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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Fisheries Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 1991
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 1991
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 1991
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 1991
Selecting the target year
Studies on Estimation of Fish Abundance Using an Echo Sounder ( 1 ) - Experimental Verification of the Theory for Estimating Fish Density-
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 1~12
An experiment has been carefully designed and performed to verify the theory for the echointergration technique of estimating the density of fish school by the use of steel spheres in a laboratory tank. The spheres used to simulate a fish school were randomly distributed throughout the insonified volume to produce the acoustic echoes similar to those scattered from real fish schools. The backscattered echoes were measured as a function of target density at tow frequencies of 50kHz and 200kHz. Data acquisition, processing and analysis were performed by means of the microcomputer-based sonar-echo processor including a FFT analyzer. Acoustic scattering characteristics of a 36cm mackerel was investigated by measuring fish echoes with frequencies ranging from 47.8kHz to 52.0kHz. The fluctuation of bottom echoes caused by the effects of fish-school attenuation and multiple scattering which occurred in dense aggregations of fishes was also examined by analyzing the echograms of sardine schools obtained by a 50kHz telesounder in the set-net's bagnet, and the echograms obtained by a scientific echo sounder of 50kHz in the East China Sea, respectively. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: 1. The measured and the calculated echo shapes on the steel sphere used to simulate a fish school were in close agreement. 2. The waveform and amplitude of echo signals by a mackerel without swimbladder fluctuated irregularly with the measuring frequency. 3. When a collection of 30 targets/m super(3) lied the shadow region behind another collection of 5 targets/m super(3), the mean losses in echo energy for the 30 targets/m super(3) were about -0.4dB at 50kHz and about -0.2dB at 200kHz, respectively. 4. In the echograms obtained in the East China Sea, the bottom echoes fluctuated remarkably when the dense aggregations of fish appeared between transducer and seabed. Especially, in the case of the echograms of sardine school obtained in a set-net's bagnet, the disappearance of bottom echoes and the lengthening of the echo trace by fish aggregations were observed. Then the mean density of the sardine school was estimated as 36 fish/m super(3). It suggests that when the distribution density of fishes in oceans is greater than this density, the effects of fish-school attenuation and multiple scattering must be taken into account as a possible source of error in fish abundance estimates. 5. The relationship between mean backscattering strength (, dB) and target density (
, No./m super(3)) were expressed by the equations: =-46.2+13.7 Log(
) at 50kHz and =-43.9+13.4 Log(
) at 200kHz. 6. The difference between the experimentally derived number and the actual number of targets gradually decreased with an increase in the target density and was within 20% when the density was 30 targets/m super(3). From these results, we concluded that when the number of targets in the insonified volume is large, the validity of the echo-integration technique of estimating the density of fish schools could be expected.
Studies on Estimation of Fish Abundance Using an Echo Sounder ( 2 ) - The Relationship between Acoustic Backscattering Strength and Distribution Density of Fish in a Net Cage-
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 13~20
This paper describes the fish-density dependence of the mean backscattering strength with aggregations of encaged, free-swimming fish of known density in relation to the experimental verification of echo-integration technique for estimating the density of fish shoals. In this experiment, various numbers of gold crussian, Carassius burgeri burgeri, with a mean length of 18.5cm and a mean weight of 205.9g, were introduced into a net cage of approximately 0.76m super(3). During the backscattering measurements. the cage was suspended on the sound axis of the 50kHz transducer having a beam width of 33 degrees at -3dB downpoints. The volume backscattering strengths from fish aggregations were measured as a function of fish density. Data acquisition, processing and analysis were performed by means of the microcomputer-based sonar-echo processor including a FFT analyzer. The calibration of echo-sounder system was carried out at field with a steel ball bearing of 38mm in diameter having the target strength of -40.8dB. The dorsal-aspect target strengths on anesthetized specimens of gold crussian used in the cage experiment were measured and compared with the target strength predicted by the fish density-echo energy relationship for aggregations of free-swimming gold crussian in the cage. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: 1. The target strengths in the dorsal aspect on anesthetized specimens of gold crussian, with the mean length of 19.1cm and the mean weight of 210.5g, varied from -40.9dB to -44.8dB with a mean of -42.6dB. This mean target strength did not differ significantly from that predicted by the regression of echo energy on fish density of free-swimming gold crussian in the cage. It suggests that the target-strength measurements on anesthetized fish was valid and can be representative for live, free-swimming fish. 2. The relationship between mean backscattering strength(, dB) and distribution density of gold
fish/m super(3)) was expressed by the following equation; =-41.9+11
with a correlation coefficient of 0.97. This result support the existence of a linear relationship between fish density and echo energy, but suggest that this line has steeper slope than the regression by the theory of estimating the density of fish schools.
Acoustic Scattering Characteristis of the Individual Fish
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 21~30
The estimation of the fish biomass density or the size of fish by means of the acoustic equipment is an important part in the quantitative assessment of fisheries resources. The precision of such estimates depend upon the target strength of fish and the accuracy to which the acoustic equipment has been calibrated. This paper examine the accuracy of the digital measurement system which is manufactured by way of trial in order to masure the target strength of fish, and calibrations of that system carry out with an ogive and a ellipsoid made of the aluminum and the epoxy, respectively. Furthermore, measurements of target strength for eight species of fish are made at 25, 50, 100 kHz. The accuracy of the digital measurement system is compared the theory with measurements on ogive and ellipsoid, and the agreement is reasonable. Result of establishments on the target strength to fish length and to fish weight regression obtained from the measurements are available to provide the methods of design for use in interpreting acoustic measurements of fish abundance on the experimented eight species.
Underwater Telemetering by Ultrasonic Multi-Beam Transducer
Choe, Han-Gyu ; Sin, Hyeong-Il ;
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 31~40
This paper described on the availability fo the underwater telemetering by the ulterasonic multi-beam system made as a trial to expand detectable range of the fish school. The ultrasonic multi-beam system consisted of four transducers which reconstructed with the existing net recorder. The experiment for the telemetering carried out in the set net fishing ground. The results obtained are summerized as follows: 1. The detectable distance of a target by the linear arrangement of four transducers increased according to the sea depth and the interval between transducers. 2. When the fish school in the entrance of set net was measured by linear arrangement of transducers it was entered in depth of 2.5~3.5m at near position of leader, and in depth of 3.5~4.5m at near position of door net. 3. The deviations of error between the actual position and the position by transducer in case of the target depth 1m, 1.5m, 2m were 5.9~27.1cm, 3.2~28.9cm, 3.5~25.8cm respectively, and 68.3% probability radius of them were 14.6cm, 17.7cm, 17.0cm respectively. 4. When the fish school in the fish court of set net was measured by plane arrangement of transducer it was entered toward the opposite direction of tide current. 5. The available distance of telemetering by the multi-beam transducer was 1.8km and the telemetering was possible to control everywhere in case of sea depth more than three meters.
Characteristics of the Land and Sea Breeze on Cheju island , Korea
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 41~55
A study was done to investigate characteristics of the land and sea breeze over Cheju island on the basis of surface meteorological data collected from 1977 to 1986. The results are summarized as follows: The frequency of the land and sea breze was highest in August followed by September, October, May and November in descending order. This indicates that the frequency of the land and sea breeze is higher in fall than in spring, and lowest in winter. The sea breeze began much earlier than any other regions of Korea all the year round, and it began about 30 minutes earlier and ended one hour later in the northern coast than in the southern coast of Cheju island. Meanwhile, the land breeze began about one hour earlier in the southern coast than in the northern coast and ended almost at the same time in both coasts. The annual mean duration of the sea breeze was about one hour longer in the northern coast than in the southern coast, but the land breeze showed an opposite trend. The duration of the sea breeze was longer in summer than in winter and again the land breeze was opposite. Transition period from the sea to the land breeze was relatively long in summer and shout in winter, but transition period from the land to the sea breeze was not different between seasons. The time for a maximum velocity of the sea breeze came earlier in the southern coast than in the northern coast, but that of the land breeze came almost at the same time in both coasts with no seasonal variations. Monthly mean maximum velocity of the sea breeze was greater than that of the land breeze.
A Study on the Meteorological Disaster in Korean Waters
Park, Jong-Gil ; Kim, Yu-Geun ; An, Yeong-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 56~63
This paper aims to describe the relation between the weather condition, especially typhoon and a shipwreck in Korean waters. For this study, it was investigated the statistical characteristics of a shipwreck due to the weather, pressure patterns governing the shipwreck in Korean waters. and the relation between the intensity of typhoon and the amount of a disaster. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The monthly occurrence frequency of a shipwreck was the heighest in July followed by February, March in descending order. 2) The pressure patterns governing the shipwreck were classified broadly into six types and pressure pattern which had most occurrence frequency of a shipwreck was Type V and then cames Type I, Type III and type IV in that order. 3) Occurence frequency of a shipwreck and the amount of a kinetic energy of typhoon have nothing to do with each other. In case of Wind-Typhoon that brought more a strong wind than a heavy rainfall, there were seriously affected ships and buildings by the wind.
A Study on the Evaporation and Ignition of Single Fish Oil Droplet
Ra, Jin-Hong ; Jang, Jae-Eun ; An, Su-Gil ;
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 64~68
In this paper, to percuss whether fish oil can substitute for marine fuel oil, the characteristics on the evaporation and ignition of 3 fish oils, Sardine oil, File fish oil and Alaska pollac oil, were investigated experimentally by suspending single fish oil droplel in hot atmosphere, and experiments on methanol and light oil were also carried out to compare the characteristics. The results abtained are summarized as follow; 1) Evaporation and ignition phenomena on the methanol and light oil by the present experimental method agreeded with the results of the earlier investigation. 2) The characteristic on evaporation and ignition of all 3 fish oils took the same pattern; in late stage of evaporation at atmospheric Temperature 55
droplet rapidly expanded and contracted, and then remained solid corbide, but in case of
rapidly expanded and ignitied, and then completly burned non-remained solid carbide. 3) As fish oil mixed with light oil (50% weight), in beginning stage of evaporation droplet depended on the characteristics of light oil, but in end stage depended on fish oil. 4) Ignition temperature of fish oil droplets was about 47
, higher than about 25
of light oil, but atmospheric temperature to ignite droplet was about
, lower than about 75
of light oil.
The Position Control for Servo-Motor by the Application of Variable Structre Controller
Yang, Joo-Ho ; Kim, Seong-Whan ;
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 69~74
The Variable Structure System(VSS) will be of much intrest to educators and design engineers who wish to demonstrate and investigate sophisticated position control methods and their applications. This paper describes DC motor position control by means of VSS concept. The control scheme is derived, implemented and tested in the laboratory where IBM AT computer has been used as a digital controller to control a representative servo system. The control system schematic is given and sample results are shown for illustration. This experiment may serve as a basis for further application of VSS.
Computer Aided Design of the Fore and After Body of Fishing Vessel by Using B-Spline
Kim, Dong-Jun ; Hong, Bong-Gi ;
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 75~82
The present paper describes a preliminary design method by using the computer graphics for creation of the fore and after body profiles of fishing vessel. It is well known that the Form Parameter design method has some merits at an early stage of design, and the B-spline curve generation technique has some prior properties in representing hull form with the computer graphic. The B-spline curve generation technique combined with the form parameter design method is employed to generate the profiles of fishing vessel. For fore body the stem profiles with bulbous bulb or without one are considered. And for after body the stern profiles of cruiser type and the transom type are generated with stern bulb or with shoe piece. Several examples will shown.
A New Development in the Theory of Slender Ships
Journal of the Korean society of Fisheries Technology , volume 27, issue 1, 1991, Pages 83~90
The method, which is introduced here, is an approximation derived by an application of the slender body theory, which has achieved a great success in the field of aeronautical engineering. However numerical results for wave resistance by this theory have been very disappointing. A slender body formulation for a ship in uniform forward motion si presented. It is based on the asymptotic expansion of the Kelvin source and the result is quite different from the existing slender ship theory developed by Vossers, Tuck and Maruo. It is equivalent to an approximation for the kernel function of the Neumann-Kelvin problem which assumes the linearized free surface condition but deals with the body boundary condition in its exact from. The velocity field and pressure distribution can be calculated simply by the differentiation of the two-dimensional velocity potential. A formula for the wave resistance of slender ships is also presented.