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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Effect of Soil Waterlogging at Three Developmental Stages on Growth, Fruit Yield and Physiological Responses of Oriental Melon(Cucumis melon L. var. makuwa Makino)
Lee, Jung-Soo ; Paek, Kee-Yoeup ; Shin, Young-An ; Park, Su-Hyung ; Jeong, Seok-Tae ; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 1~6
There is a high demand for oriental melons during summer (May to July). At this time of year, the soil is waterlogged due to monsoon in Korea. Plant responses to soil waterlogging was investigated in this experiment. The soil was waterlogged for 1, 3 and 5 days during the early vegetative, and late fruit stages. After waterlogging, O_2 concentration in soil decreased rapidly and CO_2 concentration increased rapidly. Root viability and leaf net photosynthesis decreased and leaf resistance decreased as waterlogging duration extended. With waterlogging, leaves turned yellow more rapidly in mature leaves than young leaves. Leaf ethylene production increased with extending waterlogging duration, but then decreased rapidly after waterlogging. The ethylene production in fruits, especially in mature fruits decreased as waterlogging duration increased. The reduction of sugar concentration in fruit was inversely related to waterlogging duration. Extension of waterlogging duration at any plant's developmental stage decreased the number and weight of marketable fruit and their soluble solids content. Roots of waterlogged plants were thinner and more branched than those of control plants.
Viral Symptoms observed on Korean Native Gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) Plants and Their Causal Viruses
Chol, Jun-Gu ; Kang, Sang-Gu ; Choi, Young-Jun ; Jang, In-Suk ; Suh, Sang-Gon ; Chung, Hee-Don ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 7~11
Viral infections of twenty six accessions of Korean native bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) plants were investigated. Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), and cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) were identified in the native bottle gourd plants. All examined plants were grouped into four different types of viral symptoms on the leaves. ‘Buan’ showed no visible symptom. Eighteen gourdes including ‘Andong’ showed typical yellow mosaic spots on the leaves. ‘Ulreung 1’ showed progressive wilting and severe leaf distortion. Twelve gourdes including ‘Habcheon’ showed yellow mosaic and bleaching on the leaves. Four native plant genotypes, ‘Buan’, ‘Andong’, ‘Ulreung 1’, and ‘Habcheon’, were selected to identify and to associate viruses with the typical symptoms. Antiserum against to CMV reacted positively to proteins isolated from all the selected plants. Antiserum against to CGMMV reacted positively to proteins isolated from ‘Andong’, and ‘Ulreung 1’. Antiserum against to ZYMV reacted positively to proteins isolated leaves from ‘Ulreung 1’, and ‘Habcheon’. Leaf cells of ‘Ulreung 1’ and ‘Habcheon’ showed typical potyvirus inclusions of pinwheels, scrolls and cylindrical inclusions, indicating that ZYMV was common in gourds. Mixed infection of CMV, CGMMV, and ZYMV caused extremely severe symptoms such as wilting and leaf distortion of ‘Ulreung 1’. Although ‘Buan’ showed no symptom, antiserum against CMV reacted positively on the immunblot analysis. This result suggested that ‘Buan’ might be a tolerant genotype against to plant viruses.
Use of CGF and CCW as Medium Components for Commercial Production of Plug Seedlings of Pepper
Hwang, Seung-Jae ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 12~18
The study was conducted in a commercial plug glasshouse in Sacheon to examine the possibility of producing ‘Nokkwang’ pepper plug seedlings in various growing media containing cellular glass foam (CGF) and carbonized chestnut woodchips (CCW) as medium components. Plug seedlings of ‘Nokkwang’ pepper were grown in media containing 50% CCW + 50% peatmoss, 33% CGF + 67% peatmoss, and 50% peatmoss + 50% granular rockwool. A commercial plug medium (Tosilee medium) was used as the control. All seeds were sown in 200 cell trays on November 28, 2001. Seedling growth was measured at 41 days after sowing. Each treatment showed a similar result as compared to the control. Plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, and root grade were significantly greater or better in the 33% CGF + 67% peatmoss treatment than those in the other media. However, growth was slightly suppressed in the 50% CCW + 50% peatmoss medium. pH and EC of the medium were the highest in the control, but no toxicity symptoms were observed. The results obtained suggest that perlite can be replaced with a new material CGF in the commercial scale production of plug seedlings of ‘Nokkwang’ pepper.
Production of Plug Seedlings of the Grafted Watermelon in Media Containing Chips of Cellular Glass Foam and Carbonized Chestnut Wood
Hwang, Seung-Jae ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 19~24
The experiment was conducted in a commercial plug glasshouse to examine the possibility of producing plug seedlings of grafted watermelon in media containing chips of cellular glass foam (CGF) and carbonized chestnut woodchip (CCW) as a medium component. Plug seedlings of ‘Galchae’ watermelon were grown in media containing 50% CCW + 50% peatmoss, 33% CGF + 67% peatmoss, and 50% peatmoss + 50% granular rockwool. A commercial plug medium (Tosilee) was used as the control. The scion and the rootstock used were Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. ‘Galchae’ and Lagenaria sceraria Standl. ‘FR-Dantos’, respectively. All treatments showed a similar growth result as compared to the control. pH of the media was measured to be in a range of 6.4 to 7.5. EC was the highest in the control (564
Sּcm^-^1), but no salt toxicity symptoms were observed. Root length, no. of leaves, root grade, leaf area, and chlorophyll concentration in a 33% CGF + 67% peatmoss medium were significantly greater than those of the other media. T/R ratio, dry matter, and fresh and dry weights of root were not significantly different.
'Tamnara', A New Full Ripe Tomato for Protected Cultivation
Jeong, Hae-Boong ; Cho, Mi-Ae ; No, Ill-Rae ; Kang, Nam-Jun ; Jeong, Ho-Jeong ; Kim, Hoe-Tae ; Kang, Kwang-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 25~28
‘Tamnara’ is a newly bred full ripe tomato cultivar for protected cultivation. This cultivar was originated from selfing of ‘Daniella’ and selected by means of pedigree breeding. ‘Tamnara’ is an indeterminate type with fairly long internode. It bears round flat fruits and yellow skin color with red flesh fruit. The number of locule are 2 or 3. The soluble solid contents has been in excess of 6.0
Bx. It is resistant to tomato mosaic virus, Fusarium wilt and moderately resistant to leaf mold disease. This cultivar can be cultivated in the protected cultivation area everywhere in Korea.
Development of Optimum Nutrient Solution for Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in a Closed System
Yeo, Kyung-Hwan ; Lee, Yong-Beom ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 29~36
To develop a nutrient solution for sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in a close system, sweet basil plants were grown in NFT supplied with 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2 strength of the nutrient solution of National Horticultural Experiment Station in Japan (HES). The pH and EC in 1 strength of HES nutrient solution were more stable than those in other concentrations. Moreover, crop growth in 1 strength was higher than those in other treatments and nutrient contents in the leaves were also in sufficiency ranges of plant nutrient diagnosis standard. Based on these results, optimum macronutrients were composed by nutrient-water (n/w) absorption ratio with 1 strength (NO_3-N 11.6, NH_4-N 1.2, P 3.6, K 5.8, Ca 5.8, Mg 3.0 me․L^-^1). To examine the suitability of the nutrient solution developed by n/w absorption ratio, sweet basil plants were grown in NFT irrigated with different kinds of solutions: the nutrient solution developed by the plant analysis (PA) of 1 S, nutrient solution of European Vegetable R & D Center (EVR), HES of 1 S, the nutrient solutions developed in the above experiment (SCU) of 1/2, 1, and 2 S. As sweet basil plants grew, the concentration of N, P, and K in root zone decreased, but Ca and Mg concentrations were consistent through the whole growth stage. The growth of sweet basil plants in the concentration at 1 S of SCU and EVR which were stable in root zone was better than other treatments for photosynthesis, fresh, and dry weight.
The Effect of
-N Ratio in the Nutrient Solution on Growth and Quality of Sweet Basil
Yeo, Kyung-Hwan ; Lee, Yong-Beom ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 37~42
Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) was grown in a closed system to investigate the effects of NO_3^--N and NH_4^+-N ratio in nutrient solution on growth, yield, and quality. Sweet basil plants were grown in NFT supplied with SCU nutrient solution (NO_3^--N 11.6, NH_4^+-N 1.2, P 3.6, K 5.8, Ca 5.8, Mg 3.0 me․L^-^1) treated with five different ratio of NO_3^--N : NH_4^+-N (100:0, 85:15, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70). In the case of the nutrient solution without controlling pH and concentration, pH was increased in 100:0 treatment, but rapidly decreased in the higher ratio of NH_4^+-N. EC in nutrient solution was decreased in all treatments. Shoot and root fresh weights of sweet basil were increased by higher NO_3^--N ratio, 100:0, 85:15, 70:30, in the nutrient solution and the addition of NH_4^+-N resulted in decreased fresh and dry weight. There were no significant differences in growth of plants grown in 100:0, 85:15, and 70:30. Mineral contents in the leaf tissue increased in plants grown in higher NO_3^--N ratio. The highest nitrate contents in leaves were observed in NO_3^--N single treatment (100:0). Photosynthesis of sweet basil was higher in 85:15 treatment, but did not show any significant differences among other treatments. Based on these results, optimum NO_3^--N to NH_4^+-N ratio in nutrient solution was found to be 85:15 (NO_3^--N 10.9 : NH_4^+-N 1.9 me․L^-^1).
Relation of Bitter Pit Development with Mineral Nutrients, Cultivars, and Rootstocks in Apples (Malus domestica Borkh)
Kim, Mong-Sup ; Ko, Kwang-Chool ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 43~49
The study was conducted to observe the bitter pit incidence in relation with cultivars, rootstocks, minerals content in leaves and fruits under commercial orchard conditions, and to examine the accompanying anatomical changes. Number of pits counted at harvest was high in ‘Megumi’, medium in ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Golden Delicious’, and low in ‘Mutsu’, ‘Fuji’, and ‘Starkrimson’. The pit was the deepest in ‘Fuji’. More pits were observed in the half to the calyx end of a fruit than in the stem end part in all the cultivars investigated. Epidermal and cuticular layers of the pitted areas disappeared due to destruction of the cells, and the flesh cell underneath were collapsed in the ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Fuji’. Numerous starch grains were found in ‘Starkrimson’, not like in the forme layers consisting of small cells were newly formed to fill the disappeared epiderma and cuticular layers, and in such less starch grains were observed in a shallower depth. Symptoms in the former and the latter are thus understood to be typical of bitterpits and cork spots, respectively. ‘Fuji’ grafted on M26 showed much less incidence than the same cultivar grafted on MM106, implying a great effect graft on rootstock on the symptom incidence of rootstock. A significant difference in N, K, and Ca content with N/Ca and K/Ca was more noted in flesh than in fruit skin and fruit core. Thus, it is reasonable to analyse mineral contents of flesh for diagnosis of pitted fruit. Pitted fruit was significantly lower in flesh Ca content as compared with non-pitted one, while N and K contents were tended to be higher. On the contrary, N/Ca and K/Ca were significantly higher in pitted fruit than non-pitted fruit. In terms of bitter pit development related to flesh mineral content, N/Ca and K/Ca should be more important than flesh N and Ca content in the same cultivar, while genetic influence is more remarkable than mineral ones among other cultivars.
Effect of Calcium Formulae Foliar Application on the Water Spot Outbreak and Fruit Quality of Satsuma Mandarin in the Plastic House
Kim, Yong-Ho ; Moon, Young-Eel ; Han, Seung-Gab ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 50~54
The study was carried out to elucidate the effects of calcium formulae foliar application on the water spot outbreak and the quality of fruit of early-maturing satsuma mandarin (cv. Miyagawawase) inside plastic house. Results showed that there were no differences in Ca contents of leaves and rind depending upon calcium salts and spaying frequencies. However, outbreak rate of water spot decreased first in Suical, followed by Calhard, Kalk-H, and Clef-non as foliar application of Ca salts. a value of rind increased first in Suical, followed by Calhard, Kalk-H, and Clef-non as foliar application of Ca salts, showing peel coloration has a contrary effect on outbreak of water spot. Peel thickness were heavy in Suical. Peel thickness of Calhard, Kalk-H, and Clef-non on the other hand are not as thick as Suical, since foliar application of Ca salts, resulted in pulp low ratio. Reducing sugar, sucrose, and total sugar had a opposite effect on pulp ratio. Free sugar are higher in Suical, followed by Calhard, Kalk-H, and Clef-non as Ca salts was applied. The soluble solid level treated three times through Ca foliar application had higher values at 1.7
̊Bx, and 1.84
Bx than control, respectively. The highest value can be found in Suical, followed by Calhard, Kalk-H, and Clef-non.
Influence of Picking Stage and Storage Type on the Fruit Respiration Change and Panel Test in 'Wonhwang', 'Hwasan', and 'Mansoo' Pear
Hong, Seong-Sig ; Hong, Yun-Pyo ; Im, Byung-Seon ; Jeong, Dai-Sung ; Shin, Il-Sheob ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 55~62
Three kinds of Asian pear fruits were harvest at conventional ripening stage and several days earlier than ripening ones including ‘Wonhwang’, ‘Hwasan’ and ‘Mansoo’ represented the early-season, mid-season, and late-season mature cultivars, respectively. In the ambient temperature storage, respiratory pattern of ‘Wonhwang’ cultivar showed some climacteric, but ‘Hwasan’ and ‘Mansoo’ showed non-climacteric. So, the controlled atmosphere (CA) effect was not clear in ‘Hwasan’ and ‘Mansoo’. The fruit firmness of ‘Wonhwang’ pear was well-maintained in CA storage compared with low temperature storage. According to the fruit firmness, incidence of core breakdown, and value of sensory test, the proper storage periods of ‘Wonhwang’ pear was 1520 days in ambient temperature, 120 days in low temperature, and 160 days in CA storage. And marketable quality was kept properly for 2030 days in ambient, 120160 days in low temperature, and 160180 days in CA storage of ‘Hwasan’ pear. Storage periods was longer in ‘Mansoo’ fruit that ‘Hwasan’ pear stored at ambient temperature. But in low temperature storage, the proper storage periods was about the same as ‘Hwasan’ pear. The storage periods of ‘Mansoo’ pear was 200 days in CA storage.
Screening of Scab (Venturia nashicola) Resistance Germplasms in Pyrus species
Shin, Il-Sheob ; Hyeon, Ik-Hwa ; Hwang, Hae-Sung ; Hong, Sung-Sik ; Cho, Kang-Hee ; Cho, Hyeon-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 63~68
To select scab resistant breeding materials, the degree of resistance of 171 cultivars including 24 species, which have collected in all temperate regions of the world, mainly Pyrus pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. communis and P. bretschneideri were examined with conidial suspension (1x10^5 conidia/ml) four weeks after artificial infection. Scab resistance could be classified into four groups. Most P. aromatica, P. betulaefolia, P. calleryana, P. dimorphophylla, P. lindleyi, P. pashia, P. phaeocarpa, P. sinkiangensis, P. sohayakinensis, and P. communis including its hybrid cultivars except ‘Mustafabey’ were evaluated highly resistant (HR) with no symptom. Local cultivars such as ‘Hwangsilri’ and ‘Yeongmokri’ included in P. ussuriensis, and ‘Kinchaku’ and ‘Chanxixueli’ belonging to P. pyrifolia showed resistant (R) with yellow or necrotic lesions on several leaves. However most cultivars of P. bretschneideri such as ‘Yali’ and ‘Cili’, P. pyrifolia such as ‘Niitaka’, ‘Whangkeumbae’, and P. ussuriensis as ‘Bongri’ were designated as being susceptible (S) having sparsely sporulating lesions on some leaves and highly susceptible (HS) with abundance of sporulating lesions on several leaves.
Breeding of a Late Maturing Cultivar 'Mihwang' (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta Nakai)
Hwang, Hae-Sung ; Kim, Whee-Cheon ; Shin, Il-Sheob ; Shin, Yong-Uk ; Lee, Don-Kyun ; Kang, Sang-Jo ; Hong, Seong-Sig ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 69~72
The new pear variety ‘Mihwang’ originated from a cross between ‘Hosui’ and ‘Okusankichi’ in 1978 in National Horticulture Research Institute (NHRI) of RDA was firstly selected in 1989 for its high fruit quality with high soluble solids, long storability, and major disease resistance. It was finally selected in 1995 after regional adaptability test at 9 sites for five years from 1991 to 1995. ‘Mihwang’ is vigorous in tree growth and upright-spreading in tree habit, and shows slight symptoms of scab (Venturia nashicola), no symptoms of black spot caused by Alternaria kikuchiana Tanaka and black leaf spot caused by apple stem grooving virus, Capillovirus. It blooms three days earlier than ‘Okusankichi’, and also produces abundant pollen. Therefore, it can be an useful pollinizer excepting ‘Whasan’, ‘Gamcheonbae’ and ‘Mansoo’. The optimum harvest time is Oct. 26 in Suwon, 10 days earlier than ‘Okusankichi’. The fruit is round oblate in shape and bright yellow brown in skin color. The fruit weight is 400500 g which is smaller than ‘Okusankichi’. It has 12.2 ̊Bx soluble solids content. The flesh is soft, very juicy and negligible grit.
A New Early Season Pear Cultivar 'Geumchonjosaeng' with Large Size and High Quality
Cho, Kwang-Sik ; Son, Dong-Su ; Kang, Sam-Seok ; Kim, Myung-Su ; Hong, Kyung-Hui ; Yun, Seok-Kyu ; Cho, Gang-Hui ; Cho, Hyeon-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 73~76
‘Geumchonjosaeng’ pear cultivar (Pyrus pyrifolia var. culta Nakai) originated from the cross between ‘Imamuraaki’ and ‘Danbae’ to improve the fruit quality of ‘Imamuraaki’ cultivar in 1971 at Naju Pear Research Institute of National Horticultural Research Institute (NHRI), Rural Development Administration (RDA). It was preliminarily selected in 1982 and named in 2001. The tree habit shows vigorous growth and upright spreading. It carries abundant pollen grains and shows cross compatibility with leading cultivars. Also it shows high resistance to black leaf spot (Alternaria kikuchiana) in the field condition. Optimum harvest time is around Sep. 3, which is 5 days later than that of ‘Wonwhang’, and it could satisfy consumer’s demand for high quality pear fruit in “Chuseok”. The obovate fruit shape resembles maternal parent, ‘Imamuraaki’ and skin color is green yellowish brown at normal harvesting time and gradually turned to yellowish brown at full ripennig state. Fruit weighs about 593 g, and the soluble solid content is 13.5 ˚Bx. The flesh is very soft and juicy and, rendering good eating quality. Shelf life is about 20 days under the ambient temperature, and it is a relatively long period as compare with other early season cultivars.
Fruit Quality Characteristics Depending upon Cultivar of Satsuma Mandarin inside Plastic House During the Very Late Cropping System
Kim, Yong-Ho ; Yun, Su-Hyun ; Park, Jae-Ho ; Kang, Sung-Ku ; An, Hyun-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 77~81
The experiment was carried out to select the pertinent satsuma mandarin cultivars intended for the Korean Thanksgiving Day under plastic house cultivation with very late forcing system (heating on Feb. 15). The full bloom stage of very early satsuma mandarin was on March 26 to 28 in all cultivars but there were no significant difference among them. Full bloom stage of early satsuma mandarin was also on March 26 to 28. The peel chromaticity of ‘Nichinan Ichgo’ was the highest among cultivars and ‘Ueno’ follows. The a/b values had a similar trend as value a, thus rind color of ‘Nichinan Ichgo’ and ‘Ueno’ has more improved than those of other cultivars. Values of peel chromaticity in early satsuma mandarin were 7.3, 12.5, and 22.9 in ‘Miyagawa’, ‘Okitsu’, and ‘Yamashitabeni’, respectively. The results show that a/b value of ‘Yamashitabeni’ was higher by 48.7 to 34 than ‘Miyagawa’ and ‘Okitsu’. The soluble solids contents were 10.5, 10.3, and 10.5 ̊Bx for ‘Nichinan Ichgo’, ‘Ueno’, and ‘Miyamoto’, respectively. The contents of sugar Brix in ‘Nichinan Ichgo’, ‘Ueno’, and ‘Miyamoto’ were higher than those of other cultivars but tree vigor of ‘Miyamoto’ was weak. Thus ‘Miyamoto’ was not desirable for plastic house cultivation. The sugar Brix of ‘Miyagawa’, ‘Okitsu’, and ‘Yamashitabeni’ were 10.3, 11.0, 12.3 ̊Bx, respectively. The acidity of very early satsuma mandarin cultivars was above 1.0%, in general except for ‘Ueno’, ‘Iwasaki’ and ‘Chavara’. The acidity of early satsuma mandarin cultivars also showed a similar trend as very early satsuma mandarin under plastic house cultivation. In addition, the sugar/acidity were very low in all cultivar. Thus, the best pertinent satsuma mandarin cultivars for the Korean Thanksgiving Day under plastic house cultivation with very late forcing system were ‘Nichinan Ichigo’, ‘Ueno’, and ‘Yamashitabeni’.
Effect of Nitrogen Concentration in Fertilizer Solution on Growth of and Nutrient Uptake by Oriental Hybrid Lily 'Casa Blanca'
Choi, Jong-Myung ; Lee, Ki-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 82~88
Objective of this research was to investigate the effect of various nitrogen concentrations in fertilizer solution on growth of and nutrient uptake by Oriental hybrid lily ‘Casa Blanca’. Tissue and soil analyses were conducted to determine the critical concentrations in plants and root media when nutrient disorders develop. Plant height was the greatest in the 15 mM treatment, but significantly decreased under 0 mM or greater than 30 mM treatment. The 10 mM treatment had the greatest fresh weight of cut flower and elevated N concentrations in fertilizer solution resulted in decreased stem strength. Nitrogen contents based on dry weight of whole above-ground plant part at harvesting were 2.48 and 2.98% respectively, in 10 and 15 mM treatments. Plant growth was depressed when tissue N content was greater than 2.66% or less than 1.91%. The concentration of ammonium plus nitrate in soil solution of 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 mM treatments were 195, 254 and 422 mg․L^-^1, respectively. These results indicated that the range of 200 to 400 mg․L^-^1 of N is acceptable for good crop growth.
Effect of PP-333, CCC, Atrinal and A-rest on the Growth of Potted Hibiscus hamabo
Lee, Jong-Suk ; Kwack, Hye-Ran ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 89~94
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of growth retardants such as PP-333, cycocel, dikegulac sodium (Atrinal) and ancymidol (A-rest) in growth of potted Hibiscus hamabo. The number of lateral shoots was reduced according to the increase of PP-333 treatment and 60-70% reduction of lateral shoot were observed over 500 mg․L^-^1. The length, width and petiole length of leaf was reduced significantly according to the increase of PP-333 treatment. Treatment of CCC reduced plant height effectively and the rate was more than 50% with 4,000 mg․L^-^1. Number of lateral shoot was reduced slightly according to the increase of CCC treatment. The plant height was not reduced significantly with the treatment of dikegulac sodium (Atrinal). However, the number of lateral shoot was increased significantly as increase the treatments of dikegulac sodium with 13.2 of control to 19.4 of 1,000 mg․L^-^1. Any significant changes were not showed with treatment of dikegulac sodium in length, width and petiole length of leaf. Ancymido l (A-rest) did not show any noticeable differences in plant height, number of lateral shoot, the length, width and petiole length of leaf in potted Hibiscus hamabo.
Effect of Plant Growth Retardants on the Growth of Sedirea japonica
Jo, Dong-Hoon ; Chung, Mi-Young ; Kim, Chang-Kil ; Kim, Hong-Yul ; Jee, Sun-Ok ; Shin, Sung-Ryun ; Chung, Jae-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 95~99
This experiment was conducted to identify the effect of plant growth retardants such as uniconazole (2.525 mg․L^-^1), paclobutrazol (525 mg․L^-^1), ancymidol (1050 mg․L^-^1) on growth of Sedirea japonica. When Sedirea japonica was treated with the growth retardants, leaf length was gradually shortened in proportion to the treated concentration of the growth retardants. the retardants were effective in orders of uniconazole, paclobutrazole and ancymidol. Leaves of plants treated with the growth retardants became wider, and, consequently leaf shape became round and smaller with 11.2 of leaf index. Leaf area, leaf fresh weight, root length, number of roots and root fresh weight were decreased by the treatment of growth retardants, but root diameter was increased.
Shoot Regeneration of Callus from Shoot Tip and Node Culture of Gypsophila paniculata L.'Bristol Fairy'
Cheong, Dong-Chun ; Jeong, Jong-Sung ; Chang, Chi-Jin ; Lee, Eun-Jeong ; Choi, Eun-Gyung ; Park, Hak-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 100~106
The experiments were conducted to promote regeneration efficiency of callus induced from shoot tip and node culture of Gypsophila paniculata L. ‘Bristol Fairy’. Although callus from shoot tip culture was proliferated with increasing NAA concentration and on media containing TDZ, it was compact and severed browning. So callus quality was good on MS media supplemented with NAA 1.0 mg․L^-^1 and BA 0.51.0 mg․L^-^1. Shoot regeneration ratio of callus from shoot tip culture was the highest on 1/2MS and 1/2MS medium supplemented with BA 0.3 mg․L^-^1, also the number of regenerated shoot and shoot length were high on 1/2MS medium supplemented with BA 0.3 mg․L^-^1. Regeneration efficiency of callus from node culture was much worse compared with shoot tip culture, also showed high mortality of callus. Nevertheless, 1/2MS medium supplemented with BA 0.3 mg․L^-^1 showed regeneration ratio of 10.7%. Regeneration ratio of callus culture during 30 and 45 days was high as 77.0 and 73.5%, respectively. In regeneration ratio according to culture materials grown in high temperature, new seedling was high as 62.5% on 1/2MS medium supplemented no growth regulator, whereas in case of older seedling harvested two or three times, both regeneration ratio and the number of regenerated shoot were high on 1/2MS medium supplemented with TDZ 0.3 mg․L^-^1. The optimum IAA concentration for rooting of regenerated shoot was 0.05 mg․L^-^1.
Correlation and Combining Ability of Plant Growth and Flowering in
Hybrids by Diallel Cross in Lilium formolongi and L. formosanum
Song, Cheon-Young ; Park, Sang-Chul ; Lee, Jong-Suk ; Kim, Young-A ; Kim, Jong-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 107~113
The correlation and combining abilities about growth and flowering characters were studied in the F_1s of 8 crosses from the partial four-parent diallel cross in Lilium formolongi and Lilium formosanum which were pure lines (S_6). The plant height showed highly positive correlation with stem diameter or internode length, and negative correlation with flower height. The flower diameter showed highly positive correlation with number of leaves, and negative correlation with internode length or flower height. The mean squares of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for all the growth and flowering characters except internode length. The mean square values of GCA were greater than those of SCA for the characters of plant height, length of leaves, width of leaves, internode length, days to flowering, and height of flower, showing preponderance of additive gene actions for these characters. The lines of B and C for plant height and D for flower diameter showed relatively high GCA effects. The crosses of A×D and B×D exhibited high SCA effects on increasing flower size and decreasing plant height and days to flowering. The crosses of A×B, B×C, and C×D exhibited high SCA effects on increasing plant height, stem diameter, length of petals, and height of flower. The broad sense heritability was generally higher than the narrow sense one. Plant height and leaf length showed the highest heritability in the broad and narrow sense ones.
Effect of Artificial Dyeing on Ornamental Value and Vase Life in Cut Flower of Rosa hybrida cv. Taeinhe
Byun, Mi-Soon ; Kim, Jae-Wang ; Kim, Kiu-Weon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 114~118
The study was conducted to find out optimum dying condition of artificial blue and green pigment in Rosa hybrida cv. Taeinhe. Degree of dyeing state depended on dyeing time and temperature. Higher temperature and longer dipping time resulted in the darker color. Temperature of dyeing treatment at 25
C and dipping time for 60 minutes made the preference better and did not effect on vase life. Moreover, measurement of absorption density for change of artificial pigment made no difference in light absorption spectrum. As a result, petal was not damaged physically and also vase life was not affected by the dyeing treatment. In conclusion dyed flowers will be able to be used as processed goods of cut flowers.
Natural Dye on Dry Flower, the Laqurus ovatus Using the Extract Isolated from Marigold
Song, Chae-Eun ; Kim, Kwang-Soo ; Jang, Hong-Gi ; Yoo, Yong-Kweon ; Heo, Buk-Gu ; Park, Yun-Jum ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 119~124
The study was conducted to investigate the utilization of the extract isolated from marigold and its practical possibility as natural dyes. Dye potential of the extract was evaluated through the dyeing of dry flower, the Laqurus ovatus, under different dyeing conditions. Chromaticity values,
E and b of Laqurus ovatus dyed with the extract of marigold were higher than those of control, while a value was lower, as the concentration of dyestuff solution increased. Surface color of Laqurus ovatus was not affected by soaking time of the dyeing. The dyeing of Laqurus ovatus was maintained good condition by the soaking time for 5 min. Temperatures in dyestuffs solutions for the better
E of Laqurus ovatus were increased as follows 91-100
C, and 21-30
C, and so on. Surface color of Laqurus ovatus was not good at 91-100
C, whereas it appeared a high degree of efficiency at 61-70
C. Dyeing colors in Laqurus ovatus were hardly influenced by pH of dyestuffs solutions. In conclusion, we validate the utilization of the extract isolated from marigold and its practical possibility as natural dyes.
Effects of Dyestuffs Extracted from Liriope platyphylla Fruits on the Dyeing Degree of Skeletonizing Leaves
Park, Yun-Jum ; Yoo, Sung-Oh ; Bae, Jong-Hyang ; Heo, Buk-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 125~129
The study was carried out to examine the different dyeing conditions and dyestuffs extracted from the Liriope platyphylla fruits on the dyeing degrees of skeletonizing leaves, and to investigate the potentialities of natural dyeing to the skeletonizing leaves. Dyeing degrees of skeletonizing leaves were affected by the kinds of mordants. Dyeing degrees showed an order of descent G treated with control and alkaline mordants, an order of descent Y treated with Sn mordants, an order of descent R treated with acid mordants, and an order of descent GY treated with the other mordants, etc. Dyeing degrees of skeletonizing leaves at different dyeing concentrations of dyestuffs solutions were an order of descent GY treated with 2%, 6%, and 10% dyeing concentrations of dyestuffs solutions, and an order of descent G treated with 14% and 18% dyeing concentrations of dyestuffs solutions. Dyeing degrees increased with the higher dyeing concentrations of dyestuffs solutions. Dyeing degrees of skeletonizing leaves showed higher values of a treated with acid dyestuffs solutions, and lowerer values of a treated with alkaline dyestuffs solutions. Optimum dyeing concentration was measured 14.12 by pH 4. Surface color of skeletonizing leaves showed an order of descent BG at 10
C, an order of descent G at 30
C and 60
C, and an order of descent GY at 90
C, etc. Ten minutes was necessary for the dyeing of skeletonizing leaves with the dyestuffs solutions extracted from the Liriope platyphylla fruits.
Dyeability and Antibacterial Activity of the Fabrics with Ficus carica Extracts
Jang, Hong-Gi ; Kim, Sun-Ho ; Park, Yun-Jum ; Kim, Tae-Choon ; Ahn, Sang-Yeol ; Heo, Buk-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 130~134
The study was conducted to clarify the dyeability and antibacterial activity of fabrics by using the dyes extracted from leaf, stem, and fruits of Ficus carica and to exploite the potentialities as natural dyes and natural resources using Ficus carica. Color difference (
E) on the dyed silk was increased in the order of dyed with extracts from leaf, stem and fruit of Ficus carica. Leaf extract of Ficus carica was most useful dyes in this experiment. Dyed fiber by leaf extracts of Ficus carica treating copper sulfate as a mordant was made an excellent record by third grade except fastness by first grade toward acidic perspiration. When fiber was dyed by leaf extracts of Ficus carica treating iron with a mordant, fastness to sunlight, discolor by washing, acidic and alkaline perspiration decreased by first to second grade, however, contaminated rate of washing, contaminated rate by acidic and alkaline perspiration was excellent by fourth to fifth grade. Antibacterial activity of the fabrics dyed with leaf extracts of Ficus carica and silk treating iron with a mordant was 20.9% by Staphylococcus aureus and 24.1% by Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Comparison of the Effectiveness of Different Horticultural Therapy Programs for Individuals with Chronic Schizophrenia
Son, Ki-Cheol ; Jung, Hee-Jin ; Bae, Hye-Jin ; Song, Jong-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 22, issue 1, 2004, Pages 135~142
This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different horticultural therapy (HT) programs for individuals with chronic schizophrenia in a social welfare center, Umsung Country, Chungbuk Province. For this experiment, 36 patients as a activity group were participated in three different horticultural therapy programs (13 for field gardening group, 12 for indoor container culture group, and 11 for indoor flower design group), whereas another 10 patients were chosen as a control group without any structured activities. HT programs were performed once a week for six months. For evaluation, interpersonal relationship change scale, self-esteem scale, social skill scale, and powerlessness scale were applied 3 times, that is, before, mid, and after HT programs. According to the results, there was no significant improvement in all scales in the control group throughout activities. On the other hand, there was significant improvement in interpersonal relationship change (P<0.002), self-esteem (P<0.005), and social skill (P<0.019) in field gardening activity group whereas there was only significant improvement in interpersonal relationship (P<0.002) in indoor container culture group. Finally, in indoor flower design group in which they used only fresh flowers and plants during their activity, there was significant improvement in social skill (P<0.020) and reduction in powerlessness (P<0.001). In conclusion, it was found that each program had their own unique characteristics and, therefore, it is very important to draw up the programs in accordance with therapeutic goal for the better specialized HT.