Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean journal of applied entomology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Applied Entomology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 47, Issue 4 - Dec 2008
Volume 47, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 47, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 47, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
Rediscovery of Scrobipalpa salinella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) Feeding on Salicornia europaea Linneaus in Korea
Park, Jin-Young ; Park, Kyu-Tek ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 309~313
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.309
In a cultivated field of Salicornia europae in the Jeonam Province, Korea, Scrobipalpa salinella (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) which feeds and leads to a serious damage was found. The discovery of this species is to reconfirm its distribution in Korea because the first report by Park and Ponomarenko (2006) was based on a single female and it was collected in a montane area far from seaside where its host plants, halophytes, are planted. For identification, photos of imago and genitalia are given, and the damage by larvae on Salicornia europae are noted.
Taxonomic Study on the Poneromorph Subfamilies Group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Korea
Lyu, Dong-Pyeo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 315~331
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.315
A total of 12 species in six genera of the poneromorph subfamilies group in Korea was reviewed. All investigated specimens are classified into three subfamilies; Amblyoponinae, Proceratinae and Ponerinae. Totally six genera were known and Cryptopone, Hypoponera, Pachycondyla and Ponera belong to the subfamily Ponerinae and Amblyopone and Proceratium belongs to the subfamily Amblyoponinae and Proceratinae respectively. In this study, keys to the all known genera and species of the subfamilies in Korea are presented. A synonymic list, description of a worker and comments on each species are given with SEM photographs of worker.
Insect Fossils (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Donaciinae) Found Together with Ancient Rice in Soro-ri Peat Layer
Nam, Sang-Chan ; Lee, Seong-Kyun ; An, Seung-Lak ; Lee, Yung-Jo ; Cho, Soo-Won ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 333~336
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.333
During the excavation to find ancient rice seeds from the peat layer (12,500-14,800 bp based on 14 dating samples) of Soro-ri, Cheongwon-gun near Cheongju city, we found not only old rice seeds, but also other organic materials including insect fossil skeletons. Although no complete specimen was found in this study, some body parts were diagnotic enough for identifying species. Among the identified insect fossils, two species were successfully identified based on their characteristic forewing morphologies, e.g., cross-ridges on forewing. The two identified species, Plateumaris sericea and Donacia flemola or near, belong to Donaciinae in Chrysomelidae, and their larvae are known to feed on the root of wetland plants, mainly in Poaceae or Cyperaceae. Such finding proved that a wetland environment was maintained in Soro-ri at that time, and was suitable for such insects to survive. Therefore, evidence from the fossilized rice seeds, together with these insect fossils, clearly proved that the environment at that time was suitable for rice, a common Poaceae species, growing.
Ecology of the Black Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratmyidae) in Korea
Kim, Jong-Gill ; Choi, Young-Cheol ; Choi, Ji-Young ; Kim, Won-Tae ; Jeong, Gil-Sang ; Park, Kwan-Ho ; Hwang, Sock-Jo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 337~343
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.337
This study was conducted to investigate the distribution pattern, ecological characteristics and life cycle of the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens, BSF). The BSF was widely distributed throughout Korea. The insect was mainly found in the vicinity of and in cattle sheds, manure sheds, living waste dump grounds, and food waste dump grounds. Developmental characteristics of the BSF are as follows: the egg was long oval shaped of 887
in the major axis and 190
in the minor axis; it weighed 24
. Female oviposited ca. 1,000 eggs on average; eggs hatched in 81 hours under laboratory condition (
, 60% R.H.). The duration of the larval stage was approximately
days. The size of the last instar larvae was 21 mm. The cuticle of the pupae gradually acquired red-brown color and the size of them was 19 mm. The pupal stage was shorter for females (16 days) than males (15 days). Adults were sized about
mm long and black-colored. The life span of adult insects was
days for the first generation (June
days for the second generation (Aug.
days for the third generation (Sept.
Oct.). Mating started on the next day of emergence and actively occurred at the third day after emergence. Mating mostly occurred between 10:00 and 16:00 during which light intensity is highest. Egg-laying started on the third day and was most frequent from the fourth to the sixth day after emergence. Similar to mating time, females oviposited mostly between 10:00 and 16:00.
Seasonal Occurrences of Insect Pests in Watermelon under Greenhouses as Affected by Cropping Season
Moon, Hyung-Cheol ; Kim, Woong ; Choi, Min-Kyung ; Kwon, Sung-Hwan ; Shin, Young-Kyu ; Kim, Dae-Hyang ; Hwang, Chang-Yeon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 345~352
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.345
The seasonal occurrence of insect pests in watermelon cultivated in greenhouses was surveyed in Gochang from 2006 to 2007 considering three seasonal types of culture: forcing culture, semi-forcing culture and retarding culture. Aphis gossypii, mites (Tetranychus urticae+T. kanzawai) and Palpita indica were the most serious pest species in watermelon greenhouse culture. A. gossypii and mites showed high density during the months of June and September in semi-forcing and retarding culture, respectively. Palpita indica was observed only in retarding culture. Leaf damage by Palpita indica was observed from the middle of August and peaked to 79.4% damage in the middle of September. Thrips and whiteflies were captured in high density by the yellow sticky trap in semi-forcing culture and retarding culture but these insects showed low population density in watermelon leaves.
Development under Constant Temperatures and Seasonal Prevalence in Soybean Field of the Bean Pyralid, Omiodes indicatus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Choi, Kyu-Hwan ; Hong, Yoon-Ki ; Chang, Young-Jik ; Moon, Jeong-Seop ; Kim, Chi-Sun ; Choi, Dong-Chil ; Kim, Tae-Heung ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 353~358
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.353
The bean pyralid, Omiodes indicatus (Fabricius), moulted 4 times during larval period. When temperature increased from 15 to 20, 25, and
, the developmental period of immature stages was shortened; 18.2, 7.5, 5.0, and 4.1 days of egg period; 51.8, 20.0, 12.7, and 9.9 days of larval period; 29.5, 12.0, 8.0, and 5.9 days of pupal period, respectively. Adult longevity was 16.0, 14.7, 11.2, and 7.5 days at respective temperatures. A female adult layed 57.0, 63.3, 82.2, and 31.7 eggs in 3.7, 6.0, 5.8, and 3.0 days of oviposition period at the same temperature regimes, respectively. Field survey in 2006 and 2007 showed that leaf damage on paddy field and upland soybeans began to appear in mid July, reaching its peaks in mid August and late September. Adults of the bean pyralid appeared in mid July and peaked in late August and early October.
Development Model of the Foxglove Aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) on Lettuce
Lee, Sang-Guei ; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Heung ; Park, Gil-Jun ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Ji-Soo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 359~364
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.359
The development of Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) was studied at temperatures ranging from 12.5 to
RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D). Mortality of
nymph was higher than that of
nymph at the most temperature ranges whereas at high temperature of
nymph stage individuals died. The total developmental time ranged from 16.9 days at
to 6.6days at
, suggesting that higher the temperature, faster the development. However, at higher temperature of
the development took 7.4 days. The lower developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulative temperatures for the total immature stage were
and 162.8 day-degreeslated development. The nonlinear shape of temperature rewas well described by the modified Sharpe and DeMichele model. When the normalized cumulative frequency distributions of developmental times for each life stage were fitted to the three-parameter Weibull function, attendance of shortened developmental times was apparent with in
nymph, and total nymph stages in descending order. The coefficient of determination
ranged between 0.86 and 0.91.
Longevity and Life Table of the Foxglove Aphid (Aulacorthum solani K.) Adults on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)
Lee, Sang-Guei ; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan ; Kim, Tae-Heung ; Park, Gil-Jun ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Ji-Soo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 365~368
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.365
Adult longevity and fecundity of the foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani Kaltenbach, were studied at
RH under 16L:8D and the results were put together to build a life table. The longevity of foxglove gradually increased with decreasing temperature below
. Also total fecundity increased with decreasing temperature and highest fecundity was 74.1 nymphs per female at
. However, daily fecundity increased with increasing temperatures up to
showing 2.9 nymphs per day and thereafter decreased. Net reproduction rate (
) was highest of 58.7 at
. The intrinsic rate of increase per day (
) and the finite rate of increase per day (
) were highest of 0.27 and 1.32, respectively and the doubling time (Dt) was shortest of 2.52. the mean generation time (T) was 10.99 at
Changes of Feeding Behaviors of Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) Depending on Inflow Concentrations of Imidacloprid
Seo, Mi-Ja ; Kang, Myong-Ki ; Jo, Beom-Haeng ; Hwang, In-Cheon ; Jang, Chul ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 369~378
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.369
After treatment with imidacloprid, there were clear differences in the time to the first reaction of Myzus persicae among the concentrations treated. The time taken for the proboscis of the aphids to penetrate, during the recording plants increased as the imidacloprid concentration increased. Imidacloprid concentration inflow into a leaf was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the residues of the imidacloprid varied slightly with the different concentrations treated. However, the inflow rates of this insecticide into a leaf increased as the dipping times increased. Furthermore, it was shown that there was no relationship in inflow concentration between the concentrations and times of treatment. However, the concentration in the leaf differed according to the dipping time. Judging from the fact that the first reaction behavior against imidacloprid displayed at an inflow concentration of 0.32-0.35 mg/L, we concluded that inflow concentrations causing the first reaction of the aphids to the insecticide were much lower than the concentration treated. The general feeding characteristics of the aphids indicated that xylem and/or phloem feeding behavior continued after a series of probing behaviors and stylet activity during the first 3 h from the start of EPG recording. After 90 min treatment with imidacloprid, feeding behavior over the next 30 min indicated a significant increase in the withdrawal of the stylet from the plant at all treated concentrations. Xylem and/or phloem feeding patterns were significantly decreased during this time. In particular, the proportion of xylem feeding differed according to the concentration of imidacloprid.
Oviposition Preference of The Bean Bug, Riptortus clavatus (Thunberg) (Hemiptera: Alydidae), on Soybean and Mungbean Plants
Jung, Jin-Kyo ; Seo, Bo-Yoon ; Moon, Jung-Kyeong ; Park, Jong-Ho ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 379~383
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.379
Oviposition preference of the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus to sites on a plant and within a field, to plants at different developmental stages, and to different leguminous germplasms was observed. The insect layed its eggs mainly on the back surface of leaf in the upper half of plant in both observation from oviposition cage and soybean field. The egg number in fields were observed at a statistically-same rate in marginal and inside area, and at a median value of one egg per leaf in oviposited leaves. Full seed stage of soybean hardly affected oviposition preference of the insect. A statistically-significant difference in oviposition to different leguminous germplasms was observed.
Growth, Development, and Reproduction of Monochamus saltuarius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on Conifers Fed to Larvae
Hwang, In-Cheon ; Kim, Ju-Huyn ; Park, Jong-Bin ; Shin, Sang-Chul ; Chung, Young-Jin ; Cho, Sae-Youll ; Park, Yong-Chul ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 385~394
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.385
Larvae of Monochamus saltuarius showed normal growth and development on conifers of Pinus koraiensis, P. densiflora, Abies holophylla, Larix leptolepsis, P. bungeana, and P. rigida, respectively, but the conifers influenced significantly the body weight and the survival rate of larvae. Though the larval body weights were in a wide spectrum among treatments, growth curves of them were very similar from each other, showing continuous increase from the early larval stage to about 3 months old. The body weight was decreased slightly after the feeding period of the early 3 months. The size of larvae and adults became the largest from P. bungeana fed larvae. The mid-sized ones were from P. koraiensis, P. densiflora and A. holophylla. Small ones came from L. leptolepsis and P. rigida. The larval growth was retarded without water supply. Overall survival rates from the early stage of a larva to a fertile adult were 53.6% from P. koraiensis; 51.8%, P. densiflora; 34.7%, A. holophylla; 17.8%, P. bungeana; 16.7%, L. leptolepsis; and 12.3%, P. rigida. Adults from larvae fed the 6 species of conifers, respectively, were grown into the reproductively potent adults, which laid viable eggs. A few of overwintered larvae did not pupate and remained still as a larva until the late October of the year. Data from the field survey, the head width emerged from P. koraiensis was larger than that of L. leptolepsis. The adult emergence hole in P. koraiensis was larger also. While, the size of the emergence hole was larger in the artificially innoculated log of P. koraiensis, which was kept for a larva to be with a minimized food competition and sufficient water supply, than that of the field.
Economic Injury Levels of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae) Infesting Eggplant in Greenhouse
Lim, Ju-Rak ; Choi, Seon-U ; Kim, Ju-Hee ; Moon, Hyung-Cheol ; Lee, Ki-Kwon ; Kim, Dae-Hyang ; Ryu, Jeong ; Lee, Sang-Ku ; Hwang, Chang-Yeon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 395~400
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.395
Economic injury levels (EILs) and economic threshold (ET) were estimated for the two spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari, Tetranychidae) on greenhouse eggplants. T. urticae density increased until the mid-July and thereafter decreased in all plots where initial density of the mite were different each 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20 adults per plant was innoculated on June 7. Growth variables of were not different among experimental plots but fruit weights were lower in plots with higher initial mite density than in plots with lower initial mite density. Total number of fruits and the number of marketable fruits decreased in plots with higher initial mite density. The rates of yield loss increased with increasing initial mite density, resulting in 0, 3.9, 11.3, 14.5, 22.8% reduction in each of the above plots, respectively. The relationship between initial T. urticae densities and yield losses was well described by a linear regression, Y = 1.085X + 2.474,
= 0.9659. Based on the relationship, the number of adults per plant which can cause 5% loss of yield was estimated to be approximately 1.8.
Control Thresholds (CTs) of Imported Cabbage Worm (Artogeia rapae L.) for Chinese Cabbage in Korea
Kwon, Min ; Kim, Ju-Il ; Yoon, Young-Nam ; Choi, June-Yeol ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 401~405
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.401
This study was conducted to estimate the control thresholds (CTs) of imported cabbage worm, Artogeia rapae L., injuring Chinese cabbage. The second instar larvae of A. rapae were inoculated with five density levels on each Chinese cabbages transplanted three weeks earlier under greenhouse condition, and checked injury rates after allowing their feeding for one week and two weeks, respectively. The average leaf area consumed by single larvae was 657.7
in plots inoculated at three weeks after transplanting (WAT) and 2495.8
in plots at 6-WAT, respectively. In the field experiment, different numbers of A. rapae ranged from one to seven larvae were inoculated on 20 plants. The percent yield reduction (Y) of Chinese cabbage infested by different densities of A. rapae (X) for a three-week period was estimated by the following equation; (1) Y=1.764X-0.3049 (
=0.9901) in plots inoculated at 3-WAT; and (2) Y=1.0305X-0.2976 (
=0.9398) in plots inoculated at 6-WAT. Based on the relationships between the densities of A. rapae larvae and the yield index of Chinese cabbage, the number of second instar larvae which caused 5% loss of yield (gain threshold proposed by Japan), was estimated as 3.0 per 20 plants for the 3-WAT and 5.1 for the 6-WAT.
Economic Injury Level of Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) at Chinese Cabbage
Jeon, Heung-Yong ; Kang, Taek-Jun ; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan ; Yang, Chang-Yeol ; Kim, Dong-Soon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 407~411
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.407
This study was conducted to estimate the economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold (ET) of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, on Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris var). The changes of biomass of Chinese cabbage and M. persicae density were investigated after introduction of M. persicae at different density (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 per plant; inoculated at 10d after planting). The densities of M. persicae largely increased from the above initial densities to 0, 92.3, 177.4, 406.9, 440.4, and 471.3 aphids per plant at 18d after the initial inoculation, respectively. The biomass of Chinese cabbage significantly decreased with increasing the initial inoculated density of M. persicae: 602.0, 264.2, 262.0, 109.3, 151.0, and 67.3 g in above plots with different initial densities, respectively. The relationship between cumulative aphid days (CAD) and yield loss (%) of Chinese cabbage was well described by a nonlinear logistic equation. Using the estimated equation, EIL of M. persicae on Chinese cabbage was estimated 25 CAD per plant based on the yield loss 13%, which take into account of an empirical gain threshold 5% and marketable rate 92% of spring Chinese cabbage. Also, ET was calculated at 80% of EIL: 20 aphids per plant. Until a more elaborate EIL-model is developed, the present result may be useful for M. persicae management at early growth stage of Chinese cabbage.
Susceptibility of Stink Bugs Collected in Soybean Fields in Milyang to Some Insecticides
Bae, Soon-Do ; Kim, Hyun-Joo ; Lee, Geon-Hee ; Park, Sung-Tae ; Lee, Si-Woo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 413~419
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.413
The susceptibility of five stink bugs species collected soybean fields in Milyang in 2006 to seven insecticides was evaluated using electric auto-sprayer. The insecticide deltamethirn had the lowest median lethal concentration (
) of 0.4 to 2.3 ppm regardless of stink bugs species while phenthoate had the highest concentration for one-banded stink bug (Piezodorus hybneri), green stink bug (Nezara antennata), sloe bug (Dolycoris baccarum), and brown marmorated stink bug, (Halyomorpha halys); and fenthion for bean bug (Riptortus clavatus). The average
for stink bugs to seven insecticides was lowest at 7.5 ppm for R. clavatus, followed by 16.6 ppm for H. halys, 17.6 ppm for D. baccarum, 19.1 ppm for N. antennata, and 28.4 ppm for P. hybneri. The relative tolerance ratio (TR), which is the TR of 90 percent lethal concentration (
) of stink bugs to the recommended concentration, was the lowest in fipronil for R. clavatus, P. hybneri and D. baccarum; fenitrothion for N. antennata; and fenthion for H. halys. The relative average TR was lowest at 0.09 for R. clavatus, followed by 0.26 for D. baccarum, 0.30 for N. antennata, 0.37 for P. hybneri, and 0.39 for H. halys. Therefore, insecticides susceptibility was highest for R. clavatus and lowest for P. hybneri while the relative average TR was lowest for R. clavatus and highest for H. halys. Accordingly, it is expected that stink bugs can be effectively controlled with by spraying insecticides in soybean field because the relative average TR value of stink bugs was below 1.0, indicating high susceptibility of stink bugs to insecticides.
Biological Characteristics of Two Natural Enemies of Thrips, Orius strigicollis (Poppius) and O. laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)
Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Kim, Hwang-Yong ; Byoun, Young-Woong ; Kim, Yong-Heon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 421~428
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.421
With the comparison of native Orius strigicollis (Poppius) to European O. laevigatus (Fieber), we investigated biological characteristics such as developmental period, fecundity, life span, predation ability, and augmentation after release. Experiments were carried out at five temperature condition,
. In the case of O. strigicollis, egg period was
), and developmental period of nymphs was
days (survival rate:
). Fecundity at each temperature was 28.1, 107.9, 123.6, 127.3, and 18.1, respectively. Life span of adults was 63.4, 40.1, 22.1, 18.3, and 11.0 days, respectively. In the case of O. laevigatus, egg period was
), and developmental period of nymphs was
) days. Fecundity at each temperature was 101.8, 218.6, 224.5, 219.5, and 15.7. Life span of adults was 70.6, 66.4, 32.6, 34.5, and 7.3 days, respectively. In long-day condition (16L:8D), fecundity of O. strigicollis and O. laevigatus was 105.8
, respectively. In short-day condition (10L:14D), fecundity of them was 1.0
, respectively. Daily prey consumption of second instar Frankliniella occidentalis was 14.3 and 10.9, respectively. In greenhouse, density of O. strigicollis begins to increase from mid May and peaked about early July (1.8 individual/flower), while that of O. laevigatus begins to increase from mid March and peaked about early June (6.6 individual/flower).
Comparison on the Capability of Four Predatory Mites to Prey on the Eggs of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
Kim, Hwang-Yong ; Lee, Yong-Hwi ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Kim, Yong-Heon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 429~433
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.429
On the leaf disc of fruit vegetables (cucumber, sweet pepper, tomato, egg plant, oriental melon), it has been evaluated that the capability of four predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes), N. cucumeris (Oudemans), N. californicus (McGregor)) to prey on the eggs of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and to lay own eggs. The most aggressive mite was A. swirskii which had consumed about
eggs in a day. The quantity of eggs consumed by N. barkeri, N. cucumeris and N. californicus was about
, respectively. The most productive mite was also A. swirskii which had laid about
eggs in a day. The others could not lay more than 0.5 eggs in a day.
Efficacy of an Integrated Biological Control of an Egg Parasitoid, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, and Microbial Insecticide Against the Oriental Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Guenée) Infesting Hot Pepper
Kim, Geun-Seob ; Heo, Hye-Jung ; Park, Jung-A ; Yu, Yong-Suk ; Hahm, Eun-Hye ; Kang, Sung-Young ; Kwon, Ki-Myeon ; Lee, Keon-Hyung ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 435~445
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.435
Due to internal feeding behavior, the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (
), infesting hot pepper has been regarded to be effectively controlled by targeting egg and neonate larval stages just before entering the fruits. This study aimed to develop an efficient biological control method focusing on these susceptible stages of H. assulta. An egg parasitoid wasp, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, was confirmed to parasitize the eggs of H. assulta. A mixture of Gram-positive soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, and Gram-negative entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila ANU101, could effectively kill neonate larvae of H. assulta. A sex pheromone trap monitored the occurrence of field H. assulta adults. The microbial insecticide mixture was proved to give no detrimental effects on immature development and adult survival of the wasp by both feeding and contact toxicity tests. A combined treatment of egg parasitoid and microbial pesticide was applied to hot pepper fields infested by H. assulta. The mixture treatment of both biological control agents significantly decreased the fruit damage, which was comparable to the chemical insecticide treatment, though either single biological control agent did not show any significant control efficacy. This study also provides morphological and genetic characters of T. evanescens.
Biological Control of Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by Steinernematid and Heterorhabditid Entomopathogenic Nematodes
Kim, Hyeong-Hwan ; Cho, Sung-Rae ; Choo, Ho-Yul ; Lee, Sang-Myeong ; Jeon, Heung-Yong ; Lee, Dong-Woon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 447~456
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.447
Five effective strains against tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Steinernema carpocapsae (GSN1), Steinernema sp. (GSNUS-10), Steinernema sp. (GSNUS-14), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Hamyang (HbH), and Heterorhabditis sp. (GSNUH-1) were selected among 14 isolates of Korean entomopathogenic nematode in laboratory tests.
values of above five strains against tobacco cutworm were various by different nematode strains and developmental stages of tobacco cutworm.
value of S. carpocapsae (GSN1) was the lowest by
infective juveniles (Ijs) and 2nd instars of tobacco cutworm was most susceptible. Pathogenicity of five effective strains against tobacco cutworm depends on nematode strain, concentration, and application times. The most effective strain was determined as S. carpocapsae (GSN1). Two or three times of applications were effective regardless of nematode strain, or concentration. Efficacy of S. carpocapsae (GSN1), Steinernema (GSNUS-10), Steinernema (GSNUS-14), and Heterorhabditis (GSNUH-1) was variable depending on nematode strain, concentration, application times, and host variety. S. carpocapsae (GSN1) was the most effective and inoculation of 100,000 infective juveniles per m2 (720,000 Ijs/7.2
Ijs/ha) resulted in higher efficacy. Three times of application of nematodes led to higher control efficacy than one or two applications. Efficacy of nematodes was higher on Chinese cabbage than cabbage or kale.
Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. tohokuensis CAB167 Isolate against Mosquito Larva
Kil, Mi-Ra ; Kim, Da-A ; Paek, Seung-Kyoung ; Kim, Jin-Su ; Choi, Su-Yeon ; Jin, Da-Yong ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Hwang, In-Chon ; Ohba, Michio ; Yu, Yong-Man ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 457~465
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.457
Eight Bacillus thuringiensis strains activated against mosquito larva were compared their characterization. Spherical-shaped parasporal inclusion of B. thuringiensis subsp. tohokuensis CAB167 was observed by phase-contrast microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
values of B. thuringiensis subsp. tohokuensis CAB167 against Culex pipiens molestus, Culex pipiens pallens, and Aedes aegyti were 173, 190 and 580 ng/ml, respectively. B. thuringiensis subsp. tohokuensis CAB167 had a parasporal inclusion containing 4 major protein components, for example, 135, 80, 49 and 28-kDa by SDS-PAGE. Otherwise, after trypsin digestion of parasporal inclusion, SDS-PAGE was showed new protease-resistant peptides at 72 and 63-kDa. Activated toxins of isolated CAB167 were different from other reference strains on a serological by immuno-diffusion test.
New Record of Paratrichodorus minor (Colbran, 1956) Siddiqi, 1974 and Redescription of P. porosus (Allen, 1957) Siddiqi, 1974 (Triplonchida: Trichodoridae) from Citrus unshiu Markovich in Korea
Park, Byeong-Yong ; Park, Sun-Nam ; Lee, Jae-Kook ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 467~472
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.467
During the survey of plant parasitic nematode of Citrus orchard in Korea, Paratrichodorus minor (Colbran, 1956) Siddiqi is founded from the soil of Citrus unshiu Markovich for the first time in Korea. The body length of females is
long: a =
, b =
, V(%) =
. The excretory pore is located near the base of esophagus. Additionally, the morphological characteristics on P. porosus (Allen, 1957) Siddiqi, 1974 recorded in 1976 on Korea is redescribed in detail.
Damage and Occurrence of Pratylenchus vulnus and Paratylenchus sp. on Spray Chrysanthemum, Dendranthema grandiflourm Kitamura
Lee, Jae-Kook ; Park, Byeong-Yong ; Choi, Dong-Ro ; Heo, Jae-Won ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 473~478
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.473
Root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus vulnus) and pin nematode (Paratylenchus sp.) were detected with high population density at the spray chrysanthemum greenhouse in Gumi, Gyeongbuk. The average density of P. vulnus and Paratylenchus sp. was 667 and 716 nematodes per 100 g soil and P. vulnus density were distributed 87% to the depth of
cm in greenhouse. When spray chrysanthemum cv Chopin, was transplanted in September 2004 in greenhouse, P. vulnus were 854 nematodes/100 g soil in planting and increased 14,985 nematodes/100 g soils and 1g root after 10 weeks in harvest. Shoot weight and shoot height of spray chrysanthemum decreased 24.8% and 8.0% compared with non-infested P. vulnus after 10 weeks in greenhouse.
The Cultural Characteristics and Antibacterial Activities of Cordyceps militaris and Paecilomyces tenuipes
Lee, Ki-Man ; Hong, In-Pyo ; Nam, Sung-Hee ; Sung, Gyoo-Byung ; Bae, Yoon-Hwan ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 479~486
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.479
The cultural characteristics and antibacterial activities of Cordyceps militaris and Paecilomyces tenuipes were compared. The mycelial growth was the highest on MCM (Mushroom Complete Medium) for C. militaris and on YMA (Yeast Malt Agar) for P. tenuipes. But the mycelial density on MMM (Mushroom Minimal Medium) was lower than other on media. The optimum mycelial growth was observed at
. C. militaris was low mycelial growth when it was transferred over 5 times generation. The carbon source for the optimum mycelial growth was fructose of monosaccharide, maltose of disaccharide and dextrin of polysaccharide. The calcium nitrate of organonitrogen was found the best mycelial growth on C. militaris, while the sodium nitrate observed to be well for mycelial growth on P. tenuipes. The ammonium tartrate was observed to be the best among the inorganonitrogen used for mycelial growth. Antibacterial activities were found out just C. militaris against Bacillus cereus of Gram (+).
Mating Behavior of the Pumpkin Fruit Fly [Bactrocera (Paradacus) depressa (Shiraki)] in a Field Cage
Kim, Tae-Heung ; Jeon, Sung-Wook ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 487~490
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.487
Field collected larvae inside the pumpkin fruit in Jinan, Chonbuk Province were kept in the laboratory at
, and 14L:10D until they pupated and eclosed. Adults were fed with dry-milk based diet. Mating behavior was observed when they were 40 days old in a field cage at dusk in July and October, 2008. Wing vibration in male took place under the light intensity of 200 lux-20 lux, however, most commonly under 30 lux. Mounting between male and female was observed under 150 lux-30 lux after the act of wing vibration, also most frequently under 30 lux. Copulation occurred under 150 lux-20 lux. Females approached face to face to males which had been engaged in wing vibration and the copulation was successful for up to 64%. Copulation never occurred when a female positioned in front or at side of the male that was not engaged in wing vibration.
Protection of Chocolate Products from Indian Meal Moth by Adding Cinnamon Extract to the Adhesive on the Wrapping
Na, Ja-Hyun ; Hong, Euk-Il ; Ryoo, Mun-Il ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 47, issue 4, 2008, Pages 491~495
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2008.47.4.491
Adding cinnamon (Cinnamonum cassia Blume) extract into the adhesive used to affix stickers to a chocolate package is an effective method for protecting chocolate products from infestation by the Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella Hubner). Chocolate packages treated with adhesive including 0.02% and 0.025% of cinnamon extract were not infested with the Indian meal moth for up to 30 days at
and 70-75% RH, whereas 100% of the packages without the extract were infested in the no-choice test. Chocolate packages treated with adhesive including 0.02% and 0.025% of cinnamon extract in the quadruple choice test were not infested with the Indian meal moth for up to 60 days at
and 70-75% RH, whereas 100% of the packages without the extract were infested. A panel test showed that the cinnamon extract treatment would not affect consumers' choices.