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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of applied entomology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 45, Issue 3 - Dec 2006
Volume 45, Issue 2 - Aug 2006
Volume 45, Issue 1 - Apr 2006
Selecting the target year
Polydnavirus and Its Novel Application to Insect Pest Control
Kim, Yong-Gyun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 241~259
Polydnavirus is a mutualistic DNA virus found in some braconid and ichneumonid wasps. Its genome is integrated into host chromosome as a provirus. Its replication occurs at ovarian calyx epithelium during host pupal stage to form episomal viral particles. The viral particles are delivered into hemocoel of the parasitized insect along with eggs during wasp oviposition. Several polydnaviral genomes, which are isolated from the episomal virus particles, have been sequenced and exhibit some gene families with speculative physiological functions. This review presents the viral characteristics in terms of Its parasitic physiology. For developing new insect pest control tactics, it also discusses several application strategies exploiting the viral genome to manipulate insect physiology.
Discovery of the Ten Species of Subtropical-moths in Is. Daecheong, Korea
Park, Kyu-Tek ; Kang, Tae-Min ; Kim, Min-Young ; Chae, Min-Young ; Ji, Eun-Mi ; Bae, Yang-Seop ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 261~268
Ten species of subtropical macro-moths including Squamura sp. of Metarbelidae, were discovered at Is. Daecheong in the West Sea. The other nine species are Zeuzera sp., Setora baibarana (Matsumura), Toccolosida rubriceps Walker, Hyposidra talaca (Walker), Celerena signata Warren, Creatonotos transiens (Walker), Vitessa suradeva Moore, Callambulyx rubricosa (Walker), and Dodusa nobilis Walker, and they are mostly distributed in the subtropical area from the southern part of China to Borneo or Java.
Temperature-dependent Development of Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis egomae Shinji on Leaves of Green Perilla and Their Seasonal Abundance Patterns in Protected Greenhouse in Guemsan, Korea
Choe, Yong-Seok ; Park, Deok-Gi ; Han, Kwang-Seop ; Choe, Kwang-Ryul ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 269~274
Temperature-dependent development studies of two aphid species, A. egomae and A. gossypii occurring in green perilla greenhouse were conducted at
, and 16:8 (L:D h) of light period in the laboratory. The mortality of two aphid species was high in young stages (1st and 2nd). In A. egomae, the mortalitiy increased with increasing and decreasing temperature: the mortalitie at
were 22.3% and 15.6%, respectively. While the mortalities of A. gossypii increased with increasing temperature: the mortality at
was 50.0%. The developmental periods of A. egomae and A. gossypii ranged from 20.8days to 5.4days and from 22.6days to 9.1days at
of temperature resion, respectively, and were 7.2days and 10.7days at
for each species. The lower developmental threshold temperatures for total nymphs of A. egoame and A. gossypii were
, respectively and an effective degree-days (DD) for the developmental completion of total nymph were 108.0 DD for.A. egomae and 221.2DD for A. gossypii. In green perilla greenhouse, the occurrence period of A. gossypii was earlier about 15 days than that of A. egomae. When the occurrence period of two aphid species was estimated by degree-days based on lower threshold temperatures, A. gossypii occurred earlier than A. egomae in the field. A. gossypii occurred from early April and showed dominant position to late May compared with A. egomae Whereas, A egomae started to occur from mid April and then were abundant after late May followed by abrupt population crash around late July.
Damage and Seasonal Occurrence of Major Insect Pests by Cropping Period in Environmentally Friendly Lettuce Greenhouse
Jeon, Heung-Yong ; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 275~282
Insect pests attacking the leaf of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were surveyed in environmentally frendly leaf-lettuce-greenhouses in Hwaseong, Namyangju, and Suwon from 2003 to 2004. Sixteen insect species of eleven families in eight orders were collected in greenhouses. Among them, Acyrthosiphon solani, Frankliniella occidentalis, and Autographa nigrisigna were the most serious pest species because of their damage ratio was over 30%. Population of Acyrthosiphon solani showed the highest peak one or two times between mid-April and early June in both the second and the third cropping period. Frankliniella occidentalis reached the highest peak one or two times, the first peak between mid-June and the late July, and the second peak between the mid-August and the mid-October.Autographa nigrisigna reached the highest peak one or times between early June and late July and in the mid-August to late October. The highest peak occurrence of A. solami was observed in early June as many as 4,836 nymphs and adults per 100 leaves. And for F. occidentalis it was in early July occurring 437 larvae and adults per 100 leaves, for A. nigrisigna in early October occurring 42 larvae per 100 leaves. The density of F. occidentalis and its damage as well was greater in soil culture than in hydroponic culture, but in case of both A. solani and A. nigrisigna no such difference between cropping systems was found.
Improvement of a Screening System for Environmental Mutagens by Means of a Specific Locus Mutation of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori
Yoon, Hyung-Joo ; Kim, Sam-Eun ; Kim, Jong-Gill ; Choi, Ji-Young ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 283~291
The efficiency to detect mutagenicity of the system using a specific locus mutation of Bombyx mori was examined and improved. In the system, mutagenicity could be detected by the egg colour manifested by the pe and/or re genes, which is a kind of recessive visible mutation of the insect. Among tested four mutagens, MMC had specially high sensitivity in the oocytes of silkworm and EMS had in the spermatozoa. PCB and dioxin showed a positive effect in both the oocytes and spermatozoa. In a consequence of sensitivity of mutagen by mating number of male moth of B. mori, treated mutagen, there was no difference between one mating - and three mating - male moth in sensitivity of mutagen. Sun3ho, B. mori variety, which showed high sensitivity to mutagens was improved in the major characteristics by crossing of C5 and N12.
Occurrence of Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Chrysanthemum and ITS and D3-28S rDNA Characterization of Pratylenchus spp.
Han, Hye-Rim ; Lee, Jae-Kook ; Choi, Dong-Ro ; Han, Man-Jong ; Park, Byeong-Yong ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 293~299
A survey was conducted to find out the major plant parasitic nematode in Chrysanthemum morifolium fields in Korea from May to June in 2005. A genus of Pratylenchus was determined as the most important plant parasitic nematode based on analysis of total 50 samples from 8 cities of chrysanthemum field. Pratylenchus showed 86% occurrence rate and average numbered 1,095 per 200cc soils and 1g root. Five Pratylenchus isolates, 'Muan', 'Masan', 'Tean', 'Gumi', 'Jeongup', were selected for the molecular identification of the species of Pratylenchus, and ITS and D3-28S ribosomal DNA were amplified by PCR. For the ITS, only 'Muan' isolate was differentiated by total 1 kb PCR amplification, which was 200 bp larger than all the other isolates. There was no size variation in amplified D3-28S rDNA and all isolate represented approximately 320 bp of PCR product. Sequence data of D3-28S rDNA were analysed by MegAlign program in DNASTAR software and phylogenetic tree was constructed. Sequence homology was 100% between 'Gumi' isolate and 'Tean' isolate and 'Jeongup' isolate was also close to these isolates by 99.7% sequence homology. 'Gumi', 'Tean' group and 'Jeongup' isolate were determined to be closely related to Pratylenchus vulnus by 96.7% and 96.3% similarity in respectively. D3 sequence of 'Masan' isolate was 100% identical to P. penetrans, and 'Muan' isolate showed 99.7% similarity to P. brachyurus. This result was congruent with the branch divergence pattern shown in phylogenetic tree.
Characterization of a Ligninase Producing Strain, Serratia marcescens HY-5 isolated from Sympetrum dopressiusculum
Kim, Ki-Duck ; Park, Doo-Sang ; Shin, Dong-Ha ; Han, Bo-Na ; Oh, Hyun-Woo ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Park, Ho-Yong ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 301~307
A ligniolytic bacterial strain was isolated from the digestive tract of a red dragonfly, Sympetrum dopressiusculum. It was identified as a Serratia marcescens HY-5 by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and physiological and biochemical analysis. The isolated strain showed proportional increase of ligninolytic activity to the cell growth in the culture media which include lignin compounds. It showed about 25-45% decomposition of lignin compound by 48 hr incubation especially, showed effective decomposition of monomer lignin compounds, vanillin and guaiacol, and a dimer, dealkaline lignin. PCR amplification of 16S rDNA followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed high density of S. marcescens HY-5 in the gut of the S. depressiusculum at both gut samples which collected at different site.
Chemical Synthesis and Orientation Disruption Bioassay of Sex Pheromone of the Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molests (Busck)
Kim, Yong-Gyun ; Bae, Sung-Woo ; Bae, Soo-Il ; Yoon, Hyang-Mi ; Hong, Yong-Pyo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 309~316
Three sex pheromone components (cis-8-dodecenyl acetate (Z12Ac), trans-8-dodecenyl acetate (E12Ac), cis-8-dodecenol (Z12OH)) of the Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, were chemically synthesized. Especially to increase the composition of cis-stereoisomer, a triple bond intermediate was hydrogenated at
. The resulting product consisted of the acetates with a stereoisomer ratio in 92:8 (Z:E). The biological activity of the synthesized pheromone compounds was analyzed both in male responses and orientation disruption. The indoor pheromone effect was determined by male flight behavior showing wing movement in response to lure. Different mixtures of the synthetic pheromone components were prepared by mixing acetate and alcohol components in 100:0, 99:1, and 90:10 (g/g) and tested with a comparison of a standard commercial pheromone lure. The highest pheromone effect was observed in only acetate mixture (100:0) and the effect was reduced with the addition of the alcohol component. This indoor pheromone effect could be observed in field monitoring trial, in which 100:0 mixture showed the highest trap catches. Orientation disruption assay was conducted indoor by using a cage, in which the center had a commercial lure on sticky plate and the four candidates were placed at 6 cm away from the central lure on each of four directions. Test males were released to the arena during overnight (12 h) and then the caught males on the sticky plate were counted. The synthesized pheromone as well as the commercial pheromone showed 100% orientation disruption. However, the orientation disruption effect was reduced with decrease in the number of the surrounding disrupting pheromone baits. These results clearly suggest that the synthesized sex pheromone of G. molesta is biologically active and can be used for field mating disruption.
Determination of Economic Injury Levels (EILs) and Control Thresholds (CTs) of Aphis egomae (Hom.: Aphididae) in Green Perilla
Choi, Yong-Seok ; Park, Deok-Gi ; Han, Ik-Soo ; Choe, Kwang-Ryul ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 317~325
According to the preceding survey on insect pests of the green perilla, Perilla frutescens var. japonica HARA, The major pests were Aphis egomae Shinji, Pyrausta panopealis (Walker), Tetranychus urticae Koch, Polyphagotarsonemus lotus Banks, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida at Guemsan, Chungnam, 2004. Aphis egomae causes nearly 100% injury of the green perilla in uncontrolled green houses. A field study was conducted to estimate economic injury levels (EILs) and control thresholds (CTs) for A. egomae injuring green perilla in green houses. Different densities of A. egomae ranged from 1 to 80 aphids per 100 plants in early inoculation. The mean injurying rate of plant was 2.4% to 40.5% at the end of June at differently inoculated levels. The economic loss time calculated by the ratio of cost managing aphid to market price (C/V) (C: cost managing aphid, V: Market price) in early season (from May to 13. June) was 5.8% and in peak season (from 13. June to 30. June) was 9.3%. Economic injury level in early and peak season was 5.3 aphids per plant and economic injury levels in peak season were 0.6 aphids per plant and 7.6% injured rate of plant. The control thresholds calculated by 80% level of economic injury level in peak season were 0.5aphids per plant and 6.1% injury rate of plant, respectively.
Economic Injury Levels for the Rice Leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Rice Paddy Field
Lee, Geon-Hwi ; Park, Chae-Hoon ; Choi, Man-Young ; Seo, Hong-Yul ; Bae, Soon-Do ; Choi, Yong-Soo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 327~331
This study was carried out to determine the economic injury level of the rice leaffolder,Cnaphalocrocis medinalis G.. The damage aspects of rice plant (at tilling stage) by leaf folders at different larval density per plant were studied in pot experiment (24 cm in diameter, 18 cm in height). One leaf folder consumed 6-7 leaves during larval stage. The damage by leaf folders was simulated by cutting off 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90% of leaves before and after heading stage July 15th (at panicle initiation stage) and August 15th (at milk stage), respectively. When leaves were cut before the heading of rice, the linear relationships between the leaf cutting rate (X) and each factors of yield (Y) were as following; for grain maturity it was Y = -9.379X + 83.630 (
),\;Y = 0.139X + 0.490 (
) for yield, and Y = -4.880X + 81.116 (
) for head rice. When leaves were cut after the heading of rice, it was Y = -23.0l4X + 83.589 (
), for grain maturity, Y=0.141X + 3.466 (
) for yield, and Y = -13.795X + 81.964 (
) for head rice. We found that when leaf cutting after the heading stage caused more damage than before the heading in terms of yield and yield components. Based on theses results the economic threshold level was estimated to be 30% and 7% leaf loss before and after heading stage.
Economic Injury Levels for the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Soybean
Lee, Geon-Hwi ; Bae, Soon-Do ; Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Choi, Man-Young ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 333~337
The damage aspects of soybean by common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) at different larval density and different growth stage of soybean were studied in soybean field. The percent yield reduction(Y) of soybean infested by different densities of S. litura (X, no. of larvae/plant) under outdoor conditions for a three week period were estimated by the following equations: (1) Y = 1.655X - 6.025 (
) for the R1 (flowering stage); (2) Y = 0.725X - 0.475 (
) for the R3 (beginning pod stage); and (3) Y = 0.635X - 1.325 (
) for the R5 (beginning seed stage). Based on the relationships between the densities of S. litura larvae and the yield index of soybean, the number of larvae (2nd-3rd instar) which caused 5% loss of yield (Tolerable injury level) was estimated to as approximately 6.7 for the R1, 7.5 for the R5, and 10.0 per plant for the R5, respectively. Average soybean leaf areas consumed by 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th larvae of Spodoptera litura during 24 hr at
was 0.3, 0.7, 2.6, 4.0, 20.1, and
Screening of Medicinal Plants to Suppress Population of Meloidogyne hapla in Codonopsis lanceolata Trautv
Lim, Ju-Rak ; Hwang, Chang-Yeon ; Kim, Dae-Hyang ; Choi, Jung-Sick ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 339~346
Total 90 species of medicinal plants were surveyed to see if they have any suppressive effects on the dinsity of M hapla at the exhibition field in the Chinan medicinal herbs experiment station. In 70 species including Achyranthes japonica, root-knot and/or egg sac of M. hapla was not found and these plants were planted in C. lanceolata field to check the degree of M. hapla infection. In 26 species including A. japonica, M. hapla infection was not observed. Simultaneously, 30 species were planted in pots to find out degree of infection by M. hapla. Dianthus chinensis, Rudbeckia bicolor, Sedum kantschaticum, Ricinus communis, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Malva verticillate, Chelidonium majus, Sesamum indicum, Agrimonia pilosa, Geum aleppicum, Sanguisorba officinalis and Scrophularia buergeriana were free from infection. While the number of galls and density of M. hapla in soil were higher to high innoculation density, and the growth of C. lanceolata was rower.
Some Medicinal Plants Suppressed Reproduction of Meloidogyne hapla on Codonopsis lanceolata Trautv
Lim, Ju-Rak ; Hwang, Chang-Yeon ; Ryu, Jeong ; Choi, Yeong-Geun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 347~355
Possible nematicidal effects of plant extracts of 25 species uninfected by M. hapla were observed at the 5 times dilutions in all treatments and at the 10 times dilutions in Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Acorus calamus, Achyranthes japonica, Agrimonia pilosa, Dianthus chinensis, Geum aleppicum, Houttuynia cordate, Rudbeckia bicolor, Ricinus communis, Scrophularia buergeriana, Sesamum iindicum, Sedum kamtschaticum, and Sanguisorba officinalis. The 13 species plant extracts of 5 times dilutions were evaluated for the suppression effects on reducing densities of M. hapla by treating to C. lanceolata sown and transplanted later in pots. All the plant extracts showed suppressive effects on M. hapla except for.A. pilosa. The suppressive effects of A. asphodeloides, A. japonica, A. calamus, D. chinensis, R. communis, and S. buergeriana were over 80%. When the selected plants had been incorporated into the soil before C. lanceolata was sown, the numbers of root galls, egg sacs and
appeared lower in the treatment of 12 plant species than in control except for S. indicum. But the suppressive effects were lower than the effects of selected plants being cultivated simultaneously in the field. A. calamus and A. japonica exhibited over 70% suppressive effects, among the tested plants.
Isolation and Activity of Insect Pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis Strain from Soil
Kim, Da-A ; Kim, Jin-Su ; Kil, Mi-Ra ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Park, Dong-Sik ; Yu, Yong-Man ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 357~362
Bacillus thuringiensis strains were isolated from the domestic soil and a strain was selected that had a new host range and high toxicity against agriculture insect pest. The 142 samples of soil were sampled from the mountains, paddy fields and patches, in Daejon, Chungnam, Chungbuk and Jeonbuk and used for the investigation. Sixteen B. t strains were isolated from 12 samples among collected samples. There were 11 strains that showed toxical activity on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), 7 steins on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 5 strains on Arete coerulea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 5 strains on Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) among the 16 isolated B. t strains. But there were not any strains that showed activity against Hyphanria cunea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Rhynchophoridae). And also some of B. thuringiensis strains showed insecticidal activity with 2, 3 or 4 kinds of insects. But there were also 3 strains that did not show any activities to the 6 insects which were used in the experiment. When examined with a phase-contrast microscope, the insecticidal crystal protein produced from 16 selected strains had 13 bipyramidal and 3 spherical shapes. The insecticidal bioactivity of the S. litura showed 100% mortality when there were
of CAB109 isolates.
Control of Food Pests by
Modified Atmosphere: Effects of Packing Materials and Exposure Time on the Mortality of Tribolium castaneum and Plodia interpunctella
Na, Ja-Hyun ; Nam, Young-Woo ; Ryoo, Mun-Il ; Chun, Yong-Shik ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 363~369
Effects of three packing materials and exposure time on the mortality of Plodia interpunctella and Tribolium castaneum were studied using
atmosphere control. Materials used were triple layered craft paper (KKK), triple layered craft paper with one laminate coating layer (KLK), and triple layered craft paper with one HD film coating layer (KHK). In the test balls (
) containing 85%
atmosphere, concentration of
in small packing envelopes (
) made of the materials after one day was higher in KKK (
) than KLK (
) or KHK (
). Both P. interpunctella and T. castaneum showed higher mortality in KKK than in either KLK or KHK Similar results were obtained by larger space (
) and packing volume (20 kg) studies. The effect of the packing materials was clearer on T. castaneum more tolerant to
than P. interpunctella. Regression of the insect mortality on cumulative concentration time (
) was highly significant. Control of P. interpunctella and T. castaneum by
atmosphere were discussed in relation to packing materials, cumulative concentration time of
and food products.
Life History of lvela auripes (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)
Choi, Kwang-Sik ; Choi, Won-Il ; Kim, Chul-Su ; Park, Il-Kwon ; Chung, Yeong-Jin ; Jang, Seok-Jun ; Shim, Sang-Jun ; Shin, Sang-Chul ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 371~373
Life history of Ivela auripes (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a pest of Cornus controversa, was investigated both in laboratory and field condition. At
, developmental period from larvae to adult and adult life span was
days, respectively. Developmental period of pupae reared in the laboratory was not significantly different from those collected in the field. Female moths reared in the laboratory laid significantly less eggs than those emerged from the pupae collected in the field. Light trap catches was less effective than direct monitoring in the field. The two monitoring results showed that adult moth emerged from early June to late June, and the time of 50% cumulative emergence was 17 June.
Distribution of Antennal Sensilla in Cotesia plutellae and Effect of Flagellectomy on Parasitism
Kim, Yong-Gyun ; Park, Jung-A ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 375~380
A solitary endoparasitoid, Cotesia plutellae, parasitizes diamondback moth, Plutellae xylostella. It has been suggested that its antennae are a major sensory organ to search host and recognize host developmental and other physiological condition during parasitization. This research was performed to understand the parasitic behavior of C. plutellae by analyzing sensory types and their numbers on the antennae using scanning electron microscope. There was no significant difference in antennal length in both male and female C. plutellae, in which both sexes had 16 flagellomeres. Three different types of sensilla (trichoid, seta, and placodea sensilla) were located mostly on flagella and analyzed in their density on the different antennomeres. Trichoid sensillum was the major sensory type and showed about 87% density among all sensilla. Both trichoid and placodea types of sensilla exhibited even numbers on all flagellomeres with some decrease at terminal segments. In contrast, seta form of sensilla showed drastic increase in its density at distal part after 9th flagellomere. When distal half of flagellomeres were cut off, the C. plutellae could not parasitize host larvae. Even when only four distal flagellomeres were removed, the parasitism showed only 30%. These results indicate that C. plutellae antennae are required for parasitism and suggest that seta form of sensilla may play significant roles in recognizing host for parasitization.
Effect of Temperature on Hatching Rate of Nannophya pygmaea eggs (Odonata: Libellulidae)
Kim, Dong-Gun ; Yum, Jin-Whoa ; Yoon, Tae-Joong ; Bae, Yeon-Jae ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 45, issue 3, 2006, Pages 381~383
The hatching rate of the eggs of Nannophya pygmaea Rambur, an endangered dragonfly species in Korea, was experimented in different temperature conditions (
) in laboratory. N. pygmaea eggs were collected from female adults inhabited a small wetland in Mungyong-si, Kyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, in July 2006. The hatching rate was evaluated from the number of hatched nymphs for the period of 100 days. As a result, the hatching rates were 83, 89, and 76% at
, respectively; however, eggs were not hatched at
during the experiment period. The derived thermal threshold for egg hatching was
, which is relatively higher than the values of other temperate dragonflies.