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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Efficient High-throughput DNA Extraction Protocol for Marker Assisted Selection in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)
Choi, Jeong-Geun ; Park, Su-Hyeong ; Yun, Do-Won ; Ku, Ja-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 431~435
The self-incompatibility (SI) has been used for hybrid seed production in Brassica crops. Concerning the SI response, the S-locus glycoprotein (SLG) and the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) genes were reported to control the SI response in the stigmatic side. Many primers have been developed using sequence of these two specific genes in Brassica crops. The first step of applying these primers into molecular analysis of SI is DNA extraction. In order to analyse thousands of sample in a short time, finding fast and efficient DNA extraction method was required. In this study, four kinds of DNA extraction methods (xanthogenate buffer, FB plate with xanthogenate buffer, Dneasy 96-plant kit, and Wizard Magnetic 96 DNA plant system) were compared for efficiency in radish. All four PCR amplification results show target bands, thus these four methods were considered good for PCR-based selection in radish. Comparing cost, labour, DNA quality and PCR amplification rate, a method using FB plate with xanthogenate buffer was proved efficient for DNA extraction in radish.
In Vitro Bulblets Formation and Pattern of Shoot Regeneration through Stem-disc Culture of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Kim, Kwang-Su ; Jang, Yeong-Seok ; Choi, In-Hu ; Bang, Jin-Ki ; Nam, Sang-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 436~440
To develop an efficient method of direct shoot regeneration and bulblet formation from stem-disc culture of Allium sativum L. ‘Godang’, the effect of basal media and growth regulators on shoot regeneration and bulblet formation was investigated. The number and fresh weight of regenerated shoots were significantly higher on B5 medium than on any other media. The highest number of regenerated shoots (23.7 per explant) was obtained on 0.2 mgL-1 NAA and 2.0 mgL-1 BA treatment after 6 weeks culture. Pattern of shoot regeneration from stem-disc is divided into four morphological types. First, apical meristem (AM) type, one or two shoots were regenerated at the center of explant by activation of apical meristem-tip of stem-disc. Second, dormant bud (DB) type, several shoots were regenerated at the central region by activation of dormant bud of explant. Third, root to shoot (RS) type, shoots were regenerated around the edge of explant, convert root primordia into shoot primordia by exogeneous growth regulators. Fourth, somatic embryogenesis (SM) type, shoots were regenerated at the surface of explant by direct somatic embryogenesis without callus formation. Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis is most effectual method compare with other method including organogenesis.
Production of Virus-free Bulblets of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) by Meristem-tip Culture of Immature Vegetative Bulbils
Kim, Kwang-Su ; Choi, In-Hu ; ; Song, Yeon-Sang ; Jang, Yeong-Seok ; Nam, Sang-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 441~446
For establishment of simple and efficient method of virus elimination and production of virus-free bulblets, immature vegetative bulbils and their meristem-tip of involucre of garlic (Allium sativum L.) ‘Godang’ were cultured on LS medium supplemented with various concentration of plant growth regulators, polyamines and silver nitrate. Immature vegetative bulbils showed different growth patterns according to size and excision site in involucre. Immature vegetative bulbils in primary involucre formed direct bulblet formation without shoot proliferation, leaf elongation and root formation. However, immature vegetative bulbils in secondary and third involucre produced multiple shoot with leaf elongation and root formation. The best shoot proliferation and bulb formation of immature vegetative bulbils was shown in LS medium supplemented with 0.2 mgL-1 NAA and 5.0 mgL-1 2-iP. Addition of 5-10 μM silver nitrate in the media significantly accelerated shoot proliferation and bulb formation. Excision of meristem-tip from immature vegetative bulbils was simple and easy by elimination of one layer scale, compared with excision of dormant clove’s meristem. The best multiplication was achieved when meristem of immature vegetative bulbils cultured on LS medium supplemented with 0.2 mgL-1 NAA and 5.0 mgL-1 2-iP. On average, 6.8 shoots formed from one meristem. Examination of virus infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that viruses were not eliminated by immature vegetative bulbils culture, while viruses completely eliminated by meristem culture of immature vegetative bulbils.
Effect of High CO2 Short-term Treatment on the Respiration Characteristics and Quality of Broccoli
Jeong, Cheon-Sun ; Park, Jong-Nam ; Kyeong, Jang-Hyeon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 447~451
Respiration characteristics and quality changes in broccoli as affected by high CO2 treatment was investigated. Broccoli florets were exposed to high CO2 (≒ 100%) for 0, 3, 6 and 10 h at room temperature (about 26℃) and then stored at room temperature. The respiration and ethylene productions were decreased remarkably by all treatments except control treatment during storage period. Ascorbic acid content in broccolis florets exposed to high CO2 was decreased rapidly compared to that in control treatment. After 2 days of storage, yellowing appeared rapidly in the control and in the 3 h high CO2 treatments. However, yellowing was inhibited remarkably in 6 and 10 h treatments. The chlorophyll content was the highest in broccoli florets exposed to 100% CO2 for 6 h. As a results of sensory test such as discoloration, wilting, texture, decay and off-flavour, the market quality remained 2 days in control and 3 h treatments and it extended up to 4 days in 6 and 10 h treatments. But off-flavour was observed in broccoli florets exposed for 10 h to 100% CO2.
Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment on Quality and Ethylene Production of Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Reticulatus) Fruit
Cha, Ju-Hyeong ; Lee, Geung-Pyo ; Hwang, Byeong-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Ki ; Lee, Eun-Ji ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 452~458
Before the onset of climacteric, mature muskmelon fruit (var. ‘Pearl’) grown and harvested from a plastic house was applied with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a gaseous inhibitor of ethylene. And its subsequent molecular metabolic changes including expression of genes involved in biosynthesis and perception of ethylene were monitored during storage at 25℃. Fruit treated with 1.0 μLL-1 of 1-MCP for 12 hours displayed a very slow process in ripening-associated physiological changes, compared to fruit provided with air, served as a control. Only a slight increment in ethylene production, accompanied by a significant delay of tissue softening and of yellow color development in fruit skin was manifested by 1-MCP treatment. However, change of total soluble solids content from the fruit either treated with the inhibitor or air remained fairly constant 4 days after the inhibitor treatment. The application of 1-MCP to the muskmelon fruit reduced the expression of CM-ACS1 and delayed the normal expression of CM-ACO1 when compared to the control. However, expression of genes involved in ethylene reception, CM-ETR1 and CM-ERS1, remained fairly unaffected for 15 days of storage after 1-MCP application. These data obtained in the present study support that 1-MCP blocks ethylene binding to its receptor and thus, inhibiting the action of ethylene, consequently suppressing the autocatalytic expression of CM-ACS1. A relatively small peak in ethylene production displayed by 1-MCP treatment can be ascribed to reduced amounts of expression of CM-ACS1 rather than CM-ACO1, lending to inhibition of an autocatalytic production of ethylene, which is a prerequisite for climacteric fruit to undergo ripening.
Influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene Vacuum Infiltration on Respiration and Ethylene Production in Tomato Fruits
Heo, Jeong-Eun ; Choi, Seong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 459~464
A standard method to treat fruits with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) is to close the fruits for a relatively long time with the 1-MCP gas at the atmospheric pressure so that the gas diffuses into the fruits. In this study, 1-MCP gas was vacuum-infiltrated into the tomato fruits within a short time and the treatment efficiency was evaluated by measuring the changes of respiration and ethylene production rates. By the forced infiltration of 1-MCP, respiration rate was reduced proportional to the treated 1-MCP concentrations and inversely proportional to the applied vacuum pressures. But the 1-MCP treatment increased ethylene production, especially under the vacuum pressure of 60 mbar. At 120 mbar vacuum pressure the 1-MCP was efficiently infiltrated into the fruits. However an increase in concentration of 1-MCP was required to acquire the same level of effect as standard treatment method, presumably because of the increased ethylene production.
Control Threshold of the Cotton Caterpillar (Palpita indica S.) on Cucumber in Greenhouse
Jeon, Heung-Yong ; Kim, Hyeong-Hwan ; Yang, Chang-Yeol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 465~470
This study was investigated the damage and control threshold of the cotton caterpillar (Palpita indica) in cucumber greeehouse. The consumption quantity of the cotton caterpillars was 21.5 mm2 in 2nd instar, 706.5 mm2 in 3rd instar, 753.5 mm2 in 4th instar, and 124.0 mm2 in 5th instar. The plant height was not different at 44 days after larva released, but significantly different at 73 days. The leaf damage ratio was significantly different from 15 days to 73 days after larva released. The yield of fruits was 51.0 kg for non-treated, 48.2 kg for one larva, 42.7 kg for two larvae, 33.7 kg for four larvae, 29.8 kg for six larvae, 17.3 kg for eight larvae, 14.5 kg for ten larvae, and 13.7 kg for twelve larvae when the cotton caterpillar 2nd～3rd instar was released with different density. The fruit damage was occurred 44 days after cotton caterpillar released, the fruit damage was 0% for non-treatment, 0% for one larva, 0% for two larvae, 0% for four larvae, 3.0% for six larvae, 4.8% for eight larvae, 7.4% for ten larvae, and 8.3% for twelve larvae. When the fruit damage ratio was transformed, the equation of regression was y=0.7745x-1.2255 (r2=0.9267). Considering a natural loss ratio of 5.8%, the control threshold of cotton caterpillar was 9.1 larvae per plant in cucumber greenhouse.
Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene on the Postharvest Life and Fruit Quality of Squash (Cucurbita spp.)
Lee, Hye-Eun ; Choi, Seon-Tae ; Lee, Jae-Wook ; Do, Kyeong-Ran ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 471~475
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ethylene on the postharvest life of 1-MCP treated squash. Treatments include ethylene at 10 μLL-1, 0.5 μLL-1 1-MCP and subsequent treatement of 10 μLL-1 ethylene to 0.5 μLL-1 1-MCP treated squash. Treatment lasted for 12 hours at conditions 20℃ and 60% RH. Treated squash was stored in 8 to 10℃ cold rooms for 21 days. The present study found out that 1-MCP reduced the production of CO2 and softening of squash fruit for 3 weeks. Moreover, ethylene production and soluble solid content were not affected. The color of the rind and flesh were even maintained by 1-MCP treatment during storage. Ethylene applied after 1-MCP treatment did not influence firmness and color of flesh and the quality of squash as a whole. This study has shown that 1-MCP has the potential to control further ripening of squash during storage.
Light Environment and Growth of Green Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Greenhouse Using Plastomer Film
Jeon, Hee ; Choi, Yeong-Ha ; Kim, Hak-Ju ; Lee, Si-Young ; Yeom, Sung-Hyun ; Kang, Yun-Im ; Jeong, Du-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 476~479
To improve the transmittance of covering materials in greenhouses, the plastomer film was introduced. The amount of pending water on the surface of plastomer film was stabilized below 97 mg100 cm-2, which was 4.5 to 8.9 times lower than that of PE film, while that on the PE film was exponentially decreased from 2,131 to 199 mg100 cm-2 for 3 weeks after covering. The transmittance in the plastomer film house was 4.2% higher compared to that in the PE film house. The fruit setting rate, fruit curved rate, and fruit weight in the plastomer film house were 15.7% higher, 5.2% lower, and 156.6 g per plant heavier than those in the PE film house, respectively.
Sinigrin Contents in Different Tissues of Wasabi and Antimicrobial Activity of Their Water Extracts
Park, Yun-Yeong ; Jo, Mun-Su ; Park, Sin ; Lee, Yeong-Deuk ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ; Jeong, Jong-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 480~487
Total sinigrin contents in rhizome, leaf petiole and leaf blade of wasabi (Wasabia japonica) were determined by simultaneous measurement of sinigrin and allyl isothiocyanate using HPLC. The antimicrobial activity of water extracts of the different tissues were also examined against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalatiae, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. The contents of total sinigrin including allyl isothiocyanate were 15.22, 1.85, 1.95 mgg-1 in rhizome, leaf petiole and leaf blade of wasabi, respectively. The contents were much higher than those found by other researchers, who determined sinigrin and isothiocyanates by measuring content of allyl isothiocyanate after the conversion of sinigrin to allyl isothiocyanate. During the conversion, the loss of the volatile compound iosthiocyanates and the incomplete conversion of sinigrin to allyl isothiocynate might be possible, and these factors may be related to the differences in the total sinigrin measurements. Water extracts of wasabi rhizome, leaf petiole and leaf blade showed anti-microbial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalatiae, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and the highest activity was found in the rhizome extract, where the total sinigrin content was much higher than those found in leaf petiole and leaf blade. Although the contents of sinigrin and isothiocyanates in leaf petiole and leaf blade of wasabi are relatively lower than that in rhizome, the biomass of leaf petiole and leaf blade are greater than that of rhizome and also can be continuously harvested from the same root and rhizome system. Therefore, the aboveground parts of wasabi can be used in the extraction of sinigrin and isothiocyanates as commercial antimicrobial compounds.
A New Eustoma 'Jewel Blue' with Blue Color for Cut Flower
Heo, Geon-Yang ; Song, Jeong-Seop ; Bang, Chang-Seok ; Kim, Wan-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 488~491
A new eustoma F1 cultivar, ‘Jewel Blue’ was made by crossing of two inbred lines ‘Wonkyo A6-6’ and ‘Wonkyo A6-28’, and was released in 2003. Inbred line ‘Wonkyo A6-6’ originated from the selfing of ‘Tall Heidi Yellow’, and ‘Wonkyo A6-28’ was made by crossing between ‘Tall Lilac Rose’ and ‘Royal Lavender’. ‘Jewel Blue’ is 81 cm tall and has good plant shape with 6.4 nodes and 2.6 branches. Leaf shape is narrow ovate and long. It blooms earlier than check cultivar with blue color and wide funnel shape, and shows medium vase life.
Effects of Pinching Time and Node Position on Growth and Flowering of Gypsophila paniculata on Autumn Cultivation in Subalpine Area
Jeong, Dong-Chun ; Park, Hak-Bong ; Jeong, Jong-Seong ; Im, Hoi-Chun ; Song, Yeong-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 492~496
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of pinching time (done 7, 14, and 21 days after transplanting on July 10) and node position (4-5 or 7-8 ea node were left) on growth and flowering of Gypsophila paniculata on autumn to early winter cultivation in subalpine area. The root activity and chlorophyll content on each pinching time increased with pinching time being delayed. The growth rate of plant height and leaf width was faster at 7-8th node pinching. The time of flower budding and blooming was advanced, but flower stalk length and node number decreased at 7-8th node pinching. With the time of pinching being delayed, the number of flower budding lateral shoot, the incidence rate of flower malformation and nonpaniculata inflorescence was reduced, whereas rosette rate was increased. Yield was high as pinching time was earlier at 7-8th node.
In Vitro Mutant Induction by Irradiation of Gamma-Ray in Rosa hybrida Hort
Kim, Ki-Jun ; Ko, Kap-Cheon ; Song, Hui-Seop ; Ki, Kwang-Yeon ; Choi, Kyeong-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 497~502
This experiment was carried out to develop mutation breeding system of rose (Rosa hybrida Hort. ‘Amadeus’ and ‘Little Marble’) by irradiating gamma-ray in vitro. Different gamma-ray doses (0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, 130 and 150 Gy) were irradiated on in vitro shoots which were cultured for 4 weeks on MS medium containing 0.5 mgL-1 6-benzyl adenine (BA). The irradiated shoots were subcultured two times on MS medium containing 0.5 mgL-1 BA. Shoot necrosis of ‘Amadeus’ and ‘Little Marble’ were observed in dose more than 70 Gy and 90 Gy after each subculture. About 50% shoot necrosis (LD50) were observed in 110-130 Gy dose. When 150 Gy dose was irradiated, all of shoots were died in two tested cultivars. Shoot length decreased in dose higher than 50 Gy. Shoot length of ‘Amadeus’ decreased more than ‘Little Marble’. Shoots obtained after being subcultured two times were rooted on 1/2 macro nutrient MS medium containing 0.5 mgL-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid) for 4 weeks. Most of shoots were rooted in the third-subculture, but numbers of roots per shoot, and shoot length decreased in high dose gamma-ray. Petal color mutants including a pink color flower from ‘Amadeus’ and pink and orange red color flowers from ‘Little Marble’ were obtained during the growing stage in growth chamber and green house.
A New Eustoma 'Jewel Pink' with Pink Color for Cut Flower
Heo, Geon-Yang ; Bang, Chang-Seok ; Song, Jeong-Seop ; Kim, Wan-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 503~506
A new eustoma F1 cultivar, ‘Jewel Pink’ was made by crossing of two inbred lines ‘Wonkyo A6-9’ and ‘Wonkyo A6-7’, and was released in 2003. Inbred line ‘Wonkyo A6-9’ originated from the crossing between ‘Tall All Double Echo Pink’ and ‘Royal Pink’, and ‘Wonkyo A6-17’ was made by crossing between ‘Royal Pink’ and ‘Tall Rose Pink’. ‘Jewel Pink’ is 74 cm tall and has good plant shape with 7.4 nodes and 3.0 branches. Leaf shape is narrow ovate and long. It blooms early with pink color and bell shape, and shows medium vase life.
The Viruses in Carnations in Korea
Yu, Soon-Nam ; Jang, Mu-Ung ; Lee, Myeong-Hwa ; Jeong, Ji-Hye ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 507~514
In the survey of virus diseases of carnations in Korea from 2004 to 2006, 3 viruses of carnation mottle virus (CarMV), carnation latent virus (CLV), carnation necrotic fleck virus (CNFV) were identified from the 575 carnation plants in 67 cultivars, based on shape and size of virus particles, host range, distribution pattern of virus particles and inclusion bodies in the infected cells, serological reaction, and coat protein gene. Viral infection rates were CarMV 66.44%, CLV 6.6%, CNFV 6.78% of the 575 samples surveyed. All CLV and CNFV were doubly infected with CarMV, respectively. The average of carnation plants free from these viruses was 33.56%. Carnations from different areas and propagators varied widely in the incidences of the tested viruses. Coat protein (CP) genes of CarMV-K, CarMV-J, CarMV-C isolated from carnations collected in Korea, Japan and China were amplified using specific oligonucleotide primer by RT-PCR. Sequence analysis of amplified CP gene of CarMV-K showed 99.6% nucleotide similarity to CarMV-J and CarMV-C.
Comparison of Sensory Evaluation and Instrumental Analysis for the Determining Intensity of Green Color in Leaf
Bae, Kang-Soon ; Yun, Sang-Don ; Lee, Won-Sik ; Yu, Ki-Yeol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 24, issue 4, 2006, Pages 515~519
This study was carried out to compare sensory evaluation with instrumental analysis for the determining intensity of green color in leaf. In chrysanthemum, SPAD value was high in order 137A < 147A < 139A of RHS color chart, and RHS color chart was highly related to SPAD value (r = 0.644**). In watermelon, RHS color chart was not related to SPAD value, Hunter value, and chlorophyll contents, respectively, but intensity of leaf color was highly related to RHS color chart (r = 0.853**) and SPAD value (r = 0.381**). In conclusions, leaf color in chrysanthemum should be applied to RHS color chart and SPAD value, but in watermelon should be applied to the sensory evaluation and RHS color chart.