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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Korean Society of Horticultural Science
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Optimal Supply Amount and Strength of Nutrient Solution for Ripe-harvesting Tomatoes Grown under Perlite Culture System of Semi-forcing Cropping
Seo, Tae-Cheol ; Kim, Young-Chul ; Kim, Kwang-Yong ; Lee, Ji-Weon ; Yun, Hyung-Kweon ; Lee, Sang-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 79~85
The experiment was conducted to find out the optimal supply amount and strength of nutrient solution for matured tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv ‘momotaroT93’) grown in perlite culture in semi-forcing cropping. In first experiment, three levels of supply amounts of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 L/plant per day and two solution strengths of EC 1.5, 2.0 dS․
were tested. The application of supply amount of 1.5 L/plant per day with solution strength of EC 1.5 dS․
was most effective on producing good yield and fruit quality in semi-forcing tomato. In second experiment, the irrigation method controlled by TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) sensor was introduced. In this experiment, the input amount of nutrient solution was decreased by 26% in TDR control as compared with timer control. The fruit yield was increased by 29% in EC 1.5 dS․
treatment with TDR control system as compared with EC 2.0 dS․
. It is suggested that the optimal solution strength of EC 1.5 dS․
and the supply amount of nutrient solution of 0.93 L/plant per day for 45 days after transplant, and then another 45 days of 1.3 L/plant per day, followed by 1.59 L/plant per day until harvest be ideal for securing adequate yield, improving fruit quality, and minimizing the use of nutrient solution.
Training Method of Lateral Branch and Main Stem of Tomato Cultivated on Highly-built Bed in Hydroponic System
Lee, Sang-Woo ; Sim, Sang-Youn ; Seo, Myeong-Whoon ; LIm, Jae-Wook ; Rhee, Han-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 86~89
The effect of training method of the main stem and the lateral branch of tomato cultivated on highly-built bed in hydroponics was studied for two years: 1999 and 2000. In 1999, the experiment was carried out with four treatments: up-training of main stem with four clusters (control), up-training of main stem with four clusters and down-training of lateral branch with three clusters (DLUM), down-training of main stem with the four clusters (DM), and down-training of main stem with three clusters and up-training of the lateral branch with four clusters (DMUL). As compared with the control, the growth under DM treatment was lower and yield remained 95%, whereas yield in DMUL increased 23%. In 2000, four treatments were carried out to investigate optimal clusters for down-training of main stem in up-training of lateral branch with four clusters: up-training of main stem with four clusters (control), up-training of lateral branch with four clusters＋down-training of main stem with one fruit cluster (ULDM1), up-training of lateral branch with four clusters＋down-training of main stem with two clusters (ULDM2), and up-training of lateral branch with four clusters＋down-training of main stem with three clusters (ULDM3). As clusters of main stem increased, higher marketable yield was obtained. Yield increased 58% more in ULDM3 than that in the control. The growth of lateral branch treatment was better and average fruit weight was heavier in ULDM3 than that in the control.
Effects of Medium Composition on Growth and Yield of Potato Plug Plantlets under Capillary Hydroponic System
Kang, Bong-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 90~93
Proper root media and to determine its effect on growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dejima) in hydroponic culture system were studied. To achieve these, plug plantlets were planted in styrofoam beds (0.032
) containing various root media with six capillaries (1.5 cm in width and 40 cm in length). The nine media employed in the experiment were commercial growing mix, Jeju scoria＋peatmoss, Jeju scoria＋cocopeat, perlite＋peatmoss and perlite＋cocopeat (1：1 or 1：2, v/v) mixture, respectively. Perlite＋peatmoss (1：2) showed the highest total porosity and Jeju scoria＋cocopeat (1：1) showed the highest bulk density among the media tested, followed by Jeju scoria＋peatmoss (1：1). As incorporating ratio of peatmoss and cocopeat were elevated, the moisture capacity of media was increased. Characteristics of top growth were best in Jeju scoria＋peatmoss (1：2) mixed medium. The total tuber yield was highest in both media of Jeju scoria＋peatmoss (1：2). Perlite＋peatmoss (1：2), and perlite＋peatmoss (1：2) mixed medium showed highest average tuber weight. This results indicate that Jeju scoria＋peatmoss (1：2) and perlite＋peatmoss (1：2) were suitable medium for top growth and seed tuber production using a wick culture system among media tested.
Effect of Various Kinds of Ultraviolet Irradiation on Growth and Antioxidant Contents of Some Leafy Vegetables
Yun, Hyung-Kweon ; Kim, Young-Cheol ; Seo, Tae-Chul ; Lee, Sang-Gyu ; Kim, Kwang-Yong ; Lee, Jun-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 94~97
Two wavelength ranges of UV light were irradiated on some leafy vegetables for one week before harvest to evaluate their growth and antioxidant contents in fresh leaves. UV-B irradiation decreased the plant height, leaf areas, fresh and dry weights of leafy lettuce and garland chrysanthemum, whereas the fresh and dry weights of garland chrysanthemum increased with UV-A irradiation. However, the growth of spinach was not significantly affected by UV irradiation. UV-B irradiation increased the inner contents of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol in fresh leaves of all three crops, while UV-A was not affected.
Control Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate alone and in mixture with Polyoxyethylene sorbitanmonolaurate on Powdery Mildew of Strawberry
Nam, Myeong-Hyeon ; Jung, Suck-Kee ; Ra, Sang-Wook ; Kim, Hong-Gi ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 98~101
Powdery mildew on strawberry plants, caused by Spherotheca aphanis (Wallr.) U. Braun var. aphanis, is the most serious disease for strawberry production. There is a demand to develop the substitutes for chemicals which are more environment friendly materials. Control of powdery mildew was evaluated on ‘Akihime’, ‘Sachinoka’, ‘Dochiodome’, ‘Noyho’ and ‘Redpearl’ varieties grown in the greenhouse. Applications of 1%, 0.5%, and 0.25% of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO_3) gave much better effect on controling powdery mildew. Sodium bicarbonate treatments were more effective when applied before disease occurrence or at initial stage. In particular, 1% of sodium bicarbonate applied with 0.5% of polyoxyethylene sorbitanmonolaurate (tween 20) showed higher efficacy than other materials used on ‘Nyoho’ in greenhouse experiments. Non-phytotoxicity was revealed on the leaves and fruits of strawberry at these concentrations. This result indicates that a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and tween 20 is a useful substitute for fungicides to control powdery mildew of strawberry.
Effects of Charcoal-added Functional Paper on Keeping Leafy Lettuce Fresh during Marketing
Jeong, Cheon-Soon ; Park, Sung-Min ; Kang, Won-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 102~105
The effects of storage temperature charcoal-added paper box of leafy lettuce storage in CO_2 and ethylene gas absorption were investigated. CO_2 production was higher at 30
C than that at 13
C, but there were no differences in the rate of CO_2 absorption among treatments. Charcoal-added paper box was found to be efficient in absorbing ethylene as compared to the control and pulp treated paper after repeated use. No difference was found in the content of chlorophyll at the storage temperature of 13
C, though the rate of change in color was found to be faster at 30
C. The quality of leafy lettuce was better in charcoal-added paper boxes than in untreated or pulp treated boxes during storage. Sixty-three percent of leafy lettuce was rotten in untreated or pulp treated boxes during storage, whereas only 17% of lettuce was spoiled in charcoal-added paper boxes. The charcoal-added paper boxes were found to be more efficient in keeping the leafy lettuce fresh during transportation and also prolonged the shelf life after harvest.
Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI) Gene Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Kim, Bong-Kyu ; Jeon, Bo-Young ; Shin, Yoon-Sup ; Yang, Seung-Gyun ; Min, Byung-Whan ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 106~109
An attempt was made to transform a PDI gene from Ricinus communis to a watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thumb), using Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404, harboring binary vector pMBP-1. Cotyledonary explants were inoculated with a bacterial suspension (10^8 cells/mL), cocultivated for 72 hours and placed on MS medium with 2 mg․L^.^1 BAP, 0.05 mg․L^.^1 ABA, 300 mg․L^.^1 carbenicillin and 500 mg․L^.^1 kanamycin, and then cultured under the light. Adventitious shoots formed on the explants after four weeks of culture. Surviving explants were transferred every 14 days to the shoot elongation medium (kanamycin free medium). The presence of the PDI gene in the genome of stable transgenic plant was confirmed by PCR amplification, Northern and Southern blot analysis. A reliable protocol was developed for the routine production of transgenic plants using commercially important inbred lines.
Effects of Foliar Application of GA_3 on Flowering and Fruit Quality of Very Early-maturing Satsuma Mandarin
Moon, Young-Eel ; Kim, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Chang-Myung ; Kho, Sang-Ook ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 110~113
Gibberellin (GA_3) treatment during winter to reduce flowering was evaluated as a means to alleviate the alternate bearing of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Miyamotowase). GA_3 at 0, 25, 50, 100mg․L^.^1, was sprayed on 9-year-old Miyamotowase satsuma mandarin trees on Dec. 30. 1997. A rate of leaf fall was not significantly different among the levels of GA_3 concentration. GA_3 treatment considerably decreased the number of flowers and increased the number of vegetative shoots. A rate of fruit set showed an increasing tendency as GA_3 concentration level was increased. Fruit size was also affected by the levels of GA_3 concentration. The percentage of large-sized fruit was increased at high level of GA_3 concentration, while that of small-sized fruit was decreased at low level of GA_3. The content of soluble solids and acid showed no significant differences among treatments.
Effect of Postharvest Treatments on Fruit Quality during Storage of 'Niitaka' Pear
Kwon, Yong-Beom ; Park, Se-Won ; Kim, Myunh-Su ; Shin, Il-Sheop ; Hong, Sae-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 114~119
To prevent the skin discoloration of Asian pear, ‘Niitaka’, fruits were treated with conventional predrying, hot-air drying, and alcohol immediately after harvest, and then placed in a plastic container ‘with’ or ‘without’ 50μm PE film liner and stored at 13
C. Incidence of skin blackening, fruit decay, and changes in physicochemical properties were studied. The Skin blackening of the pear did not occur in all treatments when stored. The general appearance of fruit color was faded and Hunter b value was decreased when stored longer period. When stored without PE film liner, the fruit weight decreased by 3% for five weeks of storage, and remained constant there after. The fresh weight decreased less than 0.5% ‘with’ PE film, while treated with ethanol showed a weight loss more than 1%. The weight of dry matters decreased in proportion to the length of storage period. The firmness of fruits remained constant for five weeks of storage and decreased its firmness there after. The contents of glucose changed little. In contrast, sucrose contents in the early period of storage decreased severely. Overall data of the study suggested that hot-air drying with PE film liner gave the best result among other postharvest treatment.
Determination of Optimum Harvest Time of 'Geumchonjosaeng' Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and Its Shelf Life at Ambient Temperature
Kim, Myeong-Su ; Jo, Gwang-Sik ; Hong, Se-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 120~123
‘Geumchonjosaeng’ was recently developed in Korea. One of the shortcomings of this variety is that the appearance of skin color is not necessarily a good indication of harvest maturity since ripening of flesh tissue takes precedence over skin color change. To market high quality fruits, therefore, careful examination of fruit characteristics is required before harvest. The uneven maturity may be caused by bagging the fruit to promote attractive skin color. This study was aimed at determining the optimum harvest time of ‘Geumchonjosaeng’. The major sugar of ‘Geumchonjosaeng’ was identified as sucrose and it reached its peak at 140 days after full bloom. Also, skin color turned into greenish yellow to brown after reaching the peak. The shelf life of fruits harvested at this point was approximately 20 days at ambient temperature in terms of flesh firmness, weight loss, and skin color.
The Growth of Potted Thymus vulgaris L. and Mentha suaveolens 'Variegata' as Affected by Light Conditions and Uniconazole Treatment
Lee, Jeong-Hwa ; Jeong, Yeon-Ok ; Huh, Moo-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 124~128
The effects of light conditions and uniconazole on the growth of potted Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) and Mentha suaveolens ‘Variegata’ (pineapplemint) were investigated. The plant height of both thyme and pineapplemint grown under full sun and half shaded sun was not affected. However the height of both plants decreased as uniconazole concentration was increased. In shade, plant height of thyme was not affeced by uniconazole and wilting of pineapplemint. The number of lateral shoot of thyme grown under full-sun and half shaded sun decreased as uniconazole concentration was increased. The number of lateral shoot in pineapplemint grown under full-sun was affected by uniconazole, but it was not under half saded sun. There was a high significant difference among light conditions on root length of thyme. However uniconazole treatment did not affect the root length of thyme. The root length of pineapplemint was not affected by light conditions and treatment of uniconazole.
Effects of Shading, Potting Media, and Plant Growth Retardant Treatment on the Growth and Flowering of Spiranthes sinensis
Son, Hee-Young ; Chae, Soo-Cheon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 129~135
The effect of shading, potting media and some plant growth retardants on the growth and flowering of Spiranthes sinensis was investigated to improve the production and quality of pot plant. The shading levels were full sunlight, 30%, 50% and 70% of full sunlights respectively. The kinds of potting media used were mixed soil, leaf mould and sand, burnt chaff, sphagnum moss, pumice and potting media. Plant growth retardants were foliar sprayed as follows: paclobutrazol was with the concentration of 0.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10 mg․
, ancymidol with 1.0, 5.0, 10, 20 mg․
, and both cycocel and daminozide with 100, 200, 500, 1000 mg․
. Fifty percent shading level showed the longest length of plants. The number of leaves, leaf length and chlorophyll contents increased as shading level increased. Full sunlight increased leaf width and the number of nodes. Fifty percent of the full sunlight gave the best conditions for flower stalk length, the number of flowers and flowering period, etc. Sphagnum moss gave best growth and blooming, while sand and burnt chaff showed poor plant growth and was unsuitable for pot flower soil. The treatment of both paclobutrazol and ancymidol had the best restraint effects, and both cycocel and daminozide showed no big differences. The treatment of ancymidol 5 mg․
had best restraint effects, giving a large, number of flowers and longer flowering period, and thus adding the decoration values.
Effects of Drying Methods on Shape and Color of Rosa hybrida
Son, Kwan-Hwa ; Kwon, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Eui-Young ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 136~140
To promote the mass production of dried rose flowers in summer, four drying methods were used: air drying (AD), hot air drying (HAD; 40
C), drying in silica gel (DSG; 40
C), and freeze-drying (FD). Five cultivars of rose, Tineke (white), Golden Gate (yellow), Saphir (pink), Roulette (red-orange), and Rote Rose (red) were dried just before full blooming on July 24, 2001. They were dried for 10 days with AD, 2-4 days with HAD and DSG, and 14 days with FD. The shape and color of five cultivars of dried rose were very distinct. The dried roses with AD were small (47.9-65.0%) and turned into brownish color (
E* value 44.36-72.54) because of high temperature and humidity in summer. The dried flowers with HAD were also small (56.8-73.9%) and had darker color (
E* value 22.43-54.59). DSG flowers were big (92.7-103.0%) and had lightest and closest color (
E* value 7.55-33.35) to fresh rose. FD flowers had biggest (86.4-117.3%) and similar color (
E* value 6.87-43.78) to fresh rose. The shape of dried roses with FD and the color of DSG were similar to fresh rose. Among five cultivars of dried rose, Tineke and Golden Gate gave the closest color to fresh rose and Rote Rose showed the most different color.
Optimum Drying Temperature to Maintain Size and Color of Dried Rose
Son, Kwan-Hwa ; Kwon, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Eui-Young ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 141~145
The experiment was carried out to find out the proper temperatures for mass production of dried rose flowers. Five cultivars of rose, ‘Tineke’ (white), ‘Golden Gate’ (yellow), ‘Saphir’ (pink), ‘Roulette’ (red-orange), and ‘Rote Rose’ (red), were chosen for the test. These cultivars are produced in large quantities and known for its beauty in shapes and colors. Before full blooming, flowers were dried upside down in 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, and 70
C hot air drying machines. The higher the drying temperature was, the faster the flowers were dried. After drying flowers, the weight decreased to 15.9-20.6%, irrespective of cultivars and drying temperatures. After drying the diameter of flowers decreased to 49.2-88.3%, and the higher the drying temperature, the larger the flower diameter when temperature was raised from 60
C to 70
C. The color of flowers became darker than pre-drying condition, but it became more pale as drying temperature was raised from 60
C to 70
C. The proper drying temperatures were found to be 40, 45, and 50
C in all cultivars. To obtain a larger flower size, higher drying temperatures are recommendable. However, when dried at 70
C, the color of flower near calyx and leaf changed into brown.
Breeding of a Dwarf Type Eustoma Cultivar 'Little Jewel Pink'
Huh, Kun-Yang ; Bang, Chang-Seok ; Song, Jeong-Seob ; Kim, Wan-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 146~148
A dwarf type eustoma
cultivar, ‘Little Jewel Pink’ was bred by crossing of two inbred lines ‘Wonkyo A6-1’ and ‘Wonkyo A6-17’, and released in 2002. ‘Wonkyo A6-1’ was originated from ‘Extra Dwarf Mermaid Blue’ and ‘Wonkyo A6-17’ from ‘Little Bell Blue’. ‘Little Jewel Pink’ is a dwarf type and has stable plant shape with many nodes and branches. Leaf shape is narrow ovate and wide. It blooms later than ordinary cultivar and bears many flowers with light pink color and wide funnel shape. Petal has round edge and weak wave.
Protein Content and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities of Four Potted Herbs as Affected by Uniconazole and GA_3
Lee, Jeong-Hwa ; Jeong, Yeon-Ok ; Huh, Moo-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 149~152
The effect of uniconazole and
on the protein contents and antioxidant enzyme activities of potted thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), pineapplemint (Mentha suaveolens ‘Variegata’), and eau de colognemint (Mentha piperita var. citrata) were investigated. Protein content of thyme was highest as 38.59 mg․
with 0.5 mg․
of uniconazole. Ascorbate peroxidase (APx) activity of thyme with uniconazole decreased as compared to the control, but increased that of eau de colognemint with uniconazole. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPx) activity of eau de colognemint with uniconazole increased as compared to the control. GA_3 did not affect the antioxidant activity of four potted herbs.
Development of the Functional Packaging Paper for Ethylene Gas Absorption Using Charcoal
Jeong, Cheon-Soon ; Park, Sung-Min ; Won, Jong-Myoung ; Lee, Sung-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 21, issue 2, 2003, Pages 153~156
The ability of ethylene absorption and the possibility of reusing the functional packaging paper made of charcoal powder and pulp were examined. White charcoal powder absorbed relatively higher concentrations of supplied ethylene than black charcoal powder. Compared with wetting agent A, the polyacrylamide was more effective in absorbing ethylene among other absorbents. The ethylene absorption ability was higher in the functional pulp paper, and it maintained for 5 days. The higher concentrations of charcoal in the paper showed the greater absorption ability of ethylene. However, there were no statistical differences between 120% and 150% of charcoal treatments. To determine the possibility of recycling the papers, the used papers were dried before examining the ethylene absorption ability. It was found that the reused papers had the similar ethylene absorption ability, compared with that of new papers.