsus succineus, Basilepta fulvipes, and Hamushia konishii were often collected from A. lavandulaefolia. Aphids and leaf beetles showed host specificities. The roles of hemipterans collected from the flowers of A. lavandulaefolia and Erigeron canadensis were questionable.
Systematics of Coleophoridae (Lepidoptera) in Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 516~535
A total of 16 species of the family Coleophoridae were recognized from Korea Of which 15 species are reported for the first time from Korea; C. melanograpta, C. quercicola, C. currucipennella, C. vibicigerella, C.therinella, C.versurella, C. yomogiella, C. juncivora, C. silenella, C. eurasiatica, C. koreana, C. cristata, C. granulatella, C. elodella and C. enkomiella. Most of species are illustrated by their male's and female's genitalia, with all available informations on host plants and their biology.
Effects of Carbofuran Soil Incorporation on the Early Occurring Rice Insect Pests and the Brown Planthopper
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 536~542
Control effects of carbofuran soil incorporation just before transplanting on the early occur-ring rice insect pests were studied in the rice field. Also, its residual effects on the brown planthopper (BPH) were studied by pot experiments. Carbofurn soil incorporation in late May was much more effective in controlling the early occurring rice insect pests such as small brown planthopper, green leafhopper and rice stem borer than carbofuran broadcasting or diazinon (3G) + BPMC (50% EC) treatment in mid June. Residual effects of carbofuran soil incorportaion on the female adult BPH decreased ca. a half one month after treatment. However, its residual effects on the next generation of the BPH lasted much longer; control effects on the next generation were above 90 and 70% on 37 and 46 days after treatment, respectively. From these results, it is thought that carbofuran soil incorporation just before rice transplanting can be a good control method to the early occurring rice insect pests and the brown planthopper immigrating during June. Also, it can suppress immigrating BPH popula¬tion moderately in early July.
Residual and Biological Effects of Buprofezin on the Larvae of the Brown Planthopper(Nilaparvata lugens Stal)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 543~550
Residual and biological effects of buprofezin(25% WP) on the larvae of the brown planthopper(BPH), Ni/aparvata /ugens SUlI, were studied by pot experiments. Residual lethal effects on the 2nd instar larvae lasted significantly long, and were higher with application rates. The rate of 17.50 g a.i./10a showed ca. 90% mortality even on 35 days after treatment (OAT).
(residual lethal time that can show 90% and 50% mortality, respectively) with rates of 5.78-11.50 g a.i./lOa were 9.0-13.5, and 16.8-22.8 days, respectively. It was estimated that 13.00 and 4.44 g a.i./lOa were the rates of buprofezin which could show mortalities of 2nd instar BPH larvae above 95% and 50% until 15 OAT, respectively. The residual lethal effect of 7.00 g a.i./10a on the 1st instar BPH larvae was 100 % even on 17 OAT.
was 32.5 days which was 15 days longer than
for the 2nd instar larvae. Buprofezin with 7.0 g a.i./lOa showed 100% and 70% mortality for 1st-4th and 5th instar BPH larvae, respectively. Longevity of a female BPH which emerged from the 5th instar larvae treated by buprofezin was greatly reduced, and its fecundity was nearly zero.
The Effects of the Application Time of Buprofezin 25% WP on the Density of the Brown Planthopper(Nilaparvata lugens Stal)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 31, issue 4, 1992, Pages 551~559
These studies were conducted to investigate the biological effects of buprofezin 25% WP on the adult of the brown planthopper (BPH) and its control effects on the BPH population, when buprofezin was treated on different days after the introduction of the BPH adult to the potted rice. Also age structures of the BPH population at the time of buprofezin treatment were observed. The results were as follows: Buprofezin (7.0 g a.i./l0 a) could reduce the longevity and fecundity of the newly emerged female but did not affect the biology of older female, and it did not affect the biology of the male. The larval densities at the time of buprofezin treatment was reduced to nearly zero after treatment. The higher the residual effect and the proportion of larvae at the time of buprofezin treatment were, the higher its con¬trol effect on the BPH population was. In case of buprofezin 7.0 g a.i./l0a treatment, the time interval of treatment that could show the highest control effect was about 10 days (from 18 days after the adult introduction to the adult emergence days of next generation).