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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean journal of applied entomology
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 46, Issue 3 - Dec 2007
Volume 46, Issue 2 - Aug 2007
Volume 46, Issue 1 - Apr 2007
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DNA Markers Applicable for Identification of Two Internal Apple Feeders, Grapholita molesta and Carposina sasakii
Song, Seung-Baeck ; Choi, Kyeung-Hee ; Lee, Soon-Won ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 175~182
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.175
Two fruit moths of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), and the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii (Matsumura), infest apples in Korea by internally feeding behavior. C. sasakii is a quarantine insect pest from some other countries importing Korean apples. G. molesta is not a quarantine insect pest, but can be incorrectly identified as C. sasakii especially when it is found inside apple fruits at its larval stages because it is not easy to identify the two species by morphological characters alone. This incomplete identification results in massive economical loss by fruits needlessly destroyed or turned away at border inspection stations of the importing nations. This difficulty can be overcome by molecular DNA markers. Several polymorphic regions of mitochondrial DNA of both species were sequenced and used for developing specific striction sites and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers. Based on these sequences, three diagnostic PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites were detected and validated for their practical uses. Also, species-specific PCR primers were devised to develop diagnostic PCR method for identifying the internal feeders.
Ultrastructural Characteristics of Antennal Sensilla and Hair-pencils on the Cotton Caterpillar, Palpita indica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Using Scanning Electron Microscope
Lee, Dae-Hong ; Kang, Myong-Ki ; Lee, Hee-Jin ; Seok, Hee-Bong ; Park, Sun-Nam ; Kang, Eun-Jin ; Seo, Mi-Ja ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 183~191
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.183
The external ultrastructural morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla and hair-pencils of Palpita indica (Saunder) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The antennal flagellum of male and female has six types of sensilla: long trichodea, short trichodesa, chaetica, coeloconicum around spines, camaniformia and styloconica. There are sexual differences in antennae of P. indica. The female antenna has a coeloconicum sensillum without spines nearby the long trichodea sensilla on ninth flagellomere. Otherwise, auricillica sensilla are distribute on the basal segment of male antenna. These structures are not showed in the female antenna. There are a lot of pores on the hair tufts of the male hair-pencils.
Degree of Injury Caused by Larva of Pyrausta panopealis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Green Perilla Polyvinyl House at Chungnam Province
Choi, Yong-Seok ; Park, Deok-Gi ; Kim, Byung-Ryun ; Han, Kwang-Seop ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Choe, Kwang-Ryul ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 193~199
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.193
This study was conducted to explain degree of injury caused by P. panopealis larva which is the key component to develop economic injury level or control threshold in green perilla and was carried out in polyvinyl houses at Yuseong Daejeon, Geumsan and Yesan Chungnam from 2004 to 2006. Of 5 major pests in green perilla polyvinyl house, P. panopealis larva injured green perilla leaf by 48.5% on average under no insecticides application. The peak occurrence of P. panopealis adult was early August and late September in 2004 and 2005 studies. The feeding amount of P. panopealis larva among 1st to 3rd instar was not different, but from the 4th instar the feeding amount greatly increased and this result was consistent with daily feeding experiment in which the amount greatly increased from seventh day. The degree of injury which was investigated with different larval infestation levels showed that the degree of injury increased a little but was not dim ε rent significantly as the density increased. The density of P. panopealis larva in damaged green perilla plant was less than three individuals/plant. This result indicates that P. panopealis adult lays egg on green perilla leaf dispersedly and larva hatched from egg injures only the leaf which egg is layed. These preliminary data seems to be very useful to design economic injury level and control threshold studies for P. panopealis in green perilla polyvinyl house.
Biology of Three Species of the Genus Tipula (Diptera: Tipulidae) in Korea
Kim, Dong-Sang ; Lee, Jong-Eun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 201~212
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.201
This study was conducted to investigate the biology of three species, Tipula latemarginata Alexander, T. nova Walker and T. aino Alexander, of the Genus Tipula in Korea. Field surveys for the biology of the species were carried out at the three sites of Neaseong Stream area in Bongwha County from January 2001 to December 2005. Also many individuals of the species were reared in laboratory to investigate the biology. The larval habitats of the species were streams, rivers, paddy fields, damp earth or leaky revetments. The Tipula larvae were herbivorous. Newly-hatched first instar larvae fed on soft algae, and the larvae gradually fed on leaves, stems and roots of a variety of plants or hard leaf litters, as they grew. During the molting of the larvae their body kept moving from left to right and up and down. Molting usually took not more than 2 hours, and about four hours after molting, the larvae started to eat heavily. The Tipula larvae in aquatic places moved to drier land for pupation and went through short prepupal stage lasting 1-2 days for pupation at fourth instar larval stage. When emerging, the Tipula pupae placed their head and thorax on the earth, but the other parts in the earth. Emergence from the pupal case required about 20 min. to one hour. Mating of Tipula adults took place within 5-7min. after emergence and the duration of mating was about 40 min. The female adults of the species laid eggs by walking with 3 pairs of legs over the damp earth or algal beds. Their body was positioned vertically on the ground with their wings spread
and legs landed on the surface. The oviposition usually took place from one day to 4 days after emergence and the number of eggs carried by female adults were an average of 501-760 per individual. Tipula adults didn`t normally feed, and drank water only occasionally. For a few days after emergence, the adults reared in the laboratory rarely drank water. As they neared to death, however, they frequently drank water. The longevity of adults reared in the laboratory with only water during the summer was ca. 4-9 days and males usually survived a little longer than females. The longevity of T. nova was increased 3 times or more as much by feeding them 3% sugar water. Male adults of T. latemarginata outnumbered female adults by 2.6 : 1 in the fields.
Temperature-dependent Development and Its Model of the Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Homoptera: Aphididae)
Lee, Jang-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Heung ; Kim, Ji-Soo ; Hwangn, Chang-Yeon ; Lee, Sang-Guei ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 213~219
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.213
The development of Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) was studied at various constant temperatures ranging from 15 to
RH, and a photoperiod of 16L:8D. Mortality of the
stage nymphs were similar at most temperature ranges while at high temperature of
stage individuals died. The total developmental time ranged from 13.8 days at
to 4.9 days at
suggesting that the higher the temperature, the faster the development. However, at higher end temperature of
the development took 6.4 days. The lower developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulative temperatures for the total immature stage were
and 105.9 day-degrees, respectively and the nonlinear shape of temperature related development was well described by the modified Sharpe and DeMichele model. The normalized cumulative frequency distributions of developmental period for each life stage were fitted to the three-parameter Weibull function. The attendance of shortened developmental times was apparent with
nymph, and total nymph stages in descending order. The coefficient of determination
ranged between 0.80 and 0.87.
Stink Bug Species and Host Plants Occurred in Fallow Lands for Rice Product Regulation
Paik, Chae-Hoon ; Choi, Man-Young ; Seo, Hong-Yul ; Lee, Geon-Hwi ; Kim, Jae-Duk ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 221~227
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.221
Stink bug species and host plants occurred in fallow lands for rice product regulation were studied in Honam area from 2004 to 2005. A total of 26 bug species in 8 families were surveyed in the fallow lands. Population density of Cletus punctiger adult reached its peak in July and was higher in fallow lands close to mountain area in Muan. Population density of stink bug species occurred in plain area of Wanju were significantly low in 2004 and population density of C. punctiger adult reached its peak in July and August in fallow lands in 2005. Five species of stink bug including C. punctiger immigrated from fallow lands to rice fields in August, and three other species including Cletus schmidti in September. Eight stink bug species which were observed to feed on weeds in fallow lands were C. punctiger, C. schmidti, Eurydema gebleri, Pachygrontha antennata, Trigonotylus caelestialium, Aelia fieberi, Eysarcoris aeneus, and Nezara antennata.
Protein Composition and Biological Activities of Bombus ignitus Venom
Han, Sang-Mi ; Lee, Kwang-Gill ; Yeo, Joo-Hong ; Kweon, Hae-Yong ; Woo, Soon-Ok ; Yoon, Hyung-Joo ; Kim, Me-Ae ; Kim, Won-Tae ; Baek, Ha-Ju ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 229~234
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.229
Pure Bombus ignitus venom samples were submitted to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 64 excised spots were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Three main proteins resulted in the identification have not been described in other bee venoms before. Dose-dependence against human carcinoma (Hep3B, BT-20, A549 and AGS) were observed from 1ng/ml to 100ng/ml. Expecially, the treatment of 100ng/ml B. ignitus venoms showed the highest cytotoxicity with 55% against hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B). The B. ignitus venoms showed strong antimicrobial activities against Enterococcus faecium and Shigella sonnei, and practically antimicrobial activity against the other microorganisms tested. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of E. faecium and S. sonnei, were 0.256ug/ml, respectively.
Phenotypic Variation and Genetic Correlation of Elytra Colored Patterns of Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles, Harmon axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Korea
Seo, Mi-Ja ; Kang, Eun-Jin ; Kang, Myong-Ki ; Lee, Hee-Jin ; Seok, Hee-Bong ; Lee, Dae-Hong ; Park, Sun-Nam ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 235~249
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.235
The multicolored Asian lady beetles (Harmonia axyridis) has characteristic color patterns, which show great variability within species. Up to now, it has been well known that main factors affected on individual color pattern variations in the population of H axyridis are external, physical, and environmental characteristics. Indeed, there is as yet no evidence to indicate whether the variation is genetic or environmental factors. Also the factors which produce this variation are unknown in this species, although it is suspected that much of the variation is under genetic control. However, the genetic relationships among many of color types were investigated by observing the progeny of each particular pairs. It is worth mentioning a few particular breeding cases to illustrate certain facets of variability, and to indicate examples suitable for genetic analysis of the color pattern variation.
Selection of Low Toxic Pesticides and Residual Toxicity to Cotesia glomerata
Choi, Byeong-Ryeol ; Lee, Si-Woo ; Park, Hyung-Man ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 251~259
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.251
For the development of integrated pest management system by harmonizing biological and chemical control, some experiments wee carried out to select low toxic pesticides against natural enemies. and their residual toxicity were evaluated. Leaf dipping method, body dipping method, and diet treatment method were set up for the toxicity evaluation against Cotesia glomerata adults. We had tested 46 different pesticides (31 insecticides, 11 fungicides, 4 herbicides) at recommending concentration commonly used to control diamond back moth, disease and up-land weeds in chinese cabbage field. Twenty three insecticides, eleven fungicides, and four herbicides were shown to be low toxic to C. glomerata adults in the treatment of body dipping. After insecticide spraying at recommending dose on the chinese cabbage, we examined residual effect of insecticides by introducing natural enemies on different days. Safety interval for the introduction of C. glomerata adults was established according to the residual toxicity of pesticides. Safe insecticides for the introduction of C. glomerata adults at one day after treatment (DAT) were thiacloprid, acephate, chlorfenapyr, clothianidin and at 3 DAT were imidacloprid, deltamethrin, thiamethoxam, dimethylvinphos, emamectin benzoate.
Bioassay of Environment-friendly Insecticides for Management of Mosquito, Culex pipieos molestus
Choi, Su-Yeon ; Oh, Se-Chan ; Cho, Min-Su ; Paek, Seung-Kyoung ; Kim, Jin-Su ; Kim, Da-A ; Gil, Mi-Ra ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Yu, Yong-Man ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 261~267
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.261
Bioassay of mosquito, Culex pipiens molestus, larva was investigated by several environment-friendly insecticides. These insecticides were Novaluron as chitin synthesis inhibitor, Metho-xyfenozide as ecdysone agonist, Pyriproxyfen as juvenile hormone mimic, and Spiromesifen as lipid biosynthesis inhibitor. The 50% lethal concentration
of these insecticides were 0.00039, 0.07193, 0.65006 and 0.04839 ppm, respectively. Novaluron has lower concentration than any other insecticide. To determine the treatment time against larval stages, insecticides were applied to different larval stages of C. pipiens molestus. Mortality ratios of mosquito larva treated with Novaluron were 100.0, 84.5, 71.0 and 48.5% on 2, 4, 7 and 10 days after hatching from eggs, respectively. Otherwise, with the other insecticides, mortality ratios were under 80% with 2 days old larva. When exposure periods were tested to 3 or 4 days old larva against 4 insecticides, at least 3 hours were needed to 100% control effect against Novaluron, and over 12 hours with other insecticides.
Efficacy Test of Mating Disruptors Using Food Trap of Oriental Fruit Moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)
Kim, Yong-Gyun ; Bae, Sung-Woo ; Choi, Kyung-Hee ; Lee, Dong-Hyuk ; Lee, Soon-Won ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 269~274
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.269
This study was performed to estimate the efficacy of three commercial mating disruptors for the control of oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), using a food-baited trap to collect field females. Mated female ratios estimated in the mating disruptor-treated areas were compared with the estimates of male trap captures, and both estimates were evaluated on the basis of crop damage measured by shoot tip damage caused by G. molesta. Both males and females were attracted to the food trap-baited with terpinyl acetate in apple orchard. Spermatophore of G. molesta was similar to female bursa copulatrix in size. Though there was more than 95% reduction in male trap captures indicating significant mating disruption, significant crop damage occurred on apple leaf buds, in which more than 35% of captured females were mated. This study demonstrates that assessment of the mated females would be more reasonable to represent the efficacy of mating disruptor(s) than the assessment of the male captures in G. molesta.
Status of the Occurrence of Insect Pests and Their Natural Enemies in Soybean Fields in Honam Province
Paik, Chae-Hoon ; Lee, Geon-Hwi ; Choi, Man-Young ; Seo, Hong-Yul ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; Hwang, Chang-Yeon ; Kim, Sang-Soo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 275~280
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.275
This survey was conducted to illustrate insect pests and their natural enemies in soybean fields in Honam area. A total of 23 pest species in 13 families and 13 species of natural enemy were observed during 2002 to 2003. Delia platura, Medythia nigrobilineata, Spodoptera exigua and Aphis glycines occurred relatively with high population densities during the early growth stage of soybean. Dolycoris baccarum, Riptortus clavatus, Nezara antennata, Piezodorus hybneri and Halyomorpha halys began to occur between mid July to early August and lasted until the harvest time. Lepidopteran insect pests, Leguminivora glycinivorella, Pleuroptya ruralis, Scopula missaria, Macdunnoughia purissima and Spodoptera litura occurred significantly in late August in soybean field. Natural enemies of soybean insect pests observed in this survey were seven parasitoids, five predators, and an entomopahogenic fungus. Two egg parasitoid species for R. clavatus, two parasitoid species for P. ruralis, and five natural enemy species (including parasite, predator and entomopathogenic fungi) for either S. litura or A. glycines were identified, respectively. Among them two egg parasitoid species, Gryon japonicum and Ooenyrtus nezarae for R. clavatus, for and one parasitoid species for P. ruralis, that belong to Bethylidae, were new to Korea.
Report on Two Egg Parasitoid Species of Riptortus clavatus (Thunberg) (Heteroptera: Alydidae) on Soybean
Paik, Chae-Hoon ; Lee, Geon-Hwi ; Choi, Man-Young ; Seo, Hong-Yul ; Kim, Doo-Ho ; La, Seung-Yong ; Park, Chung-Gyoo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 281~286
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.281
Two hymenopteran egg parasitoid species, Gryon japonicum (Ashmead) (Scelionidae) and Ooencyrtus nezarae Ishii (Encyrtidae), were emerged from eggs of bean bug, Riptortus clavatus Thunberg (Heteroptera: Alydidae). The former parasitoid is first recorded in Korea. Brief morphological and biological characteristics, and parasitism on R. clavatus eggs are described.
Characteristics on the Pollinating Activity of Korean Native Bumblebee, Bombus ignitus Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Peach House
Lee, Ki-Yeol ; Lee, Sang-Beom ; Ahn, Ki-Su ; Park, Seong-Kyu ; Yoon, Hyung-Joo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 287~293
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.287
The pollinating activity of bumblebee, Bombus ignitus was investigated at the blossom of Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] planted in vinyl house. The major time of foraging activity by B. ignitus was between 08:00 and 7:00, and the peak time of pollinating activity by B. ignitus was 11 :00 in the peach vinyl house from February 28 to March 5 in 2002. The rate of fruit set and the rate of marketable fruit by foraging activity of B. ignitus were much better than artificial pollination, and the effect of labor reduction by the pollinating activities of B. ignitus released against th ε artificial pollination was took remarkable profits over 93%. Therefore, the foraging activity of B. ignitus in peach vinyl house brought satisfactory results among the rate of fruit set, the rate of marketable fruit and the effect of labor reduction against the artificial pollination.
Improvement of Occasional Artificial Hatching and Incubation Method in Diapause Egg of the Wild Silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai
Yoon, Hyung-Joo ; Kang, Pil-Don ; Lee, Sang-Mong ; Kim, Sam-Eun ; Kim, Ki-Young ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 295~302
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.295
We investigated starvation of hatching larvae, occasional artificial hatching and incubation method to establish year-round rearing of the wild silkmoth, Antheraea yamamai. In the test of starvation of hatching larvae for brushing at a time, the survival rate of the fourth instar of larvae starved for 1 day after hatching in
was 83.3% and 96.0%, respectively. The result represents that the survival rate is high at low temperature during starvation. In the occasional artificial hatching test for multi-times rearing of A. yamamai, the useful hatchability is high at
in case of preserving eggs for 2 months from incubation time, and at both
in case of over 6 months. A new incubation method with pre-incubation at
and 24 D photoperiod showed high hatchability about 80% for only 2 days compared with hatching for 5-6 days in traditional incubation method with the preservation at
Isolation and Characterization of Xylanase-producing Paenibacillus sp. HY-8 from Moechotypa diphysis
Heo, Sun-Yeon ; Oh, Hyun-Woo ; Park, Doo-Sang ; Kim, Hyang-Mi ; Bae, Kyung-Sook ; Park, Ho-Yong ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 303~311
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.303
From the course of screening of useful xylanase producing microorganism from a phytophagous longicorn beetle, we isolated an extra-cellular xylanase producing strain, Paenibacillus sp. HY-8 from the intestine of Moechotypa diphysis adult. On the basis of morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic studies of the new isolate was identified as a Paenibacillus species. Production of xylanase in this strain was strongly induced by adding xylan to the growth medium and repressed by glucose or xylose. The highest xylanase production was attained in the M9 media containing 1% yeast extract and 0.5% birchwood xylan when cultured at
for 24 hrs. HY-8 producing xylanase showed superior hydrolytic activities against various plant source feedstuff than control xylanase produced by Tricoderma sp. at pH 6.0.
Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae GSN1 Strain (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) against Tebenna issikii (Lepidoptera: Choreutidae)
Kim, Hyeong-Hwan ; Han, Gun-Yeong ; Choo, Ho-Yul ; Lee, Sang-Myeong ; Lee, Dong-Woon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 313~318
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.313
Entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae GSN1 strain was evaluated for the environmentally sound control of Tebenna issikii (Lepidoptera: Choreutidae) in the laboratory. The corrected mortality of Tebenna issikii larvae was 100% at the 40 infective juveniles (Ijs)/larva 3 days after treatment with S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain in Petri dish.
value of S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain against Tebenna issikii was 5.7 Ijs. The mean penetration numbers of Ijs of S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain at the 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 Ijs/larva in a Tebenna issikii larva were 1.4, 1.4, 3.2, 5.6 and 11.9 Ijs/larva, respectively. However penetration rate of Ijs of S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain at 5 Ijs/larva was the highest among other nematode concentrations. Progeny of S. carpocapsae GSN1 strain in a Tebenna issikii larva was higher with increasing nematode concentration.
Determination of the Optimal Concentration of Fetal Bovine Serum for the Growth of Two Insect Cell and Viruses
Lee, Jae-Kyung ; Koo, Hyun-Na ; Woo, Soo-Dong ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 319~324
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.319
To determine the optimal concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the growth of insect cells and the multiplicity of viruses, the growth of cells (Sf21 and Bm5) and viruses were examined on the various concentrations of FBS. In view of the viability, growth speed, proliferation of cells and the amount of FBS, the most proper concentration for the cell culture were 7% and 5% for Sf21 and Bm5, respectively. The multiplicity of viruses at the various concentrations of FBS was similar in both cell lines at 5 days post-infection (p.i.). However, it differed significantly at 2 and 3 days p.i. The proper concentration of FBS were 10% and 3% for Sf21 at 2 and 3 days p.i., respectively, and 5% for Bm5 at both 2 and 3 days p.i. These results suggested that the optimal concentration of FBS should be determined according to the used cell lines and viruses for their optimum production.
Control of Slug by Using Beer and Cigarette Mixture
Yoon, Jong-Chul ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Shim, Chang-Ki ; Ryu, Kyung-Yul ; Jee, Hyeong-Jin ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 46, issue 2, 2007, Pages 325~330
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2007.46.2.325
Among various food base baiting materials, beer and macerated cucumber were the most effective to induce slug that is a troublesome pest on leafy vegetables, especially on lettuce. However, the baits attracted only but did not kill the pest. When the baits were combined with various insecticidal organic materials, a few combinations such as beer and cigarette mixture successfully induced and killed the slug in the field test. The most effective combination of beer 50ml and a cigarette contained in a small plastic box killed 25 slugs per night. While macerated cucumber 50ml and a cigarette mixture killed only 4.3 slugs. The bait of beer and cigarette mixture revealed 68.4% control value against slug damage when treated for 3 consecutive days in a lettuce cultivation greenhouse. The bait also effectively reduced the slug damage in a lettuce nursery showing 58.3% control value. The method seemed highly useful for the control of slug in the organic farming system in which application of pesticides are strictly prohibited.