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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of applied entomology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 43, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
Selecting the target year
Description of Two Unrecorded Species of Oribatid Mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 1~6
In the course of taxonomical studies of oribatid mites, two genera, Acrotocepheus Aoki, 1965 and Humerobates Sellnick, 1928, and their species, A. gracilis Aoki, 1965 and H. flechtmanni Perez-Inigo ＆ Perez-Inigo Jr, 1993, are recorded for the first time in Korea.
Distributional Data and Ecological Characteristics of Parnassius bremeri Bremer in Korea
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 7~14
This study was carried out to survey and confirm the occurring sites of Parnassius bremeri in Korea, and to investigate ecological characteristics to develop a mass rearing technique. In the field survey, adults were found in the two previously known sites in Gyungnam Province and another site was newly found in Samcheok, Gangwon Province. Emergence period of adults was from middle of May to middle of June. Oviposition took place on various material, including hostplant, debris, dead leaves, etc. Eggs were laid singly, up to 126.7 eggs per female. The egg-period was 221.3
2.3 days, eggs were hatched from 11th to 22nd of January in the natural condition, and started to feed for about 10 days after hatching. Survival rate of the 1st larvae was 67.6%. Developing period of each instar in the insectary (25
, 75% RH, 16L:8D) was 11.2 days for the 1st instar, 7.3 days for 2nd, 12.8 days for 3rd, 16.2 days for 4th, and 18.2 days for 5th, and the pupal period was 21.3 days. The average longevity of adults was 26.2 days. Oviposition rate was higher in the natural condition with enough space to fly for 3♀ : 1 ♂ coupled, at least 3
4 m-sized room, than in smaller cage. In a comparison of the preference for visiting on sugar source, black sugar and fructose were effective.
Recent Increase of Apple Leafminer, Lyonetia prunifoliella (H bner) on Apple Orchards in Gyeongbuk Province
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 15~20
Leaf damage by apple leafminer, Lyonetia prunifoliella, was surveyed on Fuji apple orchards with seedling rootstock from 1992 to 2001 and with M.9 rootstock from 1999 to 2001. The damage was negligible in apple orchards with seedling rootstock as 0.15% in 1992 and 0.06% in 1993. However it sharply increased to more than 3.39% since 1994, reaching at peak damage of 6.28% to 7.78% in 1996 to 1998. Damages on apple orchards with M.9 rootstock from 1999 to 2001 were higher as 6.09% to 15.3%, compared with those with seedling rootstock in the same years. In seedling rootstock apple, the damage was highest on september but in M.9 rootstock apple, the difference was not significant. Leaf damage showed no differences between cultivars including 4 Korean cultivars and Fuji. These results may explain that increase of M.9 rootstock apple orchards is responsible for the recent outbreak of the leafminer in Korea.
Oviposition and Host Feeding Characteristics of Neochrysocharis formosa(Hymenoptera : Eulophidae), an Endoparasitoid of Liriomyza trifolii(Diptera: Agromyzidae)
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 21~26
These studies were carried out to investigate the oviposition and host feeding characteristics of Neochrysocharis formosa Westwood, an endoparasitoid of Liriomyza trifolii. N. formosa female oviposited inside the abdomen at the rear end of the host larva. Number of eggs and host feeding per day of N. formosa tended to increase as temperatures go up. The ratio of oviposition and host feeding of N. formosa were 0.5, 0.9, 1.0 and 1.0 at 15, 20, 25, and 30
, respectively. In 25
, number of eggs and host feeding were 176.0 and 188.7, respectively, and aduly female longevity was 11.8 days. N. formosa female preferred to the 3rd rather than 1st and 2nd larva for oviposition and host feeding.
Biological Control of the Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla in the Fields of Codonopsis lanceolata
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 27~34
This study was conducted to develop optimal control tactics of the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, using cultural method and biological agents ｛Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Paecilomyces lilacinus and plant extract (Huhjunl)｝ in the fields of Codonopsis lanceolata. Germination of C. lanceolata was susceptible to fosthiazate, but not to Bt or a plant extract. In pot assay, the inhibitory effect of two microbial agents, Bt and Paecilomyces lilacinus, on M. hapla were significant, but less than that of fosthiazate. The plant extract also had significantly inhibitory effect on M. hapla. In field assay, treatments of P lilacinus and fosthiazate resulted in maximal yields and qualities of C. lanceolata. The effect of the plant extract on the yields of C. lanceolata was also better than no treatment. The nematode-occurring condition of the fields before transplanting had significant effect on development of C. lanceolata; nematode-occurring field type gave less yields than nematode-free field type. These results suggest that a cultural control technique using paddy field, microbial pesticides using Bt or P lilacinus, and the plant extract are the promising control tactics against M. hapla in C. lanceolata fields. As a field manual to decrease economical damage of C. lanceolata due to M. hapla, this study suggests that C. lanceolata can be cultured directly in paddy field or in upland field after nematode control using microbial agents or the plant extract.
Mosquito Larvicidal Activity of Synechocystis PCC6803 Transformed with the cry11Aa gene to Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Anopheles sinensis
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 35~41
Bacillus thuringiensis produces crystal proteins toxic to medically and agriculturally important pests during sporulation. To improve the activity of insecticidal crystal protein in applying to mosquito larval control, an expression vector, pSyn4D harboring the mosquitocidal cry11Aa gene under control of psbA promoter of Amaranthus hybridus was constructed. This expression vector was transformed into Synechocystis PCC6803 and a transformant, Tr2C was selected with kanamycin. The mosquitocidal cry11Aa gene was stably integrated Into genomic DNA of Tr2C in PCR detection using cry11Aa-specific primers. The transformant expressed 72-kDa Cry11Aa protein and median lethal time (LT
50/) was approximately 2.1 days for Culex tritaeniorhynchus larvae and 0.7 day for Anopheles sinensis larvae, respectively. These results suggest this transformant can be used for mosquito larval control as a biological control agent.
Inheritance and Stability of Etoxazole Resistance in Twospotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae, and Its Cross Resistance
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 43~48
Development of 3,700 folds resistance to etoxazole was found in the population of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, collected from rose greenhouses in Buyo, Chungnam Provience in August 2000. This population was selected for 3yr with etoxazole to get 5,000,000 folds increase in resistance as compared to susceptible (S) strain. The etoxazole resistance was stablized for 16 months under the condition of no acaricide application. Inheritance and cross resistance in etoxazole to some acaricides of the etoxazole resistance strain (R) were investigated. There were differences of susceptibility in the etoxazole concentration-mortality relationships between
progenies obtained from reciprocal cross with the S and R strains (R
). Degrees of dominance were 0.98 and 0.98 in
progenies of R
, and -0.97 and -0.68 in
progenies of S
respectively. Inheritance in
progenies of R
were complete dominant. However
progenies of S
were incomplete recessive. These results suggest that inheritance of etoxazole resistance is controlled by a complete dominance. The R strain exhibited cross resistance to acequinocyl and emamectin benzoates in adult females, and milbemectin, amitraz and pyridaben in eggs. However they showed negatively correlated cross-resistance to bifenazate, a carbazate acaricide. These results may indicate bifenazate could be useful for the control of etoxazole resistant T. urticae population.
Seasonal Occurrence of Oriental Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Male and Chemical Control at Red Pepper Fields
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 49~54
The oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Guenee) is a major pest of red pepper in Korea. Insecticide spray is a prevalent control tactic in most farms, but an effective control is difficult because the larvae are protected inside the fruit. Objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal occurrence of the male moths using pheromone trap and to evaluate the control efficacy of insecticide applications based on the trap catch data at red pepper fields in Suwon. The results of pheromone trap catch during three years showed that the moth flight activity occurred from late May to early October. Peak periods of the adult flight, which are indicators of each generation, occurred in late June, late July-early August, and late August-early September. Trap catches during the overwintering and first adult generation were closely linked with subsequent damage. Although the trap catch during the second generation was higher than the previous generations, damage level caused by this generation larvae was low. Experiment results revealed that fruit damage by H. assulta could be effectively reduced by five sprays of insecticides based on the trap catch data throughout the season.
Enhanced Effectiveness of Spodoptera litura Nucleopolyhedrovirus with Organic Acids and Functional Matters
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 55~60
This experiment was conducted to improve activity of Spodoptera litura Nucleopoly-hedrovirus (SINPV) combined with organic and functional matters. In combination of SINPV mixed with organic matters, LT
values of SINPV 1.0
combined with boric acid of 2,000 ppm were 4.5 days. It was 1.5 days shorter than SINPV 1.0
alone. The body weight of larva infected with SINPV 1.0
combined with boric acid of 2,000ppm was not increased, and S. litura was completely dead in 7 days after treatment. It suggested that addition of boric acid in SINPV application enhanced the pathogenicity against S. litura larvae. In laboratory experiment of combination of SINPV with functional matters, LT
values of SINPV 1.0
alone were 7.3 days, but those of SINPV 1.0
with electrolyzed oxidizing water, pyroligneous liquor or kitosan were 10.4, 9.3 and 11.2 days, respectively. Functional matter could be suppressed the insecticidal activity of SINPV
Biological Control of Spodoptera depravata (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Using Entomopathogenic Nematodes
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 61~70
Environmentally sound control of Japanese lawngrass cutworm, Spodoptera depravata with Korean entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis sp. Gyeongsan, Steinernema carpocapsae GSNI , S. glaseri Dongrae, S. longicaudum Nonsan, and S. monticolum Jiri) was evaluated in the laboratory and field. In addition, effect of turf height on the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes and density of ant (Formica japonica) and spine-tailed earwigs (Forficula scudderi) were investigated in the field. The corrected mortality of 3rd instar of S. depravata larvae was 53.3% to 66.7% 5 days later after treatment of entomopathogenic nematodes.
value of S. carpocapsae GSN1 and S. monticolum Jiri against 3rd instar of S. depravata was 6.9 and 3.9, respectively. Pathogenicity of S. carpocapsae GSN1 was different depending on larval stages, i.e., mortality of 2nd instar was the highest representing 73.3% but decreased from 3rd instar. Turf height affected pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes. Mortality of 4th instar of S. depravata was 40.0% by S. carpocapsae GSN1 and 33.3% by S. monticolum Jiri, and 83.3% by fenitrothion, respectively, in the turf height of 14mm, but those were lower in 45mm. The corrected mortality of S. depravata larvae was lower at the entomopathgenic nematode plots than fenitrothion plot in the distribution field of Formica japonica. However, reduction rate of F japonica was higher in fenitrothion by 56.7% compared with 0% in S. carpocapsae GSN1 and 6.7% in S. monticolum Jiri. Turf height influenced control of S. depravate in S. carpocapsae GSN1 and fenitrothion. Control value of S. carpocapsae GSN1 was 62.2% in the turf height of 3-4cm, but not effective at all in 6-8cm and 12-14cm. However, there was not significantly different in fenitrothion plots. Forficula Scudderi was also reduced only in fenitrothion plots. Reduction rate was 100% in 3-4cm, 41.7% in 6-8cm, and 16.7% in 12-14cm, respectively.
Selective Toxicity of Pesticides to the Predatory Mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Control Effects of the Two-spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychus urticae by Predatory Mite and Pesticide Mixture on Rose
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 71~79
Toxicities of 42 pesticides (13 acaricides, 13 insecticides, 13 fungicides and 3 adjuvants) commonly used to control rose insect, mite, and disease pests were evaluated to the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae egg and adult, and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis egg, nymph and adult at the recommended concentration. The effect of density suppression of T urticae by predatory mite and pesticide mixture on the rose in the greenhouses was also investigated. Among 13 acaricides tested, acequinocyl, bifenazate, fenbutatin oxide and spirodiclofen showed much less toxicity to P. persimilis than to T urticae. Among insecticides, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, spinosad, thiamethoxam and acetamiprid＋etofenprox showed low toxicity to P. persimilis. and T ruticae. Among 13 fungicides, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, myclobutanil, nuarimol, triadimefon, triflumizole and oxadixyl＋mancozeb had a negligible effect on P. persimilis and T. urticae. Among three adjuvants, cover and siloxane expressed high toxicity, while spreader showed very low toxicity to P. Persimilis. In the greenhouses experiments, the density of T urticae before treatment was 65.3 mites per leaf. However, their density after release about 30 predatory mites per rose abruptly decreased from 3.8 mites at 11th day to zero mite at 20th day. During survey periods, four treatments of fungicides (kresoxim-methyl, myclobutanil, nuarimol, triflumizole) for the control of Sphaerotheca pannosa and one treatment of insecticide (spinosad) the control of Frankliniella occidentalis were applied, and these treatments had no the pesticides had no effect on the predatory mite density. It may be suggested from these results that four acaricides, five insecticides, seven fungicides, and one adjuvant could be incorporated into the integrated T. urticae management system with P. persimilis on rose cultivation
Survey on Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Peach Orchards in Gyeongbuk Province
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 81~84
Plant-parasitic nematodes were surveyed at peach orchards in Gyeongbuk province for three years from 2000 to 2002. Species, density, frequency, Simpson's index, Shannon and Wiener index, and prominence value were analyzed. Plant-parasitic nematodes were isolated from 97 orchards out of 124 orchards. More important plant-parasitic nematode genera on peach were Tylenchorhynchus nudus, Criconemoides informis, Paratylenchus elachistus, Pratylenchus vulnus, and Helicotylenchus digonichus. Aphelenchus sp., Tylenchus sp., Heterodera sp., Scutellonema sp. were found, but were not important. Root-knot nematodes were not found even though they were serious in foreign countried.
Adult Morphological Measurements: An Indicator to Identify Sexes of Japanese Pine
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 43, issue 1, 2004, Pages 85~89
Numerical measurements were made for fresh weight, body length and width, head width, and color and length of antenna of Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus adults, a primary vector of pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Korea. We measured 563 females and 601 males that emerged out of dead pine logs from 2001 to 2002. General linear model analysis showed that measurements of fresh weight, body length, and body width were significantly higher in females than in males. Head width was not significantly different between sexes. Antennal length of males was significantly longer than that of females. For females and males respectively, average fresh weights were 0.305g and 0.277g, body lengths 20.97mm and 19.93mm, body widths 6.52mm and 6.18mm, head widths 3.78mm and 3.70mm, and antennal lengths 31.19mm and 45.49 mm. Antennal length or ratio of antennal length to body length overlapped in some ranges between 2 sexes. Therefore antennal length itself or ratio of antennal length to body length could not be used as a definite criterion to discriminate sexes. However, check on color of the antennae of 4,033 adults revealed without exception that basal part of every segment of flagellum of female antenna was covered with whitish-grey hairs, while whole part of every segment of male flagellum was covered with brownish-black hairs. This characteristics might be a best way to differentiate sex of this species.