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Korean journal of applied entomology
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Korean Society of Applied Entomology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 49, Issue 4 - Dec 2010
Volume 49, Issue 3 - Sep 2010
Volume 49, Issue 2 - Jun 2010
Volume 49, Issue 1 - Mar 2010
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Pentagonica subcordicollis Bates (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiinae), New to Korea
Park, Jong-Kyun ; Jung, Jong-Kook ; Yi, Hoon-Bok ; Paik, Jong-Cheol ; Park, Jin-Young ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 265~267
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.265
A Truncatipennes species, Pentagonica subcordicollis Bates is newly recorded in Korea. Here we provide a diagnosis and systematic accounts of P. subcordicollis. Consequently, a total of three species of Pentagonia have been recorded in the Korea, including the present species.
Taxonomic Study of the Larvae of the Genus Mantura Stephens (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae) from Korea
Park, Jin-Yoong ; Lee, Jong-Eun ; Park, Jong-Kyun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 269~272
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.269
Immature stages of Mantura rustica (Linnaeus) are described in detail for the first time in Korea. A key to identifying larvae of Korean Mantura is provided, with their illustrations and larval tubercle pattern.
New Record on Suidasia medanensis Oudemans 1924 from Stored Food in Korea(Astigmata : Acaridae)
Jung, Young-Hwa ; Hong, Shin-Ji ; Lee, Won-Koo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 273~276
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.273
One of stored food mites, Suidasia medanensis Oudemans, 1924 is first reported form Korea after the stored food surveys in 2008 and 2009. The morphological characteristic is given.
Types and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Antennal Sensilla on Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
Kwon, Hye-Ri ; Yoon, Kyu-Sik ; Kang, Min-A ; Park, Min-Woo ; Jo, Shin-Hyuk ; Kang, Eun-Jin ; Seo, Mi-Ja ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 277~287
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.277
Several species of the genus Aphidius are used in biological control programs against aphid pests throughout the world and their behavior and physiology are well studied. While the importance of sensory organs in their behavior is understood, their antennal structure remains largely unknown. In this study, the external morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla on the antennal of both female and male adults of A. colemani were described using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Generally, the filiform antennae of males (
) are longer than females (
). Antennae of this species are made up of radicle, scape, pedicel and flagellomeres. Male and female antennae differed in the total number of flagellomeres as 15 in males and 13 in females. The result of SEM observation was characterization and grouping of seven types of receptors into morphological classcs: Bohm bristles, Sensilla placodea, 2 types of S. coeloconica and S. trichodea, and S. basiconica as with a tip pore and with wall pores. In addition, the possible functions of the above sensilla types arc discussed in light of previously published literature; mechanoreception (Bohm bristles, S, coeloconica I & II and S. trichodea) and chemoreception (S. placodea, S. basiconica type I & II).
Metapopulation Dynamics of the Oriental Long-tailed Swallow Sericinus montela (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) in Korea
Kim, Do-Sung ; Kwon, Yong-Jung ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 289~297
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.289
The loss of natural habitats and their fragmentation caused by human activities pose a great threat to biodiversity worldwide, reducing animal population to small, fragmented patches of natural habitat. In this paper, a metapopulation dynamics of Sericinus montela koreanus, a species of butterfly, was studied for two years by mark-release-recapture (MRR) techiques in the Musimcheon, Cheongju Korea. 2,749 individuals (males: 2,295, females: 454) were marked and released, with 343 individuals (12.5%) recaptured during the MRR experiment. Capture sex ratio and recapture sex ratios was both consistently male-biased. The Jolly-Seber model was used to estimate daily metapopulation size, survival rates, addition rate, and accidental deaths. We urge conservation biologists to consider the local population dynamics of species for the management of metapopulations in fragmented landscapes. In the case of the S. montela koreanus, continuing site protection is essential.
Seasonal Occurrence and Damage of Bactrocera scutellata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Jeonbuk Province
Kim, Yang-Pyo ; Jeon, Sung-Wook ; Lee, Sang-Guei ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Choi, Nak-Jung ; Hwang, Chang-Yeon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 299~304
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.299
The striped fruit fly, Baetrocera scutellata (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important pests in Cucurbitaceae plants. Among 6 attractants for B. scutellata used, Cue-lure was shown better effect than the others. Newly emerged adult of B. scutellata had been occurred early June of the year tested. There were two peaks of occurrences of B. scutellata, one was from mid-July to early August and the other was early September suggesting that B. scutellata has two generation a year. The larva of B. seutellata damaging the female flower and stem of the pumpkin was found for the frist time on Korea. The blossoms were damaged and fallen by B. scutellata which were 53.8% of male flower and 30.7% of female flower in the 6 pumpkins. The pumpkin flowers were damaged 51.9% by B. scutellata. Especially thc pumpkin flowers damaged were shown 72.7% (1015/1397 individuals) from August to September. The larva of B. scutellata was found from the Trichosanthes kirilowii on 24 June 2009 in Jinan-gun Jeollabuk-do.
Temperature-dependent Development Model of Paromius exiguus (Distant) (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae)
Park, Chang-Gyu ; Park, Hong-Hyun ; Uhm, Ki-Baik ; Lee, Joon-Ho ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 305~312
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.305
The developmental time of immature stages of Paromius exiguus (Distant) was investigated at nine constant temperatures (15, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5,
), 20-30% RH, and a photoperiod of 14:10h (L:D). Eggs did not develop at
, and their developmental time decreased with increasing temperatures. Its developmental time was longest at
(28.2 days) and shortest at
(5.9 days). The first nymphs failed to reach the next nymphal stage at 17.5 and
. Nymphal developmental time decreased with increasing temperatures between
, and developmental rate was decreased at temperatures above
in all stages except for the fourth nymphal stage. The relationship between developmental rate and temperature fit a linear model and three nonlinear models (Briere 1, Lactin 2, and Logan 6). The lower threshold temperature of egg and total nymphal stage was
, respectively. The thermal constant required to reach complete egg and the total nymphal stage was 109.9 and 312.5DD, respectively. The Logan-6 model was best fitted (
A Comparison of Samplers for Aquatic Macroinvertebrate in Rice Paddies: Aquatic Net, Quadrat and Core
Kang, Hyun-Kyung ; Chung, Keun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 313~324
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.313
With growing interest in biodiversity in rice paddies, efficient sampling methods for quantitative evaluation of aquatic macroinvertebrates are needed because of their important role in rice paddies` food webs. For this reason, we sought a proper sampling method through comparing data collected by using aquatic net, quadrat, and core in rice paddies located in Chuncheon-si, Kangwon-do, Hongseong-gun, and Chungcheongnam-do. Because the frame of the net was rectangular and had a flat bottom, the area, sampledwith the aquatic net, was calculated by multiplying the net width by the sweeping length, All samples were taken from the space between the rows of rice plants. Twenty four taxa of macro invertebrates were collected in Chuncheon and 28 taxa in Hongseong. In Chuncheon, the number of taxa was similar among three sampling methods (17-18 taxa), but the number of individuals was different (aquatic net,
. In Hongseong, the number of taxa sampled by aquatic net was the highest (aquatic net, 25 taxa; quadrat, 21 taxa; core, 16 taxa), but the core was the highest in the number of individuals (aquatic net,
. The efficiency of samplers differed among taxa. Most of aquatic insect taxa were more abundant in the aquatic net, while those living on or in the paddy substratum such as Oligochaeta and Chironomidae were collected more in the quadrat sampler. To collect quantitative data for aquatic insects as well as to produce inventory of rare taxa, we suggest, based on samplers used in this study, to take quantitative samples of 6 replications from each of the edge and inner zones of a rice paddy by using an aquatic net, and to take qualitative samples both from sides of levees and the inner zone of rice paddy by using an aquatic net.
Attractiveness of Stink Bugs to Color, Height and Location of Aggregation Pheromone Trap
Bae, Soon-Do ; Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Lee, Geon-Hwi ; Yoon, Young-Nam ; Nam, Min-Hee ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 325~331
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.325
Attractiveness of stink bugs to various colors, heights and locations of fish-net traps incorporated with aggregation pheromones was determined. Bean bug, Riptortus pedestris Fabricius, was most attracted to yellow color trap, followed by white, black, green, blue and brown. R. pedestris and one-banded stink bug, Piezodorus hybneri Gmelin, were most attracted to fish-net traps placed 80 cm above the ground regardless of sexes of two species of stink bugs. Between the sexes, however, R. pedestris females were more attracted to 40 and 80 cm above the ground than the males at those heights although the attraction was not significantly different at 120 and 160 cm heights. P. hybneri females tended to be attracted to 40 and 80 cm height traps but the attraction was the opposite at 120 and 160 cm heights. The highest attraction of R. pedestris was observed in a perilla field with no significant difference in the soybean field and border area in which no crop were cultivated between the perilla and soybean fields. R. pedestris was also more attracted to the sweet persimmon orchard than the soybean and medicinal crops fields, which was a significant difference between the two fields.
Insecticidal effects of Chitosan-formulated etofenprox and α-cypermethrin against Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae)
Seo, Mi-Ja ; Kang, Min-Ah ; Kwon, Hye-Ri ; Yoon, Kyu-Sik ; Kang, Eun-Jin ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Youn, Young-Nam ; Youn, Young-Nam ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 333~342
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.333
The possibility of commercializing the controlled release of chitosan carrier nano formulation was examined with mortalities and population increase rates of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae after treatment of 2
-cypermethrin nano type formulations of different chitosan carrier molecular weight (M.W. 3,000 and 30,000) and 2 etofenprox nano types of chitosan content (70% and 80%). After 14 days of treatment,
-cypermethrin nano formulation showed over 40% mortality against A. gossypii. Therefore, it was confirmed that the insecticide release was controlled through chitosan carrier. Results of the investigation of insecticidal activity of
-cypermethrin nano formulation showed there were no differences between nano types at 4 days after treatment. However, after 14 days, the population increase rate treated with chitosan M.W. 30,000 formulation was -0.037, much lower than that of M.W. 3,000 formulation with 0.231. The result exhibits that chitosan M.W. 30,000 formulation would be a suitable controlled release formulation. On the other hand, etofenprox formulations didn`t show any significant insecticidal effect or persistency difference against both aphid species.
Analysis of Damages and Rice Consumption by Golden Apple Snails(Pomacea canaliculata: Ampullariidae) at Growth Stages of Rice
Lee, Geon-Hwi ; Paik, Chae-Hoon ; Noh, Tae-Hwan ; Seo, Hong-Yul ; Choi, Man-Young ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 343~349
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.343
The golden apple snail was introduced to the Korea from Japan as a potential food for people in 1983. It is one of the pests of direct-seeded rice in korea. This study was conducted to investigate rice(Oriza sativa) consumption and the extent of damage by the golden apple snail(Pomacea canaliculata) in direct-sown paddy fields. Food consumption of the golden apple snail was highest at
. When the emergence of the 1st, 3rd, and 5th leave of rice supplied food, the consumption of young(shell height 15mm) and adult golden apple snail(over shell height 30mm) at
were 19.0/79.8, 11.0/54.5, 5.5/18.5, and 0.0/2.0 individuals, respectively. Young rice seedings(before 5th leaves of rice) are very susceptible to golden apple snail damage because the young, tender leaves and stems favor the snail`s feeding habits. The field experiment with four treatments (0, 2, 5 and 10 individuals respectively per 10
) was carried out. The most serious yield loss was 16% from the plot with 10 adults released at emergency stage of rice.
Relationship of larval density of tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to damage in greenhouse sweet pepper
Park, Hong-Hyun ; Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Kim, Jeong-Jun ; Goh, Hyun-Gwan ; Lee, Sang-Guei ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 351~355
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.351
This study was conducted to determine the relationship of larval density of tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) to damage in greenhouse sweet pepper. Laboratory experiments, cage experiments by artificial release and field investigation were carried out in 2008. The leaf consumption rate increased greatly with larval development. The damaged leaves had several round or oval shape holes on the surface or lost certain parts of them, and the fruit damaged had a conspicuous hole on the surface or scar marks around the calyx. In the field investigation, fruit damage was highly correlated with larval densities and reached 3.5% damage at maximum. Cage experiments showed that numbers of non-marketable fruit increased as increasing larval densities released. The larval density at two weeks before harvest had a high relationship with the percentage of damaged-fruit at harvest. Corresponding larval density caused 1, 3, 5% of damaged-fruit was 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 larvae per plant, respectively.
Injury of Full Seed Stage Soybeans by The Bean Bug, Riptortus pedestris
Jung, Jin-Kyo ; Seo, Bo-Yoon ; Youn, Jong-Tag ; Park, Jong-Ho ; Cho, Jum-Rae ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 357~362
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.357
Soybean seed injury was analyzed in the experiments in which the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris(Hemiptera: Alydidae), was released into screen-caged pots containing full seed stage(R6) of soybean. When the different stages of insects, from the 3rd instar nymphs to adults, were released into pots during 8 days in soybean R6 stage, soybean seeds with injury marks (B-type seeds) increased. The weight reduction ratio in B-type seeds was highest in the injury by the 5th instar nymphs, while the daily-produced number ratio of B-type seeds was small in the treatment. In the injury by the different number of adult released into pots, 4, 8, 16 adults caused a significant increase of B-type seeds, while 16 adults caused the significant increase of the deformed (C-type) seeds. In the injury by the different release period of adults, the total number of pods was not significantly different among treatments, while the total seed number harvested was significantly small in the release for 48 days. The release for 8 and 16 days caused a significant increase of B-type seeds, while the release for 48 days caused the increase of C-type seeds. The results indicated that injury of soybean R6 stage by the bean bug produced soybean seeds with distinct injury marks at relatively low density and during short term attack period, while it produced deformed seeds at high density and during long attack period.
Control Effect of a Stored Grain Insect Pest, Tribolium castaneum, by `CATTS` Postharvest Treatment
Son, Ye-Rim ; Kim, Yong ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 363~369
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.363
A postharvest treatment called CATTS (controlled atmosphere and temperature treatment system) has been used as an alternative nonchemical measure for methyl bromide fumigant treatment. This study applied CATTS to control the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, infesting stored grains. Adults of T. castaneum were susceptible to
heat treatment. The susceptibility was further enhanced by addition of CA conditions (15%
). When CATTS (
treating rate) was applied to different developmental stages of T. castaneum, it showed 100% control efficacy by 120 min exposure. There was a variation in CATTS susceptibility among developmental stages, in which late instar larvae were most tolerant. Heat shock proteins of T. castaneum appeared to be implicated in the tolerance of CATTS.
Occurrence and damages of Contarinia maculipennis Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Dendrobium phalaenopsis (Asparagales: Orcbidaceae)
Kang, Taek-Jun ; Lee, Heung-Sik ; Oh, Si-Heon ; Cho, Myoung-Rae ; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan ; Jung, Jae-A ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 371~374
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.371
The blossom midge, Contarinia maculipennis Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) originated in Southeast Asia and is present in Japan, the continental USA, and Hawaii. Recently, C. maculipennis was intercepted in Japan, USA and the Netherlands by using orchid flowers imported from Southeast Asian countries. This pest is designated as a quarantine pest in Korea because of its potential damages to vegetables and ornamental plants. In Korea, similar symptoms of damage, which mighty be caused by C. maculipennis, have been investigated in western orchids, especially on Dendrobium phalaenopsis, from Mid-2000s. Official recognition was given to C. maculipennis in 2007, followed by an investigation on the occurrences of C. maculipennis and its damages, mainly on D. phalaenopsis, in 2008~2009. We emphasize caution concerning the possibilities that C. maculipennis could infest flower buds of orchids and carry out management strategies for this pest in the future.
Biological Identity of Hwangchung and History on the Control of Hwangchung Outbreaks in Joseon Dynasty Analyzed through the Database Program on the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty and the Enrollment of Haegoeje
Park, Hae-Chul ; Han, Man-Jong ; Lee, Young-Bo ; Lee, Gwan-Seok ; Kang, Tae-Hwa ; Han, Tae-Man ; Hwang, Seok-Jo ; Kim, Tae-Woo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 375~384
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.375
We tried to establish the history of outbreaks and control methods of `hwangchung` in Joseon Dynasty, uncovering the biological reality of the `hwangchung` (called hwang or bihwang) analyzed through the Database program on `the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty` and `the Emollment of Haegoeje`, two of the finest examples of classical historical records. The total number of articles on the outbreak of the hwangchung is 261 in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty and 65 in the Emollment of Haegoeje. There were four peaks by hwangchung throughout the Joseon Era. Among them, the periods of King Taejo to King Sejong had the highest incidence. By comparing the number of records of the hwangchung from the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty with that in the Emollment of Haegoeje during the same period, results show the former was less than the latter, 35 vs 65. However, both records were relatively inconsistent with each other. Insect pests in forests as well as in agriculture were included in the biological identities of the hwangchung in the Joseon Dynasty periods, which is in accordance with those of Saigo`s. The taxonomic identity could be confirmed in only 25 cases (9.5%) among the articles on hwangchung. It largely coincided with Paik`s opinion: II in armyworm, nine in moth larva, one in rice stem borer, two in migratory locust, one in planthopper and one in rice-plant weevil. Therefore, it is not reasonable to regard hwangchung as a migratory locust or grasshopper only. The number of reports on the occurrence of hwangchung in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty was 173 (66% of the total) and 47% of them were just simple reports, which means the report itself on the appearance of hwangchung was very significant. The reports on controlling insect pests were of low frequency, in 20% (34 cases) of the total reports, capturing insect pests or holding traditional ceremony called `Poje`. Among them, only one case related to the treatment of seeds to prevent the damage by hwangchung was published in the King Sejong period. There were 37 discussions about changes and management of government policies due to disasters by hwangchung. They were mostly about relief or tax cut to the people who suffered damage and about cancellation of recruiting people to military training, constructing castles, and so on. It seems that not only the people but also the king was influenced by the hwangchung. In the case of King Seongjong, he referred to the stress of the prevention measure of locusts in 10 articles. The damage also had an effect on abdication in the reign of King Jeongjong.
Biological Control of Insect Pests with Arthropod Natural Enemies on Greenhouse Sweet Pepper in Winter Cropping System
Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Byeon, Young-Woong ; Kim, Hwang-Yong ; Park, Chang-Gyu ; Choi, Man-Young ; Han, Man-Jong ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 385~391
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.385
This study reports the results of natural enemy application against four insect pests on greenhouse sweet pepper in winter cropping system. Orius laevigatus (
) was released at two different times (Nov. 2005 & Feb. 2006) to control Frankliniella occidentalis, western flower thrips (WFT). Throughout the cropping season, the lowest level recorded of WFT was less than 2.0 individuals per yellow sticky trap. Amblyseius swirskii (
) was released four times (Nov. 2007 ~ Aug. 2008) to control Bemisia tabaci, tobacco whitefly (TWF). Until July 2008, TWF population had been suppressed lower than 6.6/trap. Phytoseiulus persimilis (
) was released seven times (Apr. 2008 ~ Aug. 2008) to control Tetranychus kanzawai, tea red spider mite (TRSM). As a result, TRSM population was suppressed lower than 1.7/1eaf. To control aphids, Aphidius colemani (
) was released seven times (Oct. 2004 ~ Jan. 2005), with the transplantation of banker plants (
). As a whole, aphid`s population has been successfully reduced to less than 2.0/leaf.
Developmental Performance and Parasitism of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii on Eggs of the Oriental Tobacco Budworm, Helicoverpa assulta(Guenee), and the American Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) Depending on Previous Hosts
Choi, Man-Young ; Kim, Jeong-Hwan ; Byeon, Young-Woong ; Kim, Hwang-Yong ; Kim, Yong-Heon ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 393~400
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.393
The parasitism, development time, hatchability, and progeny production of Trichogramma chilonis(TC) females developed in eggs of Helicoverpa assulta (HAs), Cadra cautella (CC), and Helicoverpa armigera (HAr), respectively, were compared with those developed in reciprocal eggs at constant temperatures of
and relative humidity of 50~70% under 16L-8D. Developmental performances of TC reared in each of the three hosts on the following hosts(host tested) appeared differently, and were affected most by the size of the proceeding hosts and test host. Among the parameters parasitism and progeny production were affected more than others. Parasitism was significantly different between the treatments, lowest in CC-HAr(
) and highest in HAr-HAs(
), and the hatchability showed similar pattern. Development time as well was shortest in the CC-HAr where previous host is smallest and test host is biggest. The highest number of progeny production of TC was observed in HAr-HAs(
wasps), and the lowest was CC-HAs(
Predatory Response of the Pirate Bug, Orius sauteri Poppius(Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) on Frankliniella occidentalis, Aphid gossypii and Tetranychus urticae
Paik, Chae-Hoon ; Lee, Geon-Hwi ; Hwang, Chang-Yeon ; Kim, Si-Ju ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 401~407
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.401
Daily predation of female/male O. sauteri during nymphal development were 4.2/3.9, 11.4/9.5, 14.3/10.8, and 14.7/12.5 at 17,22,27, and
, respectively, and consumed 14.3/10.8 thrips, 7.5/7.2 aphids, 45.9/38.8 mites at
, respectively. Adult females ate 42.8 thrips daily during preoviposition period and 63.2 thrips during oviposition period at
. Predation by O. sauteri on F. occidentalis increased as the density of F. occidentalis increased. However, the rate of increase gradually lessened, resembling a Holling`s type II functional response. The attack rate of adult female is higher than that of the 5th nymph. Adult female and 5th nymph of O. sauteri appeared to prefer 2nd larva of F. occidentalis.
Comparative Analysis of Immunosuppressive Metabolites Synthesized by an Entomopathogenic Bacterium, Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata, to Select Economic Bacterial Culture Media
Seo, Sam-Yeol ; Jang, Ho-Jin ; Kim, Kun-Woo ; Kim, Yong-Gyun ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 409~416
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.409
An entomopathogenic bacterium, Photorhabdus temperata ssp. temperata (Ptt), suppresses insect immune responses and facilitates its symbiotic nematode development in target insects. The immunosuppressive activity of Ptt enhances pathogenicity of various microbial pesticides including Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). This study was performed to select a cheap and efficient bacterial culture medium for large scale culturing of the bacteria. Relatively cheap industrial bacterial culture media (MY and M2) were compared to two research media, Luria-Bertani (LB) and tryptic soy broth (TSB). In all tested media, a constant initial population of Ptt multiplied and reached a stationary phase at 48 h. However, more bacterial colony densities were detected in LB and TSB at the stationary phase compared to two industrial media. All bacterial culture broth gave significant synergism to Bt pathogenicity against third instars of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. Production of bacterial metabolites extracted by either hexane or ethyl acetate did not show any significant difference in total mass among four culture media. Reverse phase HPLC separated the four bacterial metabolites, which were not much different in quantities among four bacterial culture broths. This study suggests that two industrial bacterial culture media can be used to economically culture Ptt in a large scale.
Characterization of Lecanicillium lecanii Btab0l Isolated with Bioactivities to Tabacco Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci)
Yoon, Yeo-Jun ; Yu, Yong-Man ; Lee, Min-Ho ; Han, Eun-Jung ; Hong, Sung-Jun ; Ahn, Nan-Hee ; Kim, Yong-Ki ; Jee, Hyung-Jin ; Park, Jong-Ho ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 417~422
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.417
Cultural characteristics Lecanicillium lecani Btab01 and its insecticidal activity against tobacco whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) were investigated. On potato dextrose agar, tryptic soy agar and SDA+Y media, mycelial growth of L. lecani Btab01 was best at
and suppressed above
. Both solid culture and liquid culture of L. lecani Btab01 showed high insecticidal activity, 93.9 and 98.3% respectively, against nymph of tobacco whitefly, but there is no significant difference. When culture of L. lecani Btab01 was treated at the concentration of
cfu/ml, their insecticidal activity were 5.8%, 33.8%, 77.3% and 98.5% respectively, and
values were 16.1 days, 7.3 days, 5.1 days and 3.5 days respectively. When nymphs were treated by the cultures of L. lecani Btab01 and maintained under saturated condition for zero hour, 24 hours and 168 hours, their control activities were 0%, 20.3% and 100% respectively. Spore germination of L. lecani Btab01 was increased about two times by adding edible oil. When L. lecani Btab01 was treated to control nymph with 0.1% edible oil, it showed high control activity(98.6%) compared to single treatment of L. lecani Btab01 (79.9%).
The Species of Land Snails (Stylommatophora) on Leaf Perilla under Greenhouse in Geoyngnam Areas
Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Bae, Soon-Do ; Lee, Jun-Sang ; Yoon, Young-Nam ; Choi, Byeong-Ryeol ; Nam, Min-Hee ; Park, Chung-Gyoo ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 423~428
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.423
The species of land snails (Stylommatophora) that feed on perilla plants were observed under leaf perilla greenhouses cultivated in the Milyang and Busan areas. Four species of land snails were recorded. Among them, three species were slugs, Meghimatium bilineatum in Phlomycidae, Deroceras reticula tum, and Limax marginatus in Limacidae, and one species was the snail Acusta despecta sieboldiana in Bradybaenidae. D. reticulatum occurred most frequently followed by A. despecta sieboldiana, L. marginatus and M bilineatum. Annually, land snails showed two peaks in the middle of April and in late November for D. reticulatum, early May to middle November for A. despecta sieboldiana, and middle April and early November for L. marginatus. M bilineatum, however, did not show any clear peak because of its low population occurrence.
Damages by Tyrophagus similis (Acari: Acaridae) in Greenhouse Spinach in Korea
Jung, Jae-A ; Cho, Myoung-Rae ; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan ; Kang, Taek-Jun ; Lee, Jong-Ho ; Do, Kyeong-Ran ;
Korean journal of applied entomology, volume 49, issue 4, 2010, Pages 429~432
DOI : 10.5656/KSAE.2010.49.4.429
A mite damage was observed in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) under organic culture greenhouses. The mite was identified as Tyrophagus similis Volgin, 1949. It was very difficult for the farmers to diagnose the mite damage because of its tiny size about 0.5 nm in length. And the symptom was not clear at the early growth stage of the spinach because the mite mainly attack the very young leaves. In this study, we first report the spinach damages by T. similis in Korea. Informations on the mite morphology and the spinach damage symptoms are provided for the diagnosis.