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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Korean Society of Horticultural Science
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Effects of NaCl on the Growth and Inorganic Ion Contents of Green Pepper 'Nokwang' and Bell Pepper 'Newace'
Park, Eon-Jeong ; Park, Jung-Chun ; Lee, Jeung-Ju ; Son, Yeong-Gul ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 1~7
This study was executed to investigate the effects of NaCl on the growth, soil responses and inorganic ion contents of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) ‘Nokwang’ and bell pepper ‘Newace’ with different seedling age. Plant height, the number of leaves, stem diameter, the number of flowers, the number of fruits, maximun fruit size and weight, total fruit weight, and SPAD value decreased with increment of NaCl concentration; 30-day-old seedlings were more sensitive to NaCl than 40-day-old seedlings. EC of soil in the 40-day-old seedlings was more increased than the 30-day-old seedlings. Soil pH changed slightly by the NaCl treatment. When grown on hydroponic culture, fresh weight and total nitrogen content decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. ‘Nokwang’ was more resistant to NaCl than ‘Newace’. With increasing NaCl concentration, Na content in the leaves and roots increased, but that of K, Ca, Mg, and P decreased: Their effects were more sensitive in 30-day-old seedlings than 40-day-old seedlings.
Effects of Seed Spacing and Depth and Planting Date on Yield of Once-over Harvested Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Planted by Direct Seeding
Sin, Young-An ; Park, Su-Hyeong ; Eom, Yeong-Chul ; Lee, Jeong-Su ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 8~12
Direct seeding of hot pepper can save labor comparing with the method that use transplants. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of seeding space, depth, date, and low tunnel cultivation on yields of once-over harvested hot pepper (‘Jalapeno’ × ‘Indo’ and ‘9837059’). Hot peppers were direct-seeded in single or double rows at various seeding depths on several planting dates. Seeds also were sown inside and outside plastic tunnels. There were no significant effects of seeding space, depth and date on plant stand or yield, although early seeding and shallow seeding depths tended to increase both these variables. The best treatment combinations for plant stand and yield was using a double row 60 cm apart (on a 120 cm wide bed) with 20 cm in-row spacing and 0.3 cm planting depth. Low tunnel cultivation also increased stand rate and yield of hot pepper.
Genetic Analysis of Soluble Solid Contents and Sweetness in Melon (Cucumis melo) by Half-diallel Cross
Lee, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Ju-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 13~19
Fifty germplasm accessions, including several different species and subspecies, were tested for their sweetness and soluble solid contents (SSC). Six accessions, showing significant difference among them, were selected and crossed each other for making 6-parent half diallel set. The expression of sweetness and SSC of the F1s varied depending upon the parents used. Some of the combinations showed over-dominance beyond more sweet than parents. Others showed complete dominance, partial dominance or complete recessive. The overall tendency was considered to be partial dominance close to complete dominance. From Vr-Wr regression analyses, non-allelic gene interaction was not detected in SSC, but detected in sweetness. ‘Euncheon’ and ‘Newmelon’ that belong to Cucumis melo makuwa have much more dominant genes for better sweetness and SSC, while ‘#92398’ in C. momordica and ‘GM78’ in C. reticulatus, with less sweetness and SSC, have much more recessive genes. Over-dominance toward better sweetness and SSC was observed only on the crosses between different sub-species, except with C. momordica, but not between the same sub-species.
Inheritance of Sour Taste in Melon (Cucumis melo)
Lee, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Ju-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 20~25
In order to elucidate genetic mode of strength of sour taste in melon fruit, 6 melon lines; PI 124112, Euncheon, Newmelon, #33498, GM78, and Tituam were selected, and crossed each other for making six-parent half-diallel cross combination. Among six lines, ‘PI 124112’ was only one sour parent, others were not sour. Three characters; sourness, organic acid content (AC, %) and pH, related to sour taste of fruit flesh were evaluated or measured. The fruit taste of all F1s from the crosses between sour parent ‘PI 124112’ and other were sour, even though they gave different strength in sourness according to combinations. But the taste of fruit of all F1s among non-sour parents was not sour at all. Correlation graph between sourness, pH and AC showed that pH is more reliable for evaluation of sour taste than AC. The boundary of pH value between sour plant and non-sour plant was approximately of pH 5.7. The character sourness was almost complete dominance. But the sour strength of each F1 combination differed, therefore it seemed that some modifying genes are concerned in the expression of sourness strength.
Growth and Yield by Controlled Crowns and Clusters of Ever-bearing Strawberry in Highland
Lee, Jong-Nam ; Lee, Eung-Ho ; Yong, Yeong-Rok ; Park, Han-Young ; Lee, Jun-Gu ; Kim, Su-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 26~31
This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and yield reaction of ever-bearing strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) taking the thinning of reproductive organs like crown and cluster for summer season production at cool region. The cultivar ‘Pechika’ was planted on 28 May, and the split-plot experimental was designed by putting the crown numbers by 1, 2, 3 and noninterference as the control. To compare the fruit set to non fruit thinning, fruits were removed to remain the number of 5, 8, and 11, respectively. At the same time the number of leaves were adjusted to 4 and 6 as the main plot at the first fruiting period as the sub-plot. There was no significant difference in the number of fruits per flower clusters, but the fresh weight of them increased when the number of crown was increased. Harvest breaking period was short with increasing the crown numbers and decreasing the fruit numbers per flower cluster. Marketable fruits per plant were increased with increasing the crowns and the fruits per flower cluster. The marketable fruit was the highest as 74～80% of total production with the treatment of five fruits per flower cluster. The marketable yield was 26.5 tonha-1 that the strawberry was treated as 3 crowns with 11 fruits per flower cluster and it was 23% higher than that of control plot with non-thinning flower cluster. The strawberry grew with the best condition and was shortened the period of first fruiting when the 7～9 leaves were kept at the first fruiting stage. Marketable yield of the above strawberry was 20.7 tonha-1 and the amount 40% higher than other leaf treatments.
Effects of Transplant Raising Method on Growth and Tuber Yield of Potato Grown in Aeroponics System
Kang, Hyeong-Sik ; Kang, Young-Kil ; Hyun, Kwan-Hee ; Lee, Han-Kwon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 32~36
This study was carried out to find out the best methods of raising transplants and to evaluate the possibility of reducing incidence of basal stem rot caused by Pythium myriotylum and of easiness for seed tuber production of potatoes (Solanum tubersum L.) grown in aeroponics system. Incidence of basal stem rot, growth and yield of transplants raised from stem cutting, non-rooted cutting, non-rooted cutting with a wick, deep flow rooted cutting, and rooted mini tuber were evaluated in a spring season of 2002. Potato basal stem rot occurred 11% in transplants raised from stem cutting but did not occur in the other transplants. Stem length averaged about 60.0 cm except for transplants raised from stem cutting with 48.3 cm. Transplants raised from deep flow rooted cutting had the heaviest root dry weight, 33.2 g per plant, followed by those from rooted mini tuber. The number of first stolons per plant was greatest as twelve stolons for transplants raised from deep flow stem cutting and rooted mini tuber. Transplants raised from deep flow stem cutting had 773 total tubers and 491 tubers over 5 g per m2, which is the greatest among the treatments. Transplants raised from rooted mini tuber was ranked second for the number of total tubers and tubers over 5 g. Transplants raised from stem cutting produced fewest tubers over 5 g, that is 255 tubers per m2, but the highest number of tubers weighing 5 g or less, that is 365 tubers per m2. These results indicate that raising transplants from deep flow stem cutting could be best considering basal stem rot incidence and tuber yield of potatoes grown in aeroponics system.
Multiple Shoot Regeneration and Bulblet Formation through Meristem Culture of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) 'Godang'
Kim, Kwang-Su ; Bang, Jin-Ki ; Jang, Yeong-Seok ; Choi, In-Hu ; Nam, Sang-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 37~42
Effective in vitro shoot regeneration and bulblet formation was established by meristem culture of garlic (Allium sativum L.) ‘Godang’. The influence of basal media, plant growth regulators and added chemicals on shoot regeneration and bulblet formation were examined. The highest multiple shoot induction was obtained from LS medium supplemented with 0.2 mgL-1 NAA and 5.0 mgL-1 2-iP. On average, 7.0 shoots regenerated from one meristem without callus formation. Addition of chitosan in the media promoted bulblet formation and biomass increment. Addition of 5 mgL-1 chitosan in LS medium supplemented with 60 gL-1 sucrose was optimal concentration for in vitro bulblet formation, as determined by measurements of bulblet size and biomass. Growth and survival of plantlets in acclimation were markedly affected by bulblet size. When the plantlets more than 5 mm in bulblet size were transplanted in the pot, the percentage of survival was more than 80% after 8 weeks culture. Low temperature treatment of plantlets for 4 weeks at 4℃ was also effective to growth and survival.
Factors Affecting Shoot Multiplication and Rooting from Cutting and In Vitro Node Culture of Sedum sarmentosum
Lee, Seung-Yeop ; An, Jung-Ho ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 43~47
For in vivo and in vitro propagation of Sedum sarmentosum, the influences of cutting part, size and cytokinin were investigated. Among three kinds of cut sources, middle stem showed the most effective shooting, rooting and growth. In the size of cuts, number of shoot, number of root, and growth were increased in the order of 15 mm (one node) < 30 mm (two nodes) < 50 mm (three nodes). For in vitro node culture, stem segments (10 mm) were cultured on MS media supplemented with 0.0, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 mg L-1 BA or kinetin. The highest shooting, rooting, and growth was obtained from MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg L-1 kinetin. When multi-shoots transferred to growth regulator free MS medium after 50 days, numerous mini-shoots subsequently developed from the base of shoots.
Effects of Modified Atmosphere Film Packaging Application and Controlled Atmosphere Storage on Changes of Quality Characteristics in 'Hongro' and 'Gamhong' Apples
Jeong, Dae-Sung ; Hong, Yun-Pyo ; Lee, Yun-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 48~55
The study was conducted to evaluate the change of qualities of newly bred cultivar ‘Hongro’ and ‘Gamhong’ apples by different storage methods with PE film package and CA conditions. ‘Hongro’ and ‘Gamhong’ apples grown at the Geochang-city in the southern part of Korea were harvested in September in 2002 for storage study. Each cultivar was divided into two groups of maturity based on the harvest date. Immature fruits were harvested on the early periods of 10 days compared to mature fruits with proper maturity. A typical climacteric respiration pattern was observed in new variety ‘Hongro’ and ‘Gamhong’ apples stored at room temperature. Fruit weight, ethylene production, firmness, and skin color were used as quality indicators for the stored apples. The results indicated that overall fresh qualities of the stored fruits in CA condition was better than apples in no package (control) and PE film package during storage. Quality of apples was changed little in CA storage of 3% CO2 and 1% O2. CA storage was effective in maintaining the freshness of ‘Hongro’ and ‘Gamhong’ for 16 weeks.
Analysis of Storage Method and Shelf Temperature Effects in Determining Storage Potential of 'Fuji' Apples Based on Sensory Evaluation
Park, Yun-Mun ; Yun, Tae-Myeong ; Hwang, Myeong-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 56~63
The limit values of physico-chemical quality attributes of ‘'Fuji’' apples as related to acceptable sensory evaluation level, the criterion of consumers’' acceptance, were investigated and optimum storage period was determined based on consumers’' sensory evaluation. Apples were harvested in two different seasons, Oct. 20, 2003 and Oct. 16. 2004. Quality attributes were measured and sensory evaluations were performed after storing apples in refrigerated-air (RS) and CA storage (CAS) at 0℃ for a certain period plus three-day marketing simulation at varying room temperature (VRT) and low temperature, 7℃ (LTS). Relationships between flesh firmness and texture, and between acidity and sourness were highly significant, whereas no consistent relationship was observed between soluble solid concentrations (SSC) and sweetness rating. Regression analysis estimated criterion levels of flesh firmness and acidity for acceptable texture and sourness ratings as 10.7 N/5 mm Φ and 0.24%, respectively. In contrast, the minimum levels of quality attributes for acceptable overall taste were 12.8 oBX SSC, 10.7 N/5 mm Φ firmness, and 0.17% acidity. Effects of storage method on sensory ratings were highly significant, whereas effects of shelf temperature were less significant and incidental. In 2003-04 season, storage potential of RS apples was approximately four months regardless of shelf temperature, while, in 2004-05 season when texture and sourness were maintained longer than four months with significant effects of shelf temperature, the potential was five months in RS+VRT and longer than six months in RS+LTS apples. Storage potential of CAS apples was longer than eight months for both 2003-04 and 2004-05 seasons. No clear difference in overall taste ratings was observed between shelf temperatures after CA storage. The results of the present study indicate that sensory quality of ‘uji’apples is primarily influenced by the storage method used, whereas subsequent shelf temperature effects seem to be minimal.
Usage Potentiality of Starch Pattern Index at Aminoethoxyvinylglycine Treatment to Prevent Preharvest Drop in 'Tsugaru' Apple Fruits
Yu, Wook-Jae ; Byun, Jae-Kyun ; Kim, Dae-Hyun ; Kang, In-Kyu ; Kwon, Heon-Jung ; Kim, Mok-Jong ; Lee, Dong-Hun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 64~69
This study was carried out to find the proper timing of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) treatment to control of preharvest fruit drop in ‘Tsugaru’ apple based on starch pattern index (SPI) at four orchards (Gyeongju, Gyeongsan, Gunwi, and Yeongju). AVG (75 and 125 mgL-1) when SPI was 0.5 and 1.0 was sprayed, respectively. We compared with days which SPI reached to 0.5 and 1.0 in between Gyeongju and Yeongju. It was 14 and 10 days faster to reach SPI 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. The result showed that AVG treatment when SPI reached to 0.5 and 1.0 was effective to prevent preharvest drop of ‘Tsugaru’ apple fruits in all four regions. There was no significant difference between AVG concentration (75 mgL-1 vs. 125 mgL-1). Both flesh firmness and soluble solids contents had not effect by AVG treatment at commercial harvest date. But the AVG treated fruit harvested 2 weeks after commercial harvest date had higher flesh firmness than control. Acidity in AVG treated fruits was higher than control, while color, SPI, respiration, or ethylene production were decreased. It was the most effective to prevent preharvest drop in ‘Tsugaru’ apple when 125 mgL-1 of AVG was sprayed at 0.5 SPI. This was extended the harvest time about 10 days without preharvest drop.
Effects of Different Combinations of Ammonium and Nitrate Nitrogen on Growth, Accumulation, and Nitrate Reductase Activity in Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) Seedlings
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 70~76
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of four different NH4+:NO3- ratios (200:0, 100:100, 50:150, and 0:200 mgL-1) in nutrient solution on growth, the nitrogen concentration of various organs, and in vivo nitrate reductase activity (NRA) in pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Niitaka) seedlings in sand culture. Nutrient solutions used in this experiment were adjusted to pH 6.5 and trickle-irrigated 3 times a day, having nitrogen concentration of 200 mgL-1. Tree height and dry weight of seedlings were restricted when NO3- was the sole nitrogen source in the nutrient solution but there was no significant difference among other NH4+:NO3- ratios. The concentrations of nitrate-N in leaves and stems were increased with increasing the NO3- ratio in the nutrient solution, but that of root was not affected. The concentrations of total and reduced nitrogen in leaves and stems increased with increasing the ratios of NH4+ in nutrient solution, but those in roots were insignificantly changed. In vivo +NO3- NRA of all organs was not related to the NH4+:NO3- ratios, whereas the in vivo -NO3- NRA of all organs increased with increasing the ratio of NO3- in all the organs except roots where it decreased. The nitrate reduction occurred in various organs of pear seedlings. Growth and NRA were higher in ammonium or nitrate alone than combined application. Results showed that recommendable NH4+:NO3- ratio for the nutrient solution in pear is 50:150 mgL-1.
Effects of Date of Artificial Pollination on Percent Fruit Set and Fruit Characteristics in Atemoya (Annona squamosa？. cherimola)
Kim, Si-Hyun ; Mun, Du-Kil ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 77~80
Pollen from the flower opened during middle and late June showed higher percent germination than that in early June, and percent fruit set by artificial pollination showed the same trend in both cultivars of ‘Hillary White’ and ‘Geffner’ atemoya (Annona squamosa × A. cherimola) growing in unheated greenhouse in Jeju island. Artificial pollination for ‘Hillary White’ in middle June resulted in the larger fruit with high sugar content than those in the early or late June. It was concluded that the optimal date of artificial pollination is the middle of June about two weeks after the initial blooming.
Effects of Shading and Watering Intervals on Survivals and Growth during Acclimatization of Cacti and Succulents Mingled Planting in a Pot
Song, Chun-Young ; Lee, Jeong-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Deok ; Kim, Soon-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 81~89
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of watering and light intensity for acclimatization on survivals and growth of several cacti and succulent plants mingled planting in a pot for two months before shipment. Marginatocereus marginatus (DC.) Backbg., Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Mart.) Cons., Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var. friedrichii Werd., Eriocactus leninghausii (Hge. Jr.) Backbg., Portulacaria afra v. foliis-variegatis Jacobs., Euphorbia coerulescens Haw., Aloe mitriformis Mill., Echeveria pulvinata Rose, and Crassula perforata Thunbg. were watered 4, 2 times or 1 time per 2 weeks under 70 or 95% shade in greenhouse. Their plant growth and mortality were monitored for two month after planting in a pot. Increasing water intervals increased mortality of G. mihanovichii var. friedrichii Werd., E. leninghausii (Hge. Jr.) Backbg., A. mitriformis Mill., and C. perforata Thunb., but did not influence in the other plant. The mortality was not increased in one month later. Plant height of all plants tended to be higher under 70% shading than under 95% shading. Plant width tended to increase by increasing water intervals, but it did not influence by shading. Thus, proper light condition of acclimatization for mingled planting in a pot with several cacti and succulent plant was 95% shading, and watering one time for two weeks utilized in a interior. And the duration of acclimatization was good enough for a month.
Effects of Storage Method, Growth Regulator, and Inorganic Salt on the Seed Germination of Exochorda serratifolia S. Moore
Lee, Hee-Du ; Lee, Jong-Won ; Lee, Chul-Hee ; Kim, Si-Dong ; Kim, Hak-Hyun ; Kim, Ju-Hyoung ; Lee, Cheol-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 90~94
To establish the mass propagation methods, the effects of germination temperature, storage method and period, growth regulator and inorganic salts on seed germination were evaluated in Exochorda serratifolia S. Moore. Germination temperature was suitable at 20℃, and low temperature storage with dry, compared to wet storage, increased germination rate, while that according to storage period was no significance. Germination was 95.3% with 100 mL-1 GA3, 99.0% with 200 mL-1 IAA and 96.7% with 10 mM KNO3 treatment.
Effects of Horticultural Therapy Program on Serum Cortisol, Pain, Anxiety and Depression of the Hospice Patients
Kim, Gyeong-Hee ; Lee, Hye-Ran ; Jeong, Hae-Jun ; Song, Mi-Ok ; Jeong, Seong-Hye ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 95~103
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of horticultural therapy program on serum cortisol, pain, anxiety and depression of the hospice patients. The research design was a nonequivalent control group with non-synchronized design. The experimental unit consisted of the experimental group of 34, the control group of 33, and the total 67 patients. The experimental group was provided a horticultural therapy program for a 30-minute every day for 20 days, while the control group was performed routine care of hospice palliative unit. As of the results, the experimental group which received a horticultural therapy program decreased significantly the level of serum cortisol (F=9.800, p=0.003), pain (F=13.740, p=0.000), anxiety (F=85.662, p=0.000) and depression (F=42.279, p=0.000) compared to the control group. Therefore it is recommended to use the horticultural therapy program to improve recovery and comfort of the hospice patients in the hospital field.
Analysis of Therapeutic Programs according to Participants in Paper Published on Horticultural Therapy in Korea
Oh, Dae-Min ; So, In-Seop ; Lee, Young-Hyun ; Heo, Mu-Ryong ; Jang, Yu-Jin ; Choe, Yeong-Hae ; Heo, Buk-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 104~109
The study was conducted to examine the research outcomes of horticultural therapy through the papers published of academic journals in horticulture for 6 years in Korea and demonstrate its multilateral effects. The most frequent forms of horticultural activity were in most cases art and craft (type III) and outdoor plant growing (type II); the number of times horticultural activities were done ranged from 11 to 15 (37.7%), the frequency was once a week (81%), the number of participants was less than ten (47.8%), and the most frequent form of horticultural therapy was transplanting (72 times). Therefore, the kind of horticultural activity, the number of times and frequency of them and the number of participants tend to be similar regardless of the characteristics of participants. These findings suggest that more individualized and diversified programs of horticultural activity need to be designed and implemented.
A Research of Horticultural Activities in Therapeutic Programs of Participants through the Paper Publish on Horticultural Therapy in Korea
O, Dae-Min ; So, In-Seop ; Heo, Mu-Ryong ; Lee, Yeong-Hyun ; Jang, Yu-Jin ; Choe, Yeong-Hae ; Heo, Buk-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 110~116
Sixty nine research papers related with horticultural therapy were studied to develop a therapy program which could be applied to various kinds of participants under various circumstances and provide a basic data for development of new horticultural products. According to the papers, the most frequent forms of horticultural activities applied to therapy programs were found out to be plant culture indoor (type I), plant culture in outdoor garden (type II) and art and craft (type III). However, variations activities related with group activity (type IV), picnic (type V), cooking (type VI) and botanical study (type VII) were limited. These findings would be explained by the choice of therapists taking characteristics of individual participants available horticultural infrastructure into account.
Present Trends and Proposal of Published Paper in Journals on Horticultural Therapy in Korea
Oh, Dae-Min ; So, In-Seop ; Heo, Mu-Ryong ; Lee, Yeong-Hyun ; Jang, Yu-Jin ; Choe, Yeong-Hae ; Heo, Buk-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 1, 2006, Pages 117~121
The published papers on horticultural therapy for 6 years from 1998 to 2003 was analysed to suggest a direction in which Korean-style horticultural therapies would be developed and applied. Most of the articles were published by the Korean Society for Plants, People and Environment and the Korean Horticultural Therapy Association. The proportion of theoretical papers was similar to that of applied ones for the six year period, but the proportion of the former has decreased while that of the latter has increased since 2000. A majority of applied studies dealt with space of treatment; the participants were those who suffered from senile dementia, schizophrenia or melancholia; and the therapy was applied to children, teenagers, adults or the aged for preventive purpose. However, it tends to emphasize too much on place of treatment and rehabilitation and deal mainly with participants of mental retardation, schizophrenia or senile dementia.