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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of applied entomology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Dec 1998
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jun 1998
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Four New Species of the Genus Melanotus Eschscholtz (Coleoptera:Elateridae)from Korea I
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 103~108
Four new species of the genus Melanotus Eschscholtz are described here with photoes and illustrations. They are Malanotus suwonensis sp. nov., M. niger sp. nov., M. augustianus sp. nov. and M. hallasanae sp. nov.
Two Newly Recorded Species of the Genus Dachusa Haliday(Hymenoptera: Braconidae:Alysiinae)Parasitic on Agromyzid Flies in Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 109~115
Dacnusa (Aphanta) sasakawai Takada and Dacnusa (Dacnusa) nipponica Takada are reported for the first time from Korea with their redescription and figures. The former species was parasitic on the leafminers Liriomyza bryoniae (Kaltenbach) and Chromatomyia horticola (Gourea), and the latter was parasitic on the C. horticola.
Occurrence and Within -Plant Distribution of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood)and Encarsia formosa (Gahan) in Greenhouse
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 117~121
This experiment was conducted to investigate host preference, occurrence and intraplant distribution of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Encarsia formosa (Gahan) in greenhouse. T vaporariorum preferred cucumber over tomamto. 7: vaporariorum adults distributed at upper part of cucumber plant. Nymphs also distributed at upper part in early growing stage of cucumber but became to distribute lower part after 40 days. E. formosa adults were found mainly at mid-upper part of plant but there was no significant difference in statistics all analysis among each parts and also mummy distributed mid-low part. E. formosa were released when five ir: vaporariorum were caught by yellow sticky trap per week in glasshouse. The treatment of one tag (50 mummies) of E. formosa per five plants controlled successfully the 7: vaporariorum population after 40 days.
Biological control of the Nothern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidpgyne hapla with Plant Extract
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 119~206
Nematicidal potential of some plant extracts were evaluated for the control efficacy of the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) in pot. Tagetes patula, Zoysia japonica, Rhus sylvestris, R. chinensis, and Allium cepu were used. Leaf or root extracts were prepared at the rate of undiluted and diluted to 2, 4, 8, or 16 times with distilled water and treated simultaneously, ahead or later tomato planting. Pre-treatments of extracts were more effective than simultaneous or post-treatments, and the number of egg masses was different according to concentrations. M. hapla was less infected when the T. patula was planted at 15 days ahead tomato planting. Leaf or root extracts of T. patulu reduced damages of M. hapla significantly in all treatments. Leaf extract was more effective than root extract; the number of egg masses was 2.2 and 5.5 in 5-days pre-treatment of leaf or root extracts while 129.4 in control. In Z. japonica treatment, the number of egg masses was 87.2 in control, 21 in undiluted concentration of leaf extract and 28.4 in diluted concentration as 2 times. Leaf extracts of R. sylvestris, R. chinensis and A. cepa were also very effective against M. Izapla. The number of egg masses of M. hapla was 1.6, 1.6, and 6.2 in 5-days pre-treatments of R. sylvestris, R. chinensis and A. cepa, respectively while it was 193.6 in control. Less egg masses of M. hapla were detected in higher concentrations than in lower concentrations of all the plant extracts. Key Words - Meloidogyne hapla, Biological control, Egg masses, Tagetes patula,
Occurrence of Meloidogyne hapla in Peony Fields
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 123~125
In peony fields located in Uisong and Yeongcheon distribution of Meloidogyne hapla was examined. Of 131 fields examined, M. hapla was isolated from 102 fields. In 57.8% of the infested fields, M. hapla density was higher 31 larvae1300 ml soil, the larval density isolated from upland fields were higher than those from paddy fields. Sandy loam soil harbored higher number of larvae than clay soil. Physio-chemical properties of soil might affect nematode population: High larval density was detected from those fields with low contents of OM, K+ and low pH. Fields infested with high larval densities required more lime than those with low or non infested fields.
Survival and Development of Overwintering Pupae of the Oriental Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta, from Different Locality
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 127~135
To study overwintering biology of the oriental tobacco budworm (OTB), Helicoverpaa.ssulta, OTB larvae were collected from middle and southern region of Korea in the autumn and rearedto diapausing pupae. Diapausing pupae were held at two different locations (Suwon and Chinju) and wererecollected in the spring to observe adult emergence rate and duration to adult emergence at 25
C. Thesurvivorship of overwintering pupae was less than 5% when the pupae were buried in the soil in 20cmdepth. However, more than 60% of the pupae survived when they were kept in the plastic cup withartificial diet and were buried in the soil. The mean developmental periods of overwintering pupae at 25"C varied from 20.4 days to 43.9 days depending on years and locations where larvae were collected andpupae were held. The proportion of individuals which required longer than 30 days for development washigher in the population from the middle regions than those of southern regions. However, the proportiondecreased when the pupae collected from middle regions were held at Chinju, southern region. Chinju, southern region.
Studies on the Regional Distribution and Some Ecological Characteristics of Chinese White-wax Scale in Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 137~142
The regional distribution and some ecological characteristics of Chinese white-wax scale, Ericerus pela Chavannes, were investigated from 1996 to 1997. It was found that 10.8% of the stems of the privet, Ligustrum obtusifolium infested with the scale in Chtingpyijng, whereas only 1.1% of them infested in Y6ngwol and Pyongtaek. The average survival rate of the female adult marked 85.3% after it hibernated on the privet, Ligustrum obtusifolium. A female laid 7,783.5 eggs in average and 36.7% of females fell on the range of 7,000-10,000 eggs. It sized 0.40 mm in length and 0.21 mm in width. The hatchability was highest at 27
C with 66.8% and it seemed the optimum temperature for incubation. The pupation rate was lower than 50.0% at the above experimental temperatures and the emergence rate marked 67.3% at 25
C. When the egg was preserved at the various low temperatures, it was found that the egg could be preserved at lS
C for 50 days in maximum.
Effects of Temperature on the Life History of Indian Meal Moth (Phralidae: Lepidoptera) on Brown Rice
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 143~149
Development and life table statistics of indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella, Hiibner)on brown rice (Sativa oryzae L., var 'Ilpum' ) were tested under five different temperatures (17, 20, 25,28 and 3 2 f 0.5"C). The developmental response of females to the temperature was not significantlydifferent from that of males. In the tested temperature range, developmental period and life span of adultmoth decreased as the temperature increased and ranged from 149.9f30.4 to 38.1 k5.6 days and from19.4f 5.1 to 6.9k2.0 days at 17
C and 32"C, respectively. Emergence rate increased with the increaseof temperature and ranged from 13.0f 6.2% at 17
C to 49.2f 25.9% at 32
C. However, hatching ratecurve in relation to the temperature was dome shape with the peak of 73.8 k5.37~a t 25"C, suggesting thathatching is inhibited by high temperature above that temperature. As the temperature increased, femalesconcentrated their oviposition on the second day after emergence. In the temperature range of 17 SIM 25"C, the number of eggs laid per female were not related to the temperature and ranged from 133.4f 37.6to 154.3k57.4. But the number of eggs laid per female decreased at 32
C which suggests closerelationship with hatching ability. The net reproduction rate was highest at 28
C and followed by those at25
C and 20
C. However intrinsic rate of natural increase of the moth population on brown rice wasestimated to be highest at 32
C (0.065 per day), probably due to the short developmental period, highemergence rate and the concentrated oviposition of females on earlier days of the emergence.ition of females on earlier days of the emergence.
Binomial Sampling Plan for Estimating Tetranuchus urticae(Acari: Tetranychidae)Populations in Glasshouse Rose Grown by Arching Method
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 151~157
Infestations of two spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, on glasshouse rose (Rosa sp.) grown by an arching method, were determined by counts of the number of TSSM per leaflet in Buyeo, Chungnam Province, for a 2-yr period. Binomial sampling plans were developed based on the relationship between mean density per leaflet (m), and proportion of leaflets infested with ( T mites (PT), according to the empirical model In (m) = a+p In (-ln (1 -PT)). T was defined as tally threshold, and set to 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mites per leaflet. Increasing sample size had little effects on the precision of the binomial sampling plan, regardless of tally threshold. However, the precision increased with higher tally thresholds. There was a negligible improvement in precision with T ) 7 mites per leaflet. T= 7 was chosen as the best tally threshold for estimating densities of TSSM based on the precision of the model. Independent data set was used to evaluate the model. The binomial model with T= 7 provided reliable predictions of mean densities of TSSM observed on the commercial glasshouse roses.
Effect of Temperature on the Oviposition, Larval and Pupal Development of Oulema oryzae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 159~162
Effect of temperature on oviposition and developmental period of Oulema oryzae K. on riceplant were investigated. With the given set of temperatures of 15, 20, 23, 25, and 28"C, developmentalperiod from egg to adult emergence was shorten as temperature increased. Average number of eggs perfemale 0. oryzae increased as temperature increased from 15
C to 23"C, then decreased at 25
C and 28"C. Based on this result, developmental threshold temperatures for egg was estimated to be 6.4"C. Totaleffective temperatures above the thresolds required for hatching were estimated to be 75.8 degree-daysfor egg. It seemed that the optimum temperature for oviposition of Oulema oryzae on rice plant was 23"C.a oryzae on rice plant was 23"C.quot;C.
Genetic Variation of Larval Stripe Patterns of Spodoptera exigua(Hubner)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 163~170
Larval morphological characters such as body color and stripe pattern were analyzed to get morphological genetic markers of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hiibner). Body color was varied from light green to dark brown with diets. Stripe characters were classified by the presence of dorsal and lateral lines: three stripes with both lines, one stripe with dorsal line only, and zero stripe. Proportions of each stripe character increased with successive selections for its own character. Three stripe was dominant to one stripe when they were crossed. The estimated heritability in narrow sense (h2) of the stripe pattern was 0.50k0.42. About two fold more females than males were produced in zero stripe line. Stripe pattern was not significantly changed by different diets except in welsh onion which had lower proportion of three stripe individuals than that of the expected. Larval stripe pattern was also correlated with larval and pupal developmental rates and cold hardiness but not with insecticide susceptibility.
Effect of Temperature on the Development of Sciarid fly, Bradysia sp. (Diptera: Sciaridae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 171~178
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of temperature on the development of amushroom-infesting sciarid fly, Bradysia sp. (Diptera: Sciaridae). Egg period was 12.1, 7.0, 4.4, 3.4, and3.2 days, larval period was 38.3, 26.5, 13.4, 13.2, 12.7 days and pupal period was 10.4, 7.1, 4.4, 3.3, 3.2days, and total development period from egg to adult emergence was 60.8,40.6, 22.2, 19.9, and 19.1 daysat 10, 15, 20,25, 28"C, respectively. Development threshold temperature (DT) and effective accumulativetemperatures (ET) were 3.8"C, 74.8DD in eggs, 1.2"C, 321.8DD in larva, and 3.1
C, 76.5DD in pupa,respectively. The number of eggs laid per female was 107.9, 129.7, 131.8, 86.9, and 82.7 at respectivetemperatures. Preoviposition period was 6.6, 4.4, 2.2, 1.3, 1.8 days, oviposition period 1.5, 1.5, 1.1, 1.1,1.1 days, postoviposition period 2.0, 1.1, 0.9, 0.6, and 0.3 days at th'e temperature of 10, 15, 20, 25 and 28"C, respectively. The longevity of male and female at the temperature was 13.3, 7.8, 5.9,4.1, 3.4 days and10.4, 7.0, 4.2, 3.0, 3.3days, respectively. The optimum temperature for hatchability was estimated to the20
C and adult emergence was highest at 20
C. Pupation rate was 50.7, 68.4, 84.3, 86.5, 45.4% at 10, 15,20, 25, and 28"C, respectively. at 10, 15,20, 25, and 28"C, respectively.tively.
Esterase Isozymes of Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua(H bner), with Development and Tissues
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 179~185
The effect of physiological factors of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), on esterase variation was analyzed by comparing electrophoretic esterase isozymes. Each esterase isozyme was also characterized by substrate and inhibitor specificities. A total of 28 esterase isozymes were separated on 10% nondenaturing polycarylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). These isozymes were denoted from El to E28 according to cathodal migration distances. There was a variation in esterase isozymes among developmental stages. Larvae and pupae had more isozymes than did adults. Eggs had only eight isozymes. The isozymes of El and E2 were specific only in the first instar larvae. Esterases also showed variation according to different tissues. More kinds of esterase isozymes were found in epidermis and gut tissues than in hemolymph and fat body. Some isozymes were specific in epidermis (from El to E6), gut (E10, El 1, E25, E26, and E27), and hemolymph (E18). Among 10 naphthyl esters, a-naphthyl propionate was the most reactive substrate to the esterase isozymes. The isozymes were classified into cholinesterases (El0 and E24), arylesterases (E4, E9, E17, E19, E21, and E23), and carboxylesterases (the others) on the basis of inhibition by the esterase inhibitors-eserine, dichlorovos, moncrotophos, and paraoxon.
Establishment of Culture System of a New Strain NT0423 of Bacillus thuringiensis
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 187~191
For efficient and economical production of Btrc,illus tlz~rr.ingi~r1~sstirsa in NT0423 as amicrobial-control agents, a new culture medium and culture condition were developed. Five mediadesignatzd as SWI I , SW14, SW23. SW32 and SW4I were prepared ~ : i t hv arious mixture ratio ofsoybean cake and wheat bran. It was founcl that in terms of the cell growth rate and development ofsporulation of B, thrri.il~girrl.sis strain NT0423 in all SW culture media were more efficient than those inGYS and in LB media. Total cell number in all SW media showed similar values, hut SW32 lnediilm wasthe most efficient in the development of spore, which amo~~ntetod 3.7 x 10XC FUImI. Also. at the pHranging frorn 6.2 to 7.3 in the mediiun~ no ad\:erse effect was not made in the culture of B. thur-ingicnsisstrain NT0423. The optimal volume (%) of SW32 mecliuni in a 5 1 fernientor was determined as 4 8\rolume of total niediuni. resulting ill growth (4.2 x 1OTCFUlrnl) of H. t1~~irir1,yirrz.ssit.vr ain NT0423. As H.t l i ~ t r i t ~ g iw~ a~s~ csuil~tu rcd in the shakc-flash and 5 1 fcrnientor. bacterial cells were yielded to 1 X 10"CFUIml and 5 x I O1oCFLJlml.FUIml and 5 x I O1oCFLJlml.
Population Fluctuation, Developmental Character of Panonychus citri and Damage Degree as its Control Density on Young Yuzu (Citrus junos)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 193~198
Experiments were conducted to investigate the population fluctuation, developmental periods, fecundity, hatching rate and demage of Citrus red mite (Panonychus citri M.) on Yuzu trees (citrus junos T.) from 1996 to 1997. Citrus red mite occurred from May to November and made two peaks. The first peak was in July to August and the secondary peak was in October. Density of the second peak was higher (9.5 miteslleaf) than that of the first peak. In the constitution rate of each developmental stage of citrus red mite on Yuzu leaves, egg stage occupied 85%. At the four constant temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 + 1
C, RH 60 + lo%, 14L- IOD) conditions, the developmental period from egg to adult was 41 .l, 15.5, 11.0 and 9.4 days ; Mean longevity of adult was 23.3, 8.3, 6.3, and 6.1 days; Mean number of egg laid per female per day was 1.6, 3.2, 4.5, 4.0 eggs; Mean hatching rate was 66.6, 85.7, 90.7 and 94.7% at above temperature, respectively. When sprayed acaricide at different density of Citrus red mite, the growth of young Yuzu tree were better at low density. Defoliation rate during winter was 13.5, 20.6, 53.1, 72.6% at 4 control density 1 , 3, 6 mites per leaf and uncontrolled (10 ( ). When every time spray acaricide under 3 mites per leaf, defoliation rate during winter suppressed above 50% compare to uncontrol 72.6%.
Acaricide Resistance in Field-Collected Populations of Tetranychus kanzawai(Acarina: Tetranychidae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 37, issue 2, 1998, Pages 207~212
Tea field-collected populations of the tea red spider mite (Tetranychus kazawai Kishida) from five different locations in the southern region of Korea were assessed for resistance to seven acaricides using leaf spray method. There were considerable differences in susceptibility depending on the tested acaricides and the location from which the population was collected. The populations showing high resistance ratio of more than 20 with respect to certain acaricide were as follows: the Sungjun and Cheju populations to azocyclotin, tebufenpyrad, fenpyroximate, pyridaben, propargite, and fenpropathrin; the Haenam population to propargite and fenpyroximate; the Bosung population to propargite; the Youngam population to pyridaben. Therefore, the use of other alternative acaricides against the Sungjun and Cheju populations is needed. However, careful selection of the appropriate acaricide against the Haenam, Bosung and Youngam populations of the tea red spider mite might be maintained in effective control.