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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of applied entomology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Dec 1997
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Sep 1997
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Jun 1997
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Mar 1997
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Taxonomic Study of Dorylaimoidea (Nematoda : Dorylaimida) from Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 1~29
A study on the Dorylaimoidea from Korea yielded the following fifteen species belonging to 10 different genera; Dorylaimus stagnalis, Laimydorus siddiqi, Mesodorylaimus usitatus, Sectonema basilgoodeyi, Labronema hyalinum, L. nepalense, L. vulvapapillatum, Eudorylaimus carteri, E. pseudocarteri, Ecumenicus monhystera, Discolaimus major, Enchodelus longidens, E. hopedorus, E. macrodorus, Oriverutus pagarus. They represent four families: Dorylaimidae, Aporcelaimidae, Qudsianematidae, Nordiidae.
Amplified mitochondiral DNA identify four species of Tetranychus mites (Acarina: Tetranychidae) in Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 30~36
Except for a cosmopolitan and major pest of apples, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Tetranychus mites in Korea such as T. viennensis Zaher, T. kanzawai Kishida, and T. truncams Ehara have been considered as quarantine pests by Canada and United States. Even though these mites are not feeders on apples, they are suspected to attach accidentally on apple h i t s in autumn as females enter the diapause. The characters used to identify Tetranychus mites have been confined to the shape of aedeagus in adult male. To develope a fast and accurate alternative identification protocol applied to hibernating female mites on apples, their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were examined to find out any polymorphisms to discriminate each species from the other ones. Three pairs of primers for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to amplify cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO-I) coding region in mitochondrial DNA5 of four species of Tetranycus mites. The longest amplified product was estimated its size as about 680 bp. Digestion with restriction enzymes, AluI, Ddel, and Sau3A, showed length polymorphisms, which will he useful as diagnostic markers to identify Tetranychus mites. Schematic restriction maps in amplified region were shown for each species.
Entomophathogenic Fungi, Beauveria and Matarhizium in the Southern Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 37~42
Korean entomopathogenic fungi were serveryed from soil samples throughout the five provinces and within three city limits using larvae of great wax moth, Galleria mellonella as baits. The fungi were also isolated from the eight species of dead insects. Of the total 200 soil samples, 40(20.0%) were positive for entomopathogenic fungi with 21(10.5%) containing Beauveria and 19(9.5%) containing Metarhizium. Positive sample sites in each habitat included 25 of the 110(22.7%) from forests, 2 of the 20(11.0%) from agricultural fields, 6 of the 11(54.5%) from agricultural fallow areas, and 7 of the 19(36.8%) from riparian areas. In addition, Metarhizium was isolated from Japanese walking stick (Phraortes elongatus) and Beauveria from the other 7 species of dead insects. KEY WORDS entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria,
Development and Reproductive Capacity of Protopulvinaria mangiferae (Green) (Homoptera: Coccidae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 43~47
This study was carried out in the laboratory to clarify effects of different temperature of Protopulvinaria mangiferae(Green) on development, survivorship and reproduction. Developmental period of the mango shieldscale from crawlers to preoviposition adult decreased as temperature increased. The threshold temperature andthermal constants for the development of one generation were 11.7"C and 1000.0 day-degrees, respectively. At25
C and 30
C, survival rate from egg to preoviposition adult were 82% and 6096, respectively. Hatchability ofeggs was more than 99% at both condition. The reproductive period overaged 50 days(2SnC) and 33 days(30
C). After mature adult began to reporduce, and more than 50% of the crawlers emerged during the firsthalf of their life time. The net reproduction rate per generation(R), mean length of a generation0 and intrinsicrate of natural increase(r, ) were higher at 25
C than at 30"C, and the values measured at 25
C were 132.6, 76.2 and 0.064/female/day, respectively.KEY WORDS Protopulvinaria managiferae, Development,ria managiferae, Development,
Effect of Temperature and Food Source on the Egg and Larval Development of Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litus Fabricius
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 48~54
This study was conducted to determine the effect of temperatures and food sources on the egg and larval developmentof the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius. The hatchability of egg masses of S. liturawas 100% on the leaf of soybean, perilla and sweet potato in any given temperature regimes, while the hatchabilitywas only 65-8796 when reared on the pulp paper and decreased as temperature increased. Egg durationwas not significantly different among different food sources within each temperature. However, egg duration at32
C was shorter than that at 24
C and 28
C. During the early larval development, at 28
C and 32
C the larvafed on sweet potato leaf was heavier than those fed on soybean and perilla leaves and the opposite case wastrue during mid-larval development stage. However, larval weight at 24
C was heavier on sweet potato leafthan that on soybean and perilla leaves until 12 days after hatching. This result was probably due to relativelyslower developmental rate at 24
C compared to 28
C and 32
C. The mean larval mortality was 68.896, 44.5%and 33.8% at 24
C and 32"C, respectively. The lowest mortality was observed on soybena leaf and followedby perilla and sweet potato leaves, and artificial diet regardless of temperature conditions. The durationwas the shortest when they fed on soybean leaf, and followed by perilla and sweet potato leaves and artificialdiet. Larval durations were 23.6-30.4 days at 24
C. 18.6-22.3 days at 28
C and 14.5-18.0 days at 32
C. Thethreshold temperatures of egg and larva of S. litura were about 6.l"C and 10.9"C, respectively.t 6.l"C and 10.9"C, respectively.pectively.
Arthropod Community in Small Rice Field associated with Different Planting Methods in Suwon and Incheon
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 55~66
This study was conducted to analyze arthropod community patterns in small rice fields associated with different planting methods (water seeding, drill seeding, and hansplanting) in Suwon and Icheon in 1994. Total 15 orders and 45 families of arthropods were collected. The arthropod community was analyzed using guild categories. The arthropods were found in the order of 'natural enemy>pest(phytophage)>non-pest' in their densities in all sites. The pest (phytophage) species were mainly Homoptera and dominated by Delphacidae (Nilaparvata lugens Stsl, Sogatella fircifera Horvath and Laodelphax striatellus Fallen) and Cicadelidae (Nephotettir cincticeps Uhler). They constituted >80% of pest abundance. Differences in pest abundance were not found among rice fields associated with different planting methods. Spiders were the most dominant group in the natural enemy and constituted >90% of natural enemy abundance. Hunting spiders constituted >SO% of spider abundance and were dominated by Pirata subpiraticus Bos. et Str. (Lycosidae). Pacliygnatha clerki Sundevall (Tetragnathidae) was a dominant species in webbing spiders. No differences were found in species richness and diversity in spider community among rice fields associated with different planting methods. The nonpest species were mainly Diptera and occurred abundantly in early growing season and decreased drastically as rice development proceeded. The non-pest abundance was higher in direct seeding sites than in transplanting site, and especially abundant in a drill seeding site.
Ecological Characteristics of Mulberry Longicorn Beetle, Apriona germari Hope, at the Hibernation Stage in Mulberry Fields
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 67~72
To study the ecological characteristics of the mulberry longicorn beetle, Apriona germari Hope, Mulberry branches with egg-laid scar were regionally collected from ten mulberry fields during the hibernation. It showed that its distribution was highest in Kyunggi province with 3.05% and lowest in Kyungnam province with 0.28%. The number of the egg-laid scar per branch was single with 87.7% of high frequency and its average size was 2.38 L
0.34D cm. The average diameter of scarred branch was 1.7 cm, ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 cm. the shape of egg was long elliptical with width of
0.33 mm and with length of
0.55 mm. the weight of egg was
2.94 mg and the color of the just-oviposited egg was milky white, changing into thick brown with time. The weight and length of the just-hatched larva was
2.4 mg and
0.66 mm. respectively. Most of the larvae moved downward inside the branch, showing that 94.2% of larvae for outdoor rearing and 87.9% of larvae for indoor rearing moved downward in the branch. As a result, it was found that it hibernated at egg stage with a higher rate than at larval stage by two or three folds in Kyunggi and Kyungbuk province and contrarily at larval stage with higher rate than at egg stage in Chunbuk, Chunnam and Kyungnam provinces. The survival rate for the egg after hibernation was significantly low with 6.6% and contrarily for the larva after hibernation remarkably high with 91.2%. Although the survival rate of the egg in this survey was relatively low, the result indicated that there were two types of hibernation of A. germari in Korea; egg and larval stage.
Life cycle of Kunugia yamadai Nagano (Lepidoptera, Lasiocampidae) in Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 73~76
This study was conducted to investigate the life cycle of Kunugia yamadai Nagano attacking Qriercrrs spp. in Chungju area, Korea during 1987-1989. The moth had one generation a year. Host plants of the species were Quercus acutissima, Q. serrata, Q. aliena, and Castanea crenata. And Q. dentata T., and Q variahilis B. were newly recognized as host plants of the insect. Young larvae were hatched from the overwintered eggs and fed on the leaves from late April to early August which took ahout 3 months. In mid-August, the fully grown larva made a rough cocoon and pupated at the ground debris or dense grass. The moths emerged from September to late October with a peak around mid-October. Female oviposited 121 eggs on average mostly on the bark of host plants at 131 cm ahove the ground.
Development Characteristics and Life Cycle of a Sciarid Fly(Lycoriella sp.) in Indoor Rearing
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 77~82
This study was carried out to investigate the developmental characteristics and life cycle of sciarid fly (Lycoriella sp.), an important mushroom pest. The sciarid fly was reared ina growth chamber at 21
5% of relative humidity with a 16h high, 8h dark cycle and Flammulina velutipes was used at diet. The egg was oval with 0.17 mm in diameter and 0.27 mm in length. Average egg period was 4 days. Body length of each instar from the 1st to 3rd was 0.7, 1.5, and 4.5, mm. respectively. Average weight of each instar was 1.9, 15.4 and 93.6
, respectively. In the 4th instar larvae, however, developmental characteristics of female and male became different by body length, weight and segment size. Body length and weight of the 4th instar female larvae were 5 mm and 162
, and those of the male larvae were 3.5 mm and 90
, respectively. The larval periods of female and male were respectively 13.5 and13 days. Pupal length of female and male was 3.5 and 2.7 mm, and average weight was 136
, respectively. Adults were emerged from female and male pupae on 5.5 and on 5 days after pupation, respectively. Average longevity of male and female were 7 and 5 days, respectively. The weight of female was two-fold heavier than the male. After copulation, female laid approximately 130 to 150 eggs on/in the sporophore of mushroom. In conclusion, total lifespan of male and female were 29 and 28 days, respectively.
Study on Formation and Development of Schlechtendalis chinensis Gall in Rhus javanica
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 83~87
These studies were conducted to carry out mechanism and site of gall formation by Schlectendalia chinensis in Rhus javanica. The formation period of gall hy occurrence of fundatrix was middle of June, and fundatrix was settled and parasited on back side of immature leaves and tissues of Rhus javanica was ride to fore face, then formed Schlectendalia chinensis gall. Scl~lectendalia chinensis was suddenly developed in middle of Auguest. As the density of Schlectertdalia chinensb increases, the Schlectendalia chinensir gall was more plumped. The part of phyllotaxy of Schlectendalia chinensis gall in leaf and pinnate of was increased in closer pan of terminal leaflet and leaflet was more occupied then wing.
Gypsy moth kairomones affecting host acceptance behavior of the egg parasitoids Ooencyrtus kuvanae (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 88~95
Olfactometer was used to find the attractiveness of kairomone extracted from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) to the egg parasitoid (Ooencyrtus kuvanae). The attractiveness of kairomone extracted from scales and hairs which were attached to the surface of the eggs were higher than that of whole eggs with 79.9% and 67.6% respectively. The probing lantency of the egg parasitoid on the extract of scales and hairs were 115.5 sec. and that of whole eggs were 113.2 sec. Eggs taken from egg mass were shown 91.0% of attractiveness to the egg parasitoid, however only 15% of egg parasitoid were attracted by follicles dissected from the host ovary. The probing latency of egg mass was faster than that of follicles dissected from the host with 84.2 sec. and 114.0 sec. respectively. Egg parasitoid showed the most active attractiveness (88.0%), relatively longer examing period (89.2 sec.) and shorter probing latency (26.8 sec.) to the adhesive materials secreted from reproductive accessory glands of the host. Out of six organic solvents used for the extraction of kairomone from the host egg mass, n-hexane fraction received the most active response from xthe egg parasitoid and the parasitoid reared in vivo showed 3 times higher attractiveness to the n-hexane fraction than that of in vitro.
Development of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism(RELP) Markers in Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 96~104
A silkworm Bombyx mori genomic DNA library was constructed from polyphagous J111 strain and unpolyphagous
strain to develop the genomic study by DNA makers. Genomic DNAs of two strains were digested with restriction enzyme EcoRI and ligated into pUC18. The ligated plasmids were transferred into E. coli host strain DH5
. When the genomic DNAs were hybridized with insert DNAs from transformant, could be categorized from hybridization patterns to three groups as high repetitive sequence, moderately repetitive sequence, and low-copy number sequences. A total of 219 clones containing single or low-copy number sequence inserts were examined for any polymorphisms between two strains of J111 and
. Forty six clones showed RFLPs and 10 of these clones were used as a probe of analysis of
population derived from crossing between J111 and
strain. The genetic inheritance tested with each clones will be important tools to construct the genetic map of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.
Joint Toxic Action of Bifenthrin and Prothiofos Mixture for the Control of Insectivcide-Resistant Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella L.
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 105~110
Mixture study of bifenthrin and prothiofos was conducted to control insecticide resistant diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which had shown 581, 18, 19, 11 fold resistance to fenvalerate, cypermethrin, furathiocarb, and prothiofos in Chinju strain, respectively and 38 and 9 fold resistance to fenvalerate and furathiocarb in Seosang strain, respectively. Optimal mixture ratios of bifenthrin and prothiofos was selected against Seosang strain of DBM by leaf dipping method in laboratory and by field test. Maximum co-toxicity coefficient by dipping method was shown at a ratio of 1:50 mixture of bifenthrin 1EC and prothiofos 50EC in active ingredient(a.i.) by 243.2 and then suddenly decreased. The mixed formulation from the dipping test was examined at the cabbage field of Seosang, Hamyang. Although insecticides were reduced to half, control efficacy was similar to farmer's conventional method. In addition, the mixture combination was also more effective against Chinju DBM population which had very high level of resistance to several representative insecticides. Mixture methods of insecticides will be effective countermeasures to the resistance problem of pests.
The Ecology Tetranychus viennensis Zacher and its Chemical Control Effects
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 36, issue 1, 1997, Pages 111~117
Occurrence status of Tetranychus viennensis Zacher was investigated in Kyonghuk province. Its ecological studies were carried out and chemical control efficacy against females and eggs was examined. And the results ohtained are as follows. T. viennensis occurred from mid April through mid November with the peak time in June on cherry tree. Population level of T. viennensis was varied from 0 to 160 individuals per 100 peach leaves in different peach orchards, and its occurrence rate was 35% out of 20 ochards. However no T. viennensis was observed from 25 apple orchards in 5 districts of Kyongbuk province. Overwintering stage of T. viennensis females appeared in mid October, and most of them moved into under the rough hark in early November. The overwintered adult females moved out from the rough bark to leaves in early April. Mortality during overwintering was about 55%. Under four constant temperatures of 16, 19, 22, 25
C. egg periods were 14. 3, 9.2, 6.8, and 4.0 days ; larva -nymph periods were 20.2, 13.9, 8.7, and 6.6 days. Female longevity was 67. 7, 60.7, 46.4, and 34.0 days : mean tota: fecundities per female were 21.2, 44.3, 54.4, and 64.7 eggs. Some acaricides, azocyclotin, pyridaben, propargite, tehufenpyrad and fenpyroximate were highly effective against females, while hexythiazox and clofentezine showed very low control effect from 3.6 to 14.4%. Whereas, all of 7 acaricides tested highly effective against the eggs.