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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Korean Society of Horticultural Science
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Effects of Cultivation Methods on the Microtuber Formation and Growth in Micropropagated Plantlet of Zantedeschia spp. 'Florex Gold'
Yoo, Yong-Kweon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~6
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of cultivation method on the microtuber formation and growth in micropropagated plantlet of Zantedeschia spp. ‘Florex Gold’. The microtuber growth was bad in treatment of 100% peatmoss or perlite. The microtuber formation and growth was more effective in mixing with 2:2 of peatmoss:perlite or 2:1:1 of peatmoss:perlite:vermiculite by volume than the others. When the micropropagated plantlet was planted at a spacing of 8×8 cm, microtuber growth was effective. The standard amount treatment of compost, basal fertilizer, and top fertilizer was better in microtuber production than the other treatments. Two or half times treatment of standard amount in compost and fertilizer showed the bad growth in circumstance, diameter, and weight. In no shading treatment, microtuber growth was the worst and showed sun scald of leaf. However, microtuber growth was better in 75 and 90% shading than control.
Effect of Furrow-mulching on Phytophthora Blight Incidence and Soil Microbial Ecology in the Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Field
Kim, Un-Dong ; Hwang, Jae-Moon ; Park, Kee-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 7~13
This experiment was carried out to compare the effects of furrow-mulching materials on the growth and yield of pepper, on the control of Phytophthora capsici, and soil microbial ecology in the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The furrow of the red pepper field was covered with non-woven fabric, black polyethylene (PE) film and rice straw after transplanting pepper seedlings. The non-woven fabric increased soil temperature and decreased soil moisture content in the rainy season in summer and the non-woven fabric and rice straw decreased soil temperature and increased soil moisture content during drought periods in summer. No-mulching and rice straw-mulching caused phytophthora blight incidence by 18% and 6%, respectively, while other treatments did not show any symptoms of phytophthora blight. The mulching materials did not affect the growth and yield of hot peppers. The non-woven fabric increased soil microbial activity and all mulching materials made uniformal conditions for soil microbial activity and diversity.
Growth, Deficiency Symptom and Tissue Nutrient Contents of Leaf Perilla (Perilla frutesens) Influenced by Magnesium Concentrations in Fertigation Solution
Choi, Jong-Myung ; Park, Jong-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 14~20
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of macro-element concentrations in fertilizer solution on growth and development of nutrient deficiency symptoms of leaf perilla (Perilla frutesens). The nutrient concentrations in above ground plant tissue, petiole sap and soil solution of root media were also determined. Magnesium deficiency appeared on older leaves with interveinal yellow-green chlorosis. Marginal chlorosis and necrosis also developed on some of older leaves. Among the Mg concentrations within the range from 0 to 4.0 mM, the treatment of Mg 2.0 mM showed the highest growth. The Mg concentrations lower than 0.5 mM and 4.0 mM dereased growth of above ground plant part compared to 2.0 mM treatment. The fresh and dry weights of above ground plant part in 2.0 mM treatment were 24.59 g and 4.44 g, respectively, at 75 days after transplanting. The Mg concentrations based on dry weight of above ground plant tissue, petiole sap and soil solution extracted by 1:2 (sample:water) were 0.91%, 1,978 mgkg-1 and 14.31 mgL-1, respectively, at 75 days after transplanting. When 10% reduction in plant growth compared to the highest growth is set to critical point, the Mg concentrations should be higher than 0.7% in above ground plant tissue, 1,700 mgkg-1 in petiole sap, and 9.0 mgL-1 in soil solution for commer production of Perilla frutesens.
Growth, Deficiency Symptom and Tissue Nutrient Contents of Leaf Perilla (Perilla frutesens Britt) Influenced by Calcium Concentrations in Fertigation Solution
Choi, Jong-Myung ; Park, Jong-Yoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 21~28
Objective of this research was to investigate the effect of calcium concentrations in fertilizer solution on growth and development of nutrient deficiency in leaf perilla (Perilla frutesens). The nutrient concentrations in above ground plant tissue, petiole sap and soil solution of root media were also determined. Calcium deficiency developed on the very youngest leaves. The young leaves developed “cupped” shape as they expand and were distorted with pronounced puckering on some tips and marginal chlorosis. Elevation of Ca concentrations up to 6.0 mM increased crop growth in fresh and dry weights and decreased leaf chlorophyll contents. The dry weight and Ca contents based on above ground plant tissue were 5.60 g and 2.57% in Ca 6.0 mM treatment, which showed the highest growth. The fresh weight of above ground plant tissue, Ca concentrations in petiole sap and Ca concentrations in soil solution extracted by 1:2 (sample:water) method were 30.8 g, 1.798 mgkg-1 and 43.34 mgL-1, respectively, in Ca 6.0 mM treatment. These results suggested that concentrations of above ground plant tissue, petiole sap and soil solution should be higher than 0.7%, 1,600 mgkg-1 and 25 mgL-1, respectively, to prevent the reduction in growth of Perilla frutesens.
Fruit Characteristics of Late Maturing Mandarin Cultivars Over-wintered on Tree inside Plastic House
Kim, Yong-Ho ; Koh, Sang-Woog ; Choi, Young-Hun ; Kim, Chang-Myung ; Moon, Young-Eel ; Han, Seung-Gab ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 29~33
The fruit characteristics of late maturing mandarin cultivars that were top-grafted on inter stocks of satsumamandarin (Miyagawa Wase) and over-wintered on trees in plastic house were investigated in this study. Most cultivars sprouted on March 30, 5 to 8 days later than ‘Sagamandarin’, which sprouted on March 23. Similarly, all cultivars bloomed on May 7 except for ‘Sagamandarin’, which flowered on May 1. Fruit index varied slightly among cultivars. Peel thickness of ‘Aoshima’, ‘Imamura’, ‘Juman’, ‘Silverhill’ cultivars were thicker than that of ‘Miyagawa Wase’. The pulp ratio was 70% in ‘Aoshima’, ‘Imamura’, ‘Juman’, ‘Nankan No. 20’, ‘Sagamandarin’, ‘Silverhill’ cultivars, which was slightly lower than the pulp ratio of ‘Miyagawa Wase’. All cultivars studied had numerically high peel coloring values at harvesting time on mid February, which indicated that the cultivars evaluated are late maturing and the later the fruits are harvested, the better the quality. Soluble solid content (SSC) which is one of the most important indicators of fruit quality had values of 12.0, 12.9, 12.2, 12.9, and 13.7oBx in ‘Aoshima’, ‘Juman’, ‘Kunou’, ‘Ohtsu No. 4’, and ‘Sagamandarin’. SSC of these cultivars were higher by 1.3-3oBx compared with that of ‘Miyagawa Wase’, which is the major commercial cultivar grown in this cropping system of over-wintering inside the plastic film house. In addition to aforementioned cultivars, other cultivars had slightly higher SSC although fully matured and harvested late. ‘Nankan No. 20’ and ‘Miyagawa’ had lower acidity while ‘Jutaro’ and ‘Ohtsu No. 4’ had higher acidity of 1.5 and 1.4%, respectively.
Storability Improvement of 'Fuyu' Persimmon Fruit by the Combination of Hot-water Dipping and MAP
Lee, Yong-Jae ; Park, Young-Hoon ; Kang, Jum-Soon ; Choi, Young-Whan ; Son, Beung-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 34~41
The present study was carried out for the purpose of improving the storability of persimmon fruits by hot-water dipping combined with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Hot-water dipping of ‘Fuyu’ persimmon fruits was conducted in the condition of minute-based periods at relatively low temperatures (5, 10, and 15 min at 48℃, 5, 10, and 15 min at 50℃, 5, 10, and 15 min at 55℃) or a second-based period at relatively high temperatures (20 sec at 57, 60, 63, and 66℃). The effects of hot-water dipping treatment in a simulated marketing condition were evaluated from the fruit samples which were stored unpackaged for seven days at room temperature (15℃) after the treatments. To evaluate the effects on fruit storability, the samples were packaged using five or individual fruit-MAP method and stored for 120 days after the treatments. Hot-water dipping significantly increased the visual scores by cleansing effect and decreased the incidence of fruit blackening and decay. Optimal conditions for the improvement of fruit storability was observed at the treatment of 10-15 min at 48℃, 5 min at 50℃, and 20 sec at 57-60℃. However, when the level of oxygen concentration in MAP storage is low, the fruit samples treated by hot-water dipping showed higher incidences of pitted blotch browning, and therefore is needed to design a MAP so as to maintain somehow higher oxygen concentration.
Quantitative Method Using Real-time PCR for the Transcripts-level of Glutathione S-transferase in Chinese Cabbage
Lee, Dong-Woo ; Kim, Eul-Hwan ; Kang, Min-Hee ; Park, Young-Doo ; Yoon, Byoung-Su ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 42~50
In cruciferous vegetables, glutathione s-transferase (GST) catalyze the reaction with glutathione and isothiocyanate (ITC) including sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinyl butane), to form ITC-glutathione. In this pathway the down-regulation of GST is expected to accumulate ITC in plant body. In this study, we developed a quantitative analysis method of GST expression level using real-time RT-PCR in vegetables belonged to the genus Brassica. GST-specific quantitative PCR was established with cloned DNA encoding GST gene. To test utility of quantitative RT-PCR system we have conducted two independent evaluations for GST-transgenic chinese cabbage and for various cruciferous vegetables. With these studies, the quantities of GST-specific cDNA were successfully estimated from 108 to 102 molecules, and GST-expressions from various species of genus Brassica could be also quantitatively analyzed. GST quantitative RT-PCR could be applied in comparative analysis among Brassicas or physiological studies of isothiocyanate metabolism or a selection method for GST-transgenic chinese cabbage, etc.
Development a SCAR Marker Linked to Polyembryonic Trait in Citrus
Kang, Sung-Ku ; Yun, Su-Hyun ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 51~55
Polyembryony is one of the main obstacles in citrus breeding because it is difficult to discriminate between zygotic and nucellar seedlings by traditional means. So, it is necessary to identify the origin of seedlings in the early stages. In resent, techniques based on DNA analyses were tested for useful tool for hybrid identification. In this study, bulked segregant analysis (BSA) using 800 random primers, 67 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were preliminarily selected and UBC 55 random primer was finally selected. We developed the sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker for selection of polyembryonic citrus, the PCR using pMono-U/p468D primer specifically amplified 500 bp of single fragment from monoembryonic citrus. The results suggest that the selected markers could be used for the polyembryonic citrus breeding to increase selection efficiency.
A New Rose Cultivar, 'Golden Dew' with Yellow-Orange Color Flower and Fragrance
Lee, Young-Soon ; Lee, Sang-Deok ; Kim, Dong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 56~60
A new rose cultivar, ‘Golden Dew’ was selected from the progenies derived from a cross of ‘Red Sandra’ × ‘Sky Line’ by rose breeding team of Gyeonggi-Do Agricultural Research and Extension Services and released in 2007. ‘Golden Dew’ was developed for a standard-type cut flower. ‘Golden Dew’ has some good agricultural and marketing traits. Cut flower productivity was high about 126 stems/m2 in a year. Furthermore marketing-quality was good in some aspects. The length of cut flower was long with 78.8 cm. ‘Golden Dew’ has good qualified flower of which color is fair orange-yellow, 9.1 cm in flower diameter and 32.8 in petal numbers per flower. Vase life of this cultivar could be as long as 11 days. ‘Golden Dew’ has well various and plentiful fragrance and its major components were dimethoxytoluene, caryophyllene, anisaldehyde and hexanol.
Selection of Various Pure Lines with Different Growth and Flowering Characteristics in Cyclamen persicum
Song, Cheon-Young ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 61~67
This experiment was carried out to investigate the feasibility of pure lines for Cyclamen persicum with 30 inbred seedling lines showing different growth and flowering characteristics. The inbred seedling lines were obtained from selfing crosses 5 (S5) or 4 (S4) generation using several Cyclamen persicum cultivars. Eleven lines including ‘Cy-99-205’ flowered earlier than 330 days after sowing, however seven lines including ‘Cy-99-175’ were flowered later than 340 days after sowing. The number of leaves of 27 lines including ‘Cy-99-65’ was more than 30. The petal color of four lines including ‘Cy-99-65’ was white, seven lines including ‘Cy-99-435’ were red, four lines including ‘Cy-99-205’ were violet, seven lines including ‘Cy-99-175’ were pink, four lines including ‘Cy-99-285’ were purple, and four lines including ‘Cy-99-275’ were salmon. Flower diameter ranged from 3.5 cm to 11.7 cm, 27 lines including ‘Cy-99-65’ were larger than 6.0 cm. The number of flowers of all lines was more than 9, eight lines including ‘Cy-99-205’ were more than 20. All the lines of various growth and flowering characteristics would be very promising to use as breeding materials for F1 hybrids of Cyclamen persicum.
Genetic Relationship Based on RAPD Analysis of Sedum sarmentosum in Korea
Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Ahn, Jeong-Ho ; Baek, So-Hyeon ; Lee, Seung-Yeob ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 68~74
The genetic relationship among 31 Sedum sarmentosum local strains was analyzed using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) with fifteen 10-mers random primers (Operon Technologies Inc., USA) and twelve 20-mers random primers (SeouLin Bioscience Inc., Korea). Forty-six polymorphic bands (3.3 per primer) and ninety (15.0 per primer) were generated by polymerase chain reaction with selected fourteen 10-mers primers, and six 20-mers primers, respectively. The production of polymorphic bands in 20-mers primers was more efficient than in 10-mers primers. The cluster analysis based on RAPD markers generated by 20-mers primers was matched well with morphological characteristics compared to 10-mers primer. Thirty-one local strains analyzed with UPGMA were clustered into 2 groups. Twenty-seven local strains were clustered into the group Ⅰ, and the genetic relationship in Group I was very closed except Wanju and Gunsan local strains as no-flowering. Group Ⅱ included Keumsan, Bucheon, Pocheon and Yongin local strains with long hight, slender stem, narrow leaf, and abundant flowering characteristics.
Physiological Activity of Ethanol Extract from the Different Plant Parts of Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.)
Park, Yong-Seo ; Park, Yun-Jum ; Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Im, Myeong-Hee ; Lee, Mi-Kyung ; Kim, Young-Min ; Cho, Ja-Yong ; Heo, Buk-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 75~80
This study was conducted to promote the consumption and to improve the values of the loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl., cv. “Jeonjung”). We also harvested loquat grown in Wando-gun, Jeonnam Province, on June 10, 2007, and examined its physiological activities with the ethanol extracts from different plant parts. Total phenol content was high in the order of leaves (60.6 μgmL-1), seeds (22.9 μgmL-1) and fruits (19.4 μgmL-1). When the concentration of extracts was 500 mgmL-1, leaves showed highest DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picryl-hydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (91.8%) and followed by seeds (25.0%) and fruits (14.2%). And nitrite scavenging activity was high in the order of leaves (73.0%), fruits (66.9%) and seeds (64.9%). Fruit extracts showed highest mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity, especially the activity at 4,000 mgmL-1 extracts was 33.3%. The highest anti-microbial activity exhibited in the leaf extracts, especially showing the largest inhibition diameter (12.14 mm) against Streptococcus mutans at 500 mgmL-1 extracts.
Effects of Horticultural Therapy Based on Social Skill on the Improvement of Interpersonal Relationship and Sociality of Women with Mental Retardation
Kim, Ji-Hyun ; Cho, Moon-Kyoung ; Park, Hyun-Suk ; Joo, Sun-Hee ; Son, Ki-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 81~89
This study investigated the effect of the horticultural therapy program based upon social skills on the improvement of interpersonal relationships and socialization in adult mental retardation women. From January 23 through April 28, research was conducted on a treatment group and a control group that consisted of 12 mental retardation women each at the “S” Social Welfare Center. In the treatment group, horticultural therapy programs based on social skill were applied twice a week for 3 months. In order to verify the effect of the horticultural therapy, the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS-Teacher form Elementary Level), Interpersonal Negotiation strategies, and Self-Esteem Scale were given as an evaluation before, during, and after treatment and the horticultural activity performance assessment (HAPA) was used for individual assessment each time. When a comparison was made before, during, and after treatment between the control group and treatment group to determine the effect of horticultural therapy, the control group showed a significant difference in self-esteem, but not in social-skills and interpersonal relationships. On the contrary, treatment group showed a highly significant in social-skills, interpersonal relationships as well as self-esteem. In the post-treatment comparison, the treatment group showed a significantly higher rate of improvement than the control group in all three categories. In a pre and post-HAPA comparison of the treatment group, significant improvement was observed in social-skills and interpersonal relationships. In terms of psychological behavior, interest and attention were improved while behavioral problems, sensitivity, dependency, emotional disturbance, withdrawal, and frustration were significantly reduced. Although improvement has been observed in participation and self-confidence after treatment, there was no numerically significant difference detected. When the HAPA was checked every time, social-skills and interpersonal relationships displayed significant improvement in interaction between patients, therapist-patient, and intimacy while psychological behavior displayed significant improvement in interest and attention, participation, and self-confidence, and a significant decrease in behavioral problems, sensitivity, dependency, emotional disturbance, withdrawal, and frustration. It can be postulated that horticultural therapy based upon social skills can help mental retardation women to fit into society by improving their interpersonal relationships and socialization.
The Skin Sooty Dapple Disease of Pear Caused by Fungi
Park, Young-Seob ; Kim, Ki-Chung ; Suh, Heung-Soo ; Kim, Young-Cheol ; Cho, Bae-Ho ; Hwang, Yong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 1, 2008, Pages 90~96
This new disease was named as skin sooty dapple disease of Asian pear, and isolated 123 isolates from the infected plants. After bioassay for pathogenicity of each isolate, 114 isolates were selected for further studies. Each isolate was identified by morphological characteristics under microscopic observations. The isolates were identified as Cladosporium, Tripospermum, Tilletiopsis, and Leptosphaerulina, and some isolates did not form any spore. Among the isolates, 74% of the isolates were identified as Cladosporium spp., 5-7% of the isolates were identified as Leptosphaerulina, Tripospermum, Tilletiopsis, and unidentified species, respectively. This result indicates that Cladosporium isolates could be main pathogens for skin sooty dapple disease of Asian pear. In addition, only Cladosporum isolates caused mild maceration on pericarp by injection of inoculum suspensions.