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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of applied entomology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 42, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
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Scale Insects (Stenorrhyncha) Occurred on Fruit Trees in Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 279~288
A total of 29 scale insect species belonging to 21 genera of five families were recognized on 11 fruit trees on the basis of specimens collected from 2001 to 2002 and specimens deposited in the Insect Collection of NIAST in Korea. Ten species were recognized on apple, nine species on pear, three species on peach, 14 species on unshiu orange, nine species on persimmon, two species on Japanese plum, one species on japanese apricot, 10 species on junos orange, one species on grape, four species on jujube and three species on kiwi fruit.
A New Species of Torodora Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Lecithoceridae) from Taiwan
Park, Kyu-Tek ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 289~291
A new species of Torodora Meyrick, T. pseudogalera sp. nov. is described from Taiwan. Photos of adult and the male and female genitalia are provided.
The Influence of over Foraging, and Pollinating Activities on Tomato Fruits by a Korean Native Bumblebee, Bombus ignitus S, (Hymenoptera : Apidae) in Cherry-tomato Houses
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 293~300
This study examined the foraging activities and the Influence of excessive foraging activity by B. ignitus workers on the quality of cherry-tomato fruits in cherry-tomato green-house. The peak time of pollination by B. ignitus worker was recorded at 8:00 and the average of foraging time on each flower was 11.7 secs. The total pollinating time of B. ignitus was 41 mins and 37 secs and its total number of visiting flowers was 195.2. The average time of staying on flowers was 8.8
5.4 secs when two bumblebees were allowed to pollinate per Pyong (3.954 square yards) in the green house of tomatoes for 24 hours, but it was two times shorter (4.0
3.1 secs) compared with that when one bumble-bee was allowed to pollinate per Pyong for one hour. The stamen color of tomato flowers visited by the bumblebee for one hour was brown while the stamen color for 24 hours was dark brown due to the frequent visiting. The average fruit bearing rate of the 4th-6th clusters of tomatoes visited for one hour was 48.9%, which was not significantly different from those allowed to visite for 24 hours. However, the number of seeds of flowers visited for 24 hours was 64.0, which was more than 55.3 seeds of flowers visited for one hour. The weight of fruit was 25.4 g and 24.4 g, respectively. The sweetness was not different significantly between one and 24 hours of visit (P > 0.05). The result revealed that end pro-duct of cherry-tomato was not influenced by over foraging activity of B. ignitus workers on tomato flowers.
Effect of Host Plants on the Development and Reproduction of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera : Thripidae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 301~305
This study investigated the ecological characteristics of Frankliniella occidentalis on four horticultural crops. On red pepper leaves, larval developmental period and survival rate of F. occidentalis were 6.4 days and 67%, respectively. While adult female lived longer on cucumber leaves as long as 16 days, on Petal lived 8.1 days. F. occidentalis adult female preferred tomato to eggplant, cucumber and red pepper, and higher number of hatched larva were from leaves of middle part of egg-plant compared with those from other parts. F. occidentalis adult female fed preferably on petal compared with leaves and Petals of eggplant, and among petals of four tested plants, the most preference was those of red pepper.
Emergence Ecology of Japanese Pine Sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a Vector of Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 307~313
Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus, is a primary vector of pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Korea. Emergence characteristics of the adults were studied in Jinju, Korea using dead pine logs in which the larvae of the sawyer overwintered from 1999 to 2002. Emergence data showed that the adults began to emerge out of the logs in sunny place from May the 15th in average of the four years. Cumulative emergence ratio (CER) reached at 50% at mid-June, and the emergence terminated by early or late July depending on years. In shady place, however,50% CER was reached 17 days later than in sunny place. The 50％ CER of males reached 1 to 4 days earlier than that of females depending on years. Of the adults emerged from the logs collected from February to April in 2001, 97.6％ was univoltine, and the rest was biennial which emerged from May to July of the next year. Female and male adults emerged throughout 24 hours; 32.3% of the total adults emerged from 8 to 12 a.m. It took 68.0 seconds for the adults to escape from pine logs.
Measurement and Within-tree Distribution of Larval Entrance and Adult Emergence Holes of Japanese Pine Sawyer, Monochamus alternatus(Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 315~321
Larval entrance and adult emergence holes of Japanese pine sawyer (Monochamus alternatus), primary vector of pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus), were measured in dead pine logs from 1999 to 2002. Their distributions within pine log were also analyzed. More numbers of entrance and emergence holes were distributed on crown than trunk part as 56.2 and 27.7 holes/m
, respectively Higher proportions of entrance (27.5％) and emergence holes (22.4%) were distributed on the log with 8 to 10 cm diameter; the larger or the smaller logs had fewer holes. Surface area of entrance hole was 65.8
and diameter of emergence holes was 7.0 mm in average. Average depth of pupal chamber was 24.8 mm from surface to the bottom of the chamber, and its volume ranged from 200 to 2.000 ㎣ Average distance between entrance and emergence holes on bark surface was 3.3 cm. Gallery length from the beginning of entrance hole to the end of emergence hole was 46.2 mm.
Morphological Characteristics and Life Cycle of Rice Skipper, Parnara guttata Bremer et Grey (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 323~327
Morphological characteristics and life cycle of Parnara guttata were studied from 2001 to 2002. Egg was hemisphere-shaped in pink. Larva was milky white or yellowish green color with 2.9-30.6 nm body length, depending on their developmental stages from 1 st to 5th instar. Pupa were grayish brown from 23.8 to 25.7 nm length, adults were yellowish brown color and body lengths were 17.4 nm and 16.2 nm and wing expanse lengths were 35.2 nm and 30.6 nm with female and male, respectively. At 25
, each developmental periods was 4.5, 30.2, and 6.9 days with egg, larvae, and pupae, respectively. Also adult longevity were 10.1 for female, average number of egg was 205.5.
Preference of the Rice Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for the Storage Mold Contaminated Brown Rice
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 329~334
To study the interaction between rice weevil and storage molds, the preference of rice weevil to the four mold species (Aspergilus candidus, A. niger, A. flavus and Penicillium spp.) and the resulting reproduction of the rice weevil were observed. The rice weevil preferred rice grains contaminated with the molds to autoclaved ones regardless of the mold species tested. Among the four mold species, A. candidus and Penicillium sp. were highly preferred than the others. Reproduction of the rice weevil was higher on the grains contalminated with A. candidus and Penicillium sp., than on autoclaved ones, but was lower on the grains contaminated with A. flavus. The partial disagreement between preference and reproduction of the rice weevil might be a suggestion that both the weevil behavior adapting nutritional requirements and the process of the long intensive coadaptation of the rice weevil and storage molds requiring similar moisture niche are the major components of the population interaction between the weevil and molds.
Injury Aspects of the Stone Leek Leafminer, Liriomyza chinensis Kato (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on Welsh Onion
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 335~343
An experiment was conducted to investigate types of injury inflicted by the stone leek leafminer, Liriomyza chinensis Kato (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on welsh onion. A feeding scar made by an adult female was a hole round in shape, with diameter of 0.08 mm and 0.48 mm in lesion, resulting in a white spot, many of which often form vertical dotted lines on a leaf. Egg spots were oval with 0.1
0.14 mm in size, one or several of which often form a V-shape in group. Feeding by adults began immediately after emergence and was very active from 4th to 5th day. Oviposition was done from 2nd to 6th day after emergence. In both feeding and oviposition, they were more active in the day time. Larvae after emergence crawled up the leaf at first, and then moved up and down to feed on mesophyll. When in high density, they feed on leaf from leaf tip to bottom, and let the leaf die. Area of damage per one larva was calculated as 72.1
. The aged larvae escaped from the leaf in early morning, usually between 5 and 7 am. Most pupation sites were distributed near plants,5cm in soil depth and within 10 cm away from the plant. Pupae of L. chinensis overwintered 10cm below soil surface and emerged from early May to late June the next year Adults then moved to welsh onions near over wintering sites, nursery, transplanted, and levee.
Influence of Levee-burning on the Surroundings of Rice Paddies
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 345~352
Studies were conducted to find out the justification for levee-burning, customarily executed by farmers for long time, Experiments were carried out in farmers fields with levee-burning early in the season, and some pesticides spraying when necessary from 1995 to 1997. Some data collected are analysed and discussed from several available aspects of surroundings. In relation to some results obtained together with some previous evidences, levee-burning seems to have several adverse effects on levee destruction, partial cause of forest fire, and lowering of spider density in the field during fall, without providing any benefit, while causing no signifant effect on weed flora on levee, insect density in the field, and incidence of the rice-blast. Therefore, concequently, it could be recommend that the levee-burning by farmers should not be continued.
Comparative Analysis of Host Insect Immunodepression Induced by Two Entomopathogenic Bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophilus and Staphylococcus gallinarum, with Differential Pathogenicities
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 353~360
Immunodepression can be required for entomopathogenic bacteria to induce their potent pathogenicities to the target insects. Here, we raise a hypothesis that the capacity of a pathogenic bacterium to induce the target insect immunodepression has positive relationship with the degree of pathogenicity. X. nematophilus had 1,200 times as potent as another entomopathogenic bacterium, Staphylococcus gallinarum against the fifth instar larvae of silkworm, Bombyx mori, when they were Injected into the hemocoel. Although both bacteria had significant cytotokic effect on the hemocytes of B. mori, X. nematophilus gave faster and greater cytotoxicity than did S. gallinarum. In cellular immune reactions, B. mori could form 20 hemocyte nodules against the bacterial injection with 5
5/ cells. The number of the hemocyte nodules was significantly depressed when live X. nematophilus was inject-ed, but not in S. gallinarum. Activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) was depressed in the bacterial injection. The depression of PO activation was significantly greater in X. nematophilus infection than in S. gallinarum injection. Lysozyme activity was induced by the injection of S. gallinarum at 4 h after the treatment, but not induced in X. nematophilus at all the time. These results showed that X. nemato-philus induced greater immunodepression against B. mori and resulted in higher pathogenicity than did S. gallinarum. Therefore, this study suggests that the immunodepression induced by entomopathogenic bacteria has positive relationship with their pathogenicity.
Discrimination Method of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens(Stal) Nymphs by the Fluorescent Spots between Compound Eyes in Rice Paddies
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 361~365
Several species of planthoppers such as brown planthopper, N. lugens (Stal) (BPH), smaller brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Fall n) (SBPH), and white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horv th) (WBPH) are distributed in Korean rice paddies but not easy to discriminate them in situ. Accurate discrimination of them is an indispensable process in the forecasting for their outbreak and control. Especially, innovative discrimination method for BPH was required because BPH was one of the most important insect pest of rice. Nymphs and adults of BPHs, SBPHS, and WBPHS, thus, were examined their morphological characteristics in the paddies and laboratory. The nymphs of BPH had different characters from those of SBPH and WBPH. The nymphs of BPH had white fluorescent spot between bottom of compound eye and antenna, while there was no that spot the other two species. The white spot was the brightest at the nymphs just after hatching and getting weaker as the nymph developed. At last the white spot was totally disappeared at the adult stage. This white spot was innovative criterium to discriminate nymphs of BPH, SBPH, and WBPH in rice paddies.
Dispersal Polymorphisms in Insects-its Diversity and Ecological Significance
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 42, issue 4, 2003, Pages 367~381
Dispersal polymorphism in insects Is a kind of adaptive strategy of the life history together with the diapause, consisting of the “long-winged or alate forms” of migratory phase and the “short-winged or apterous forms” of stationary phase. Dispersal polymorphism is a polymorphism related with the flight capability, and has three categories ; the wing polymorphisms, flight muscle polymorphisms, and flight behavior variations. Phase variation is another type of dispersal polymorphism varying in morphology, physiology and wing forms in response to the density of the population. The dispersal migration is a very adaptive trait that enables a species to keep pace with the changing mosaic of its habitat, but requires some costs. In general, wing reduction has a positive effect on the reproductive potential such as earlier reproduction and larger fecundity The dispersal polymorphism is a kind of optimization in the evolutionary strategies of the life history in insects; a trade-off between the advantages and disadvantages of migration. Wing polymorphism is a phenotypically plastic trait. Wing form changes with the environmental conditions even though the species is the same. Various environmental factors have an effect on the dispersal polymorphisms. Density dependent dispersal polymorphism plays an important role In population dynamics, but it is not a simple function of the density; the individuals of a population may be different in response to the density resulting different outcomes in the population biology, and the detailed information on the genotypic variation of the individuals in the population is the fundamental importance in the prediction of the population performances in a given environment. In conclusion, the studies on the dispersal polymorphisms are a complicated field in relation with both physiology and ecology, and studies on the ecological and quantitative genetics have indeed contributed to understanding of its important nature. But the final factors of evolution; the mechanisms of natural selections, might be revealed through the studies on the population biology.