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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Effects of Long-term Application of N, P, K Fertilizers on Fruit Quality and Yield of Citrus Tree (Citrus unshiu Marc.)
Han, Seung-Gab ; Lim, Han-Cheol ; Joa, Jae-Ho ; Moon, Kyung-Hwan ; Kang, Tae-Woo ; Song, Sung-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 203~208
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the long-term applications of N, P and K fertilizers on fruit quality and yield of 17-year-old satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsuwase) from 1994 to 2004. The experiment plots were arranged by the randomized block design with 3 replications. Treatments of N, P and K fertilizers on satsuma mandarin were no-fertilizer (NF, 0-0-0 ㎏ㆍ㏊⁻¹), no-nitrogen (NN, 0-400-280 ㎏ㆍ㏊⁻¹), no-phosphorus (NP, 280-0-280 ㎏ㆍ㏊⁻¹), no-potassium (NK, 280-400-0 ㎏ㆍ㏊⁻¹), control (C, 280-400-280 ㎏ㆍ㏊⁻¹) and three times of control (3C, 840-1200-840 ㎏ㆍ㏊⁻¹). Fruit yield and characteristics were investigated every year. Fruit yields in NK, NN and NP treatments were lower than that of control, but those in NK and 3C were not different with control. Sugar contents measured during 6 years ranged from 9.6 to 9.8 °Bx in C, NN, NP and 3C treatments, but that in NK tended to be higher as 10.4 °Bx. Average acid contents ranged from 1.30 to 1.35% in C, NN, NP and 3C treatments, but 1.16% in NK. Decreasing application of potassium fertilizer decreased large size ratio of fruit and inversely increased medium size, while nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizer did not. In 3C, the color index (‘a’ value) of peel was the lowest, meaning that maturation of fruit is retarded; also thickness of peel and endocarp was the thickest. In conclusion, potassium fertilizer seems to be significantly related to yield and quality for citrus fruit. Hence, further studies are required to seek the optimal range of potassium levels in soil and plant tissues to increase productivity and to elevate the ratio of marketable fruit.
Influence of Lysophosphatidylethanolamine on Reactive Oxygen Species, Ethylene Biosynthesis, and Auxin Action in Plant Tissue
Hong, Ji-Heun ; Hwang, Sung-Kee ; Chung, Guk-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 209~214
Despite several approved uses of lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) in agriculture, the mode of action in which LPE benefits plants is not clear. To understand LPE action, we first examined the effects of LPE treatment on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in plant protoplast, since it has been suggested that intracellular ROS production is associated with the regulation of biosynthesis pathway of plant hormones such as auxin and ethylene. Our result revealed that LPE treatment increases the ROS production in plant cells, suggesting the possibility that LPE may modulate the hormone production in a ROS-mediated manner. In addition, monitoring of gene expression involved in ethylene biosynthesis showed that VR-ACS1 and VR-ACS7 genes expression were elevated by LPE treatment in mung bean hypocotyl segments. It indicates that LPE is closely involved in the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. Based on the bioassay results using auxin and the known interaction between auxin and ethylene, it is suggested that LPE action is entangled with auxin, ethylene, and auxin- and ethylene-dependent pathways.
Effect of Scape Cut during Bulb Development Stage on Carbohydrate Formation and Yield of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Nam, Sang-Sik ; Choi, In-Hu ; Bae, Sang-Kyung ; Bang, Jin-Ki ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 215~218
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of scape cut during bulb development stage on leaf dryness, carbohydrate and yield of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in the field. The cloves were planted on polyethylene film-mulching plots at 18 × 11 ㎝ on September 25, 2006 and harvested on May 30, 2007. Time of scape cut was on May 4, 2007. Percentage of leaf dryness of no scape cut was slowly increased from 24.3% on May 14 to 63.9% on May 30, while that of scape cut was rapidly increased from 27.1% to 75.5%, respectively. Leaf area of scape cut and no scape cut were 141.2 and 228.1 cm2 per plant on May 30. Photosynthetic rate was similar to 11.0-10.9 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹ on May 14, but photosynthetic rate of no scape cut increased to 13.4 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹ on May 19 compared to 12.7 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹ for scape cut. The glucose and sucrose content in leaves and leaf sheath of non scape cut were gradually decreased and the fructose was increased during bulb development stage. The fructose content in leaves of scape cut was high as 137.3 mgㆍg⁻¹ compared to 80.6 mgㆍg⁻¹ of no scape cut on May 30. However, the fructose content in leaf sheath of scape cut was greatly decreased and then gradually increased. The sucrose content of scape include bulbil was decreased to 89.1 mgㆍg⁻¹ on May 30 compared to 145.0 mgㆍg⁻¹ on May 9 and the fructose was increased during bulb development stage. The sucrose content of bulb in no scape cut was gradually increased. On the other hand, the sucrose content of bulb in scape cut off was greatly increased from 499.2 mgㆍg⁻¹ on May 9 to 803.2 mgㆍg⁻¹ on May 30. The ratio of large bulb diameter (above 45 ㎜), bulb weight and yield of scape cut were 61.1%, 34.2 g, and 1,310 ㎏/10a, respectively. The yield of no scape cut was decreased to 8.6% compared to 1,197 ㎏/10a for scape cut.
Establishment of Bulbil Cultivation Using Bulbil Sower in Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Ahn, Yul-Kyun ; Choi, Hak-Soon ; Choi, Gyeong-Lee ; Suh, Hyo-Duk ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 219~222
This study was conducted to develop an effective production of mechanization system for garlics (Allium sativum L.), in which the bulbils could be used as a seed bulb. The experiment was carried out in Suwon and Namhae. The planting distance and bulbil sowing methods were examined using 0.2 g bulbils of ‘Namdo’ or ‘Danyang’. The bulbil sowing methods were compared in their field performance using bulbil sower and conventional method. The most desirable planting distance were 5 × 3 ㎝ to 7 × 3 ㎝ in ‘Danyang’ and 7 × 1 ㎝, 7 × 2 ㎝, and 10 × 1 ㎝ in ‘Namdo’ as seed garlic for producing non cloved garlic with high survival rate. In the bulbil sowing methods, the conventional method showed higher survival rate and forming non-cloved than bulbil sower. However, in the aspect of reducing production cost in garlic, the optimum bulbil sowing was using bulbil sower.
Ratios in Fertigation Solution on Appearance of Ammonium Toxicity, Growth and Nutrient Uptake of 'Maehyang' Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)
Choi, Jong-Myung ; Jeong, Suck-Kee ; Ko, Kwan-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 223~229
The purpose of this work was to determine the effects of various NH₄⁺/NO₃⁻ ratios in a fertilizer solution on growth and the nutrient uptake of ‘Maehyang’ strawberry in a pot culture. The five NH₄⁺/NO₃⁻ ratios in fertilizer solution were 0/100, 27/73, 50/50, 73/27, and 100/0, each giving a total N supply of 120 ㎎ㆍℓ⁻¹ to the root media during the whole experiment period. The edges of young leaves became dull green, wilted and curled backwards in 73:27 and 100:0 (NH₄:NO₃) treatments. The older leaves desiccated and scorched while petioles remained green in high NH₄ treatment. The calcium deficiency also developed in new leaves as indicated by very small, distorted, twisted and chlorotic with necrotic tips. The elevation of NH₄ ratio in fertilizer solution suppressed the growth of ‘Maehyang’ strawberry at 120 days after transplanting. The elevation of NO₃ ratio increased the crop growth such as number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, fresh weight and dry weight. The dry weights of 0:100, and 100:0 treatments were 3.92 g and 1.81 g, respectively, with statistical differences; however, the differences in nitrogen contents of above ground plant tissues were not significant.
Fruit Characteristics of High Temperature Period and Economic Analysis of Summer Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) Grown at Different Altitudes
Lee, Jong-Nam ; Lee, Eung-Ho ; Im, Ju-Sung ; Kim, Won-Bae ; Yeoung, Young-Rok ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 230~233
This study was conducted to evaluate the suitable altitude for cultivating paprika in summer. Cultivation area of paprika for summer production was 58 ㏊ and lowland area at 0-299 m altitude occupied 29%. In high temperature period (from July to August), mean air temperature at 0-299 m altitude was higher than the suitable growth temperature of paprika. Fruit setting ratio increased with the higher altitude area whereas physiology disorder and damage by disease and insect pest increased with the lower altitude area. Fruit quality decreased with the lower altitude area. Business analysis results showed that the net profits at 300-599m and 600 ~ 899 m altitude were higher by 16 and 10%, respectively, than those in 0-299 m altitude. Therefore, highland area above the sea level 300 m-599 m altitude was the most suitable for paprika in summer culture.
Growth of Gypsophila paniculata According to the Pruning Time and Ridge Position in Sub-alpine Area
Cheong, Dong-Chun ; Lim, Hoi-Chun ; Song, Young-Ju ; Park, Hark-Bong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 234~237
This study was carried out to investigate the growth of Gypsophila paniculata affected by pruning time (July 10, July 18, and July 25) and ridge position (middle or window side) under south-north oriented plastic house in sub-alpine area. The average night temperature was similar between the two ridges, but the average day temperature and soil temperature were higher at the middle ridge; particularly, there was distinct difference after late October. Also the accumulative solar radiation was higher at the middle ridge than the window side ridge owing to the shading by neighboring plastic house and the structure of plastic house. The root activity, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of plants surveyed in late October were inclined to be more increased at the middle than the window side ridge. The flowering traits at the pruning time of July 10 and July 18 were similar between the two ridges, but the flower malformation rate was higher at the middle ridge. On the other hand, in case of the pruning time of July 25, the blooming was advanced by 13 days, and the flowering traits such as flower stalk length and branch number were better; also, the flower malformation and rosette formation rate decreased at the middle ridge, because of its higher air and soil temperature and the accumulative solar radiation.
Causal Factor of Peeling-off Disorder and Related Physiological Changes in 'Niitaka' Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia B.) During Cold Storage at Altered Temperature
Hong, Yoon-Pyo ; Park, Hee-Seung ; Park, Youn-Moon ; Lee, Seung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 238~244
An environmental factor inducing peeling-off disorders and related metabolic changes were measured in cold-stored ‘Niitaka’ Asian pear fruit. When storage temperatures were alternated between 0 and 5℃ or 0 and 10℃ after 90 days of storage, high incidence of peeling-off disorder was developed ranging from 65 to 77%. Rates of respiration and C₂H₄ evolution were stimulated in response to temperature fluctuation. Electrolyte leakage also was increased by the temperature alternation. Sugars, especially sorbitol, and total phenol contents increased in the fruit skin suffering peeling-off, simultaneously, whereas organic acids tended to decrease. The results suggested that temperature fluctuation during cold storage might alter physiological metabolism which induces anatomical and/or physical changes in the skin tissues and eventually peeling-off development.
Alleviating the Woolliness of 'Yumyeong' Peaches by MA Packaging and the Related Properties of Pectic Substances
Choi, Jeong-Hee ; Lee, Seung-Koo ; Hong, Yoon-Pyo ; Hong, Ji-Heun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 245~250
Effect of modified atmosphere (MA) packaging on the woolliness and related physiological properties was investigated in ‘Yumyeong’ peach (Prunus persica) fruits. Harvested fruits were packaged with PE film (30 μm thickness), chilled at 0℃ for 4 weeks to induce chilling injury, woolliness, and then ripened at 20℃ Changes in woolliness, electrolyte leakage, pectic substances, and the activities of polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME) were evaluated during ripening. Woolliness developed during ripening period after chilling regardless of MA packaging; however, less woolliness was found in MA-chilled fruits. Electrolyte leakage increased rapidly during the first 3 days of ripening and then decreased in chilled fruits, and was higher in MA-chilled fruits. In non-chilled fruits, water soluble pectin (WSP) content increased, EDTA soluble pectin (ESP) content remained constant, and sodium carbonate soluble pectin (SSP) contentdecreased during ripening. Chilled fruits showed inhibited PG activity, lower WSP content, and higher SSP content than non-chilled fruits, which is likely to be a cause of woolliness. In MA-chilled fruits, PME and PG activity increased, WSP increased, and SSP decreased during ripening compared with chilled fruits without MA packaging. We could conjecture that woolliness of ‘Yumyeong’ peach fruits could be alleviated by MA packaging in which the effect of cold storage on the PG activity might be reduced.
Effects of Washing Treatments with Different Components on Removal of Pesticide Residues and Microorganisms in 'Fuji' Apples
Choi, Sun-Young ; Cho, Mi-Ae ; Hong, Yoon-Pyo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 251~257
The study was conducted to investigate the efficiency of different washing treatments which can remove pesticides and microorganism contaminations on apples (Malus domestica). Apples were washed with tap water, chlorinated water, electrolyzed water, ozonated water, and acetic acid solution, respectively as prestorage treatment and then changes in pesticide residue and microorganism activity were estimated. Although there were differences in effect according to the type of the pesticide, washing treatments were more effective than tap water treatments in pesticide removal. Especially, residues of myclobutanil was decreased from 0.39 to 0.10 ㎎ㆍℓ⁻¹ after electrolyzed water treatment (removal rate 74.4%). Population levels of total microorganism were also reduced by chlorinated, electrolyzed and ozonated water, but increased or not affected by acetic acid solution and tap water washings. Chlorinated and electrolyzed (100 ㎎ㆍℓ⁻¹) water treatments were markedly reduced populations of total microorganism for 2 weeks at 0℃. The effect of water treatments on quality attributes during storage at 0℃ was not significantly different from other water treatments. As a result, if pesticide and microbial reduction, and maintaining quality are taken into account together, the cleaning process using chlorinated and electrolyzed water were the most effective washing treatment methods.
Effect of Precooling and Harvesting at Different Times on Respiration, Browning and Microbial Growth of Fresh-cut Iceberg Lettuce
In, Byung-Chun ; Kim, Ji-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 258~264
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of precooling and harvesting at different times on respiration, browning and microbial growth of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. U-lake). Iceberg lettuce was harvested at dawn (06:00) and midday (12:00), cooled immediately to 4℃ by precooling, and then transported under refrigerated condition. Iceberg lettuce leaves were cut, washed, dried and packaged into plastic bags (80 ㎛ Ny/PE) and stored at 5℃ for 12 days. Results indicated that respiration rate increased after cutting in all treatments and was lower in precooling treated lettuce than non-treated one. However, no significant difference in O₂ and CO₂ composition was found among treatments during storage. Precooling treatment was effective in inhibiting discoloration for up to 12 days. Samples treated with precooling had lower total phenol content, and a similar tendency was also observed in the result of discoloration development by sensory test. Although precooling treatment having lower aerobic microbial count (5.3 log) than control (6 log) before processing, precooling did not affect microbial population of packaged samples during storage.
Compositional Analysis of Insoluble Pectins from Pericarp Tissue of Pear Fruit and Its Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Kim, Jong-kee ; Hwang, Byung-Ho ; Cha, Ju-Hyoung ; Hong, Ji-Heun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 265~271
In order to improve juice quality and filtration process of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) pulp extracts, insoluble pectins were obtained from pear fruit after enzymatic hydrolysis of the pulp tissue with commercial pectinases. Compositional analysis revealed that the insoluble pectin has a high ratio in rhamnose to galacturonic acid, 0.19, which was a very similar to ‘modified hairy region’ of apple pectin. In addition, the pear pectin was also rich in glucose and mannose, comprising approximately 40% of the polymer. Enzyme (s) capable to degrade the insoluble pectins was isolated from a commercial Aspergillus pecteolytic enzyme preparations using an alginate affinity chromatography. Aspergillus polygalacturonase (PG) was tightly bound to the alginate resin at pH 4.0 and efficiently separated by raising the pH of the elution buffer into 8.0. Gel permeation chromatography of the hydrolysates of insoluble pectin by the enzyme fractions unbound to the alginate resin showed a molecular weight shift from a large to a smaller weight polymers. The enzyme product, insoluble by PG, was further incubated with a α-rhamnosidase of commercial naringinase to hydrolyse terminal rhamnose. An increase in soluble, monomeric rhamnose confirmed that the fungal pectinase had an activity of hydrolyzing rhamno-galacturonosyl backbone of pectin in pear fruit. From the results obtained, it was concluded that insoluble pectins from pear fruit juice was effectively degraded by a fungal pectinase, generating oligosaccharides rich in terminal rhamnose.
Effect of Maturity at Harvest on the Quality of Head Lettuce during Storage
Kang, Ye-Jeong ; Choi, Jeong-Hee ; Jeong, Moon-Cheol ; Kim, Dong-Man ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 272~276
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of maturity at harvest on the quality of head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) during storage. Harvested lettuces at different maturity stages of immature, mature, and over-mature were stored at 5℃ for 5 weeks. The lettuces were analyzed for weight loss, hardness, decay rate, browning rate, and processing yield. Decay rate was higher in immature lettuce than mature and over-mature ones. The browning rate was higher in over-mature lettuce than immature and mature ones. Though processing of immature and over-mature lettuces was impossible after 4 weeks of storage due to decay and browning, respectively, processing yield of mature lettuce was remained at 33.4% after 4 weeks of storage. Immature lettuce showed lower hardness and lower weight loss than mature and over-mature ones.
Analysis of Quality Changes and Losses to Indicate Storability of 'Campbell Early' Grape as Related to Marketing Conditions
Ha, Seung-Yeun ; Hwang, Yong-Soo ; Yang, Yong-Joon ; Park, Youn-Moon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 277~283
Changes in instrumental quality attributes and storage losses were evaluated during four-month refrigerated storage of ‘Campbell Early’ grape (Vitis labruscana B.) to determine storage potential. Grapes were harvested twice in late August and stored at 0 and -1℃ followed by simulated marketing for 3 and 6 days at 20 and 7℃, respectively. Flesh firmness was the only instrumental quality factor showing relatively consistent decreases as storage period extended, thus regarded as a reliable indicator of storage potential. Significant factors affecting quality and storage losses were; harvest maturity on flesh firmness and decay, and shelf temperature on firmness, berry shattering, and decay. Changing pattern of flesh firmness together with the incidence of shattering (<10%) and decay (<5%) indicated that storage potential of ‘Campbell Early’ grape was 2 to 3 months. Storage potential could be extended by selectively applying low shelf temperature and shortening marketing period.
Inheritance of Chlorophyll Content in Leaves of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)
Kim, Zhoo-Hyeon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 284~291
Two lettuce (Lactuca sativa) varieties, ‘Oakleaf’ (P₁) and ‘Baimach’ (P₂) are not significantly different in SPAD values for chlorophyll content, while their green color appearance are different from each other. ‘Oakleaf’ has common green leaves, while that of ‘Baimach’ is greyish green. In the segregating population from the cross ‘Oakleaf’ x ‘Baimach’, transgressive segregating plants in green intensity were observed, in both lighter green and darker green. Inheritance mode of green intensity was analysed using P₁, P₂, F₁, F₂, and F₃ populations induced from the cross ‘Oakleaf’ x ‘Baimach’. Green intensity of leaves was controlled by two major genes: ‘Baimach’ has aaBB, and ‘Oakleaf’ has AAbb. The effects of gene A and B are almost the same, independent, additive and cumulative. Gene A and B showed a little heterosis effect, when the opposite is not in dominant homozygote state. The two genes, A and B, were designated Light green-2 and Light green-3, and symbolized Lg-2 and Lg-3, respectively.
Distribution of Ogura Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Some Germplasms of Radish (Raphanus sativus)
Lee, Sun-Ae ; Choi, Wo-Jeen ; Yoo, Su-Mi ; Lee, Soo-Seong ; Kang, Jung-Hoon ; Ko, Ho-Cheol ; Hur, Yoon-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 292~295
A primer pair of the orf138 gene of Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility of radish, Raphanus sativus, was constructed according to the sequences of GenBank Accession No. AB055442. The male sterile plants appeared unexpectedly in the selfed generation of Korean wild radishes and a collected local cultivar was detected with these primers. All showed the specific band of Ogura CMS as expected. Thus it was applied moreover to a total of 171 entries consisting of 62 wild radishes collected from 3 main areas in Korea, 31 local cultivars kept in the seed bank of Rural Development Administration, 19 F₁ cultivars distributed by a seed company in Korea, and 59 oriental accessions introduced mainly from China and Russia. On the whole, 62 entries presented the specific band of orf138 gene in the PCR. In detail, no local cultivar presented it, while about 74% of 62 wild radishes showed it. Eleven out of 59 introductions and 5 of 19 Korean F₁ cultivars presented it.
Field Performance Test of 'Baeyun No. 1' Selected as Resistant Rootstock against Some Physiological Disorders of Pear Fruits
Kang, Sam-Seok ; Cho, Kwang-Sik ; Son, Jang-Hoon ; Kim, Yoon-Kyeong ; Jeong, Sang-Bouk ; Kim, Jeong-Bae ; Kim, Myung-Su ; Lee, Sang-Hyu ; Son, Dong-Su ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 296~301
This study was carried out to select a resistant rootstock against some physiological disorders and confirm the field performance test of selected pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) rootstock. ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Whasan’ which had shown higher physiological disorder occurrence such as yuzu skin, stony flesh, and cracking were grafted onto ‘Baeyeoen No.1’, ‘Cheongkye’, ‘Baegkye’, and two seedlings of ‘Cheongdangrori’ and ‘Okusankichi’. Tree growth, inorganic nutrient absorption, fruit quality, and some physiological disorder were investigated according to pear rootstocks. Tree growth of scion cultivars affected by rootstock cultivars did not show differences in both ‘Chojuro’ and ‘Whasan’ pear after grafting. When ‘Baeyoen No.1’ was used as a rootstock, yuzu skin in ‘Hwasan’ and stony flesh in ‘Chojoro’ occurred 26.7% and 14.3%, respectively. Although there were differences according to rootstocks, phosphate (P), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were higher in in both scion cultivars grafted onto ‘Baeyoen No. 1’ than others those grafted onto other rootstock cultivars excepting potassium. As a result, Ca/K, Ca/Mg, and Mg/K values were also higher in the scion cultivars grafted onto ‘Baeyoen No. 1’. Consequently, ‘Baeyoen No.1’ rootstock reduced the physiological disorder such as yuzu skin and cracking in ‘Hwasan’ and yuzu skin and stony flesh in ‘Chojoro’. Therefore, we recommend ‘Baeyoen No.1’ as a rootstock against some physiological disorders.
Breeding of Rose 'Honami' with Red-Purple Flower through Gamma Irradiation
Koh, Gab-Cheon ; Ahn, Kyu-Bin ; Gi, Gwang-Yeon ; Na, Taek-Sang ; Kang, Si-Young ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 302~305
A new rose (Rosa hybrida Hort.) ‘Honami’ was released by a mutation breeding through gamma irradiation at Honam University. The rooted cuttings of a rose ‘Red Sandra’ were irradiated with 70 Gy of gamma-rays from a ⁶⁰Co source in 2002. A chimeric mutant with red-purple petals was induced from the red (Red group, 45B) flower of ‘Red Sandra’. The solid mutant was obtained from the chimeric plant by cutting back and keeping culture from 2003 to 2005. The solid mutant was propagated by cutting in 2006, and cultured from 2006 to 2008, and then it was named ‘Honami’. A new rose ‘Honami’ has red-purple (Red-purple group, 57B) standard flower with good shape, 36.0 petals per flower, and 12.0 ㎝ wide flower. The vase life of cut flowers is about 8.0 days. It has long stem of 73.7 ㎝ and peduncle of 14.3 cm similar to its original cultivar, Red Sandra.
Nitrogen Source and Sucrose Concentration in the Medium Affect Indian ginseng (Withania somniefera) Cultures in Vitro
Lee, Sang-Ho ; Hahn, Eun-Joo ; Paek, Kee-Yoeup ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 306~312
To establish micropropagation system of Indian ginseng (Withania somnifera) plantlets having anti-cancer efficacy, differential NH₄⁺:NO₃⁻ ratios and sucrose concentrations in MS medium were tested. Plantlet growth was the greatest at a 20:40 (mM) NH₄⁺:NO₃⁻ ratio, while significantly inhibited when NH₄⁺ was used as a sole nitrogen source. Among the sucrose concentrations, 3% sucrose resulted in the highest shoot and root growth; however, increasing of sucrose concentration up to 7% induced a severe growth retard due to an excessive increase of water potential in the medium. High levels of sucrose in the medium increased leaf stomatal density but decreased stomata size, considered as a compensation activity against stressful environment.
Development of Gene-based DNA Marker for Verticillium Wilt Resistance in Tomato
Park, Young-Hoon ; Lee, Yong-Jae ; Kang, Jum-Soon ; Choi, Young-Whan ; Son, Beung-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 313~319
Ve-SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region) tightly linked to verticillium wilt resistance genes (Ve1 and Ve2) in tomato has potential to be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding programs. In our MAS program using this SCAR marker, it was revealed that the cultivar ‘Mountain Crest’ and several individual plants in a segregating population were susceptible to verticillium wilt, but carried marker genotypes of homozygous resistance. To develop a gene sequence-based marker that would universally work for diverse tomato breeding materials, the Ve1 and Ve2 genes were amplified from the resistance check ‘Hayslip’, susceptible check ‘Ace’, and ‘Mountain Crest’ and the PCR amplicons were tested for RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) by using 14 restriction enzymes. Only the restriction enzyme Hinc II digestion revealed polymorphisms among those cultivars. In addition, sequence alignment of the Ve1 gene of those cultivars clearly showed that ‘Mountain Crest’ carried a second susceptible allele distinguished from other susceptible lines. The polymorphic Hinc II sites were confirmed by the gene sequence analysis and a CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic site) marker was developed. Compared to the previous SCAR marker, our new CAPS marker can be more reliable and efficient for the selection of verticillium wilt resistance in tomato.
Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on a Shoot and Root Formation from the Leaf and Flower Culture of a Standard-type Chrysanthemum 'Jinba'
Lee, Jong-Suk ; Lee, Geung-Joo ; Chung, Sung-Jin ; Kim, Jin-Baek ; Kim, Dong-Sub ; Kang, Si-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 320~324
In this study we investigated the conditions of a higher frequency for regenerated plants from different explants of a standard-type chrysanthemum ‘Jinba’. In vitro culture was initiated on an MS medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, and 5 μM benzyl adenine (BA) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) by using surface-sterilized leaf and flower tissues from greenhouse-grown plants. Direct shoot regeneration from the leaf and flower explants was obtained 21 to 28 days after the initial culture. Among the seven combinations of the growth regulators used for the culture, the most efficient condition for the shoot and root formation from the leaf tissue was obtained when the MS basic medium was supplemented with 0.5 ㎎ ℓ⁻¹ BA and 1.0 ㎎ ℓ⁻¹ NAA, and 0.1 ㎎ ℓ⁻¹ BA and 0.5 ㎎ ℓ⁻¹ NAA, while the culture using floret tissues was most efficient on the medium supplemented with 0.5 ㎎ ℓ⁻¹ BA and 0.5 ㎎ ℓ⁻¹ NAA, and 0.1 ㎎ ℓ⁻¹ BA and 1.0 ㎎ ℓ⁻¹ NAA. These results will provide valuable information to help set up an efficient system for a tissue culture of chrysanthemum cv. Jinba to improve one or some of its negative traits in combination with a radiation mutagenesis approach.
Effects of Growing Media and Exposure Frequency on the Volatile Formaldehyde Removal in Potted Epipremnum aureum
Kil, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Kwang-Jin ; Pak, Chun-Ho ; Kim, Ho-Hyen ; Lim, Young-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 325~330
The efficiency of formaldehyde removal by root zone was assessed. Formaldehyde removal by peatmoss was the most effective among unused growing media for planting. The rate of formaldehyde removal by peatmoss accounted for 53% of initial concentration, and those by peatmoss and perlite were 39% and 35%, respectively. When aerial plant parts of Epipremnun aureum were removed, the rate of formaldehyde removal by vermiculite was the highest (80% of initial concentration). The rates of formaldehyde removal by media removing both aerial plant parts and roots accounted for 52-54% of initial concentration. The amounts of formaldehyde removal by sterilized growing media were the smallest. The ability of formaldehyde removal by media with or without potted plants increased with frequency of exposure. Formaldehyde removal by the 15th exposure was increased approximately 7-16% compared with the 1st. Therefore, the efficiency of formaldehyde removal by potted plants placed in new house might be increased as formaldehyde emitted from materials of new building cause the increase of formaldehyde removal rate by root zone.
In Vitro Assay on Physiological Activities of Flower and Leaf Extracts of Red Lotus
Heo, Buk-Gu ; Park, Yong-Seo ; Hou, Won-Noung ; Im, Myung-Hee ; Park, Yun-Jum ; Kim, Hyun-Ju ; Sin, Jang-Sik ; Cho, Ja-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 331~337
This study was conducted to determine physiological activities of flower and leaf extracts of red lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). Flowers and leaves of red lotus grown at a field in Donggang-Myun, Naju-City, Jeonnam, was harvested on August 14, 2007. The flower and leaf samples were extracted with either hot water or ethanol, and were examined for their physiological activities. Content of total phenolics was the greatest (92.2 ㎎ㆍℓ⁻¹) in the ethanol extract of red lotus leaves. The α, α-diphenyl-β-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of ethanol extracts of flowers and leaves at 500 ㎎ㆍℓ⁻¹ was 94.1% and 83.5%, respectively. However, the activity of hot-water extracts of flowers and leaves was 30.2% and 18.5%, respectively, showing higher activity in the ethanol than hot-water extracts. Contents of total flavonoid in the ethanol extracts of leaves and flowers were 90.2 ㎎ㆍℓ⁻¹ and 46.2 ㎎ㆍℓ⁻¹, respectively. Nitrite scavenging activity (% of the control) of the ethanol extracts at 500 ㎎ㆍℓ⁻¹ from flowers and leaves was 80.7% and 49.7%, respectively. Difference in mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity (% of the control) of flower and leaf extracts between two extraction methods was not significantly different. Leaf and flower extracts of red lotus at 500 ㎎ㆍℓ⁻¹ showed highly significant anti-microbial activity against six gram positive and three gram negative microbial strains, regardless of plant parts and extraction methods used.
GC/MS Analysis of Volatile Constituents from Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis, Zanthoxylum piperitum, Gardenia jasminoides for. grandiflora, and Pinus koraiensis
Lee, Jeong-Min ; Han, Saem ; Lee, Sul-Lim ; Park, Jun-Yeon ; Kim, Hye-Min ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 338~343
To search for the industrial application of fruit trees, chemical analysis of volatile constituents from Zizyphus jujuba var. inermis, Zanthoxylum piperitum, Gardenia jasminoides for. grandiflora, and Pinus koraiensis was conducted by GC and GC/MS spectrometric analysis. The chemical composition of the volatile constituents from the fruit trees was confirmed by the aid of Wiley/NBS Library and RI indice searches. The major constituents were 13-methyloxacyclotetradecane-2,11-dione (27.84%) from the fruits of Z. jujuba var. inermis, α-pinene (33.68%) from the leaves of Z. piperitum, 2,5,5-trimethyl-1,3,6-heptatriene (32.00%) from the flowers of G. jasminoides for. grandiflora, and α-pinene (20.52%) from the leaves of P. koraiensis. These major constituents were successfully applied to present the possibilities of industrial applications for the developments of perfumes and beverages from fruit trees.
Comparison of Sulforaphane and Antioxidant Contents according to Different Parts and Maturity of Broccoli
Kwon, Young-Deuk ; Ko, Eun-Young ; Hong, Sae-Jin ; Park, Se-Won ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 344~349
This study was conducted to figure out the levels of sulforaphane and other antioxidants among broccoli cultivars and their plant parts. The contents of sulforaphane and other antioxidants were estimated by GC/MS, HPLC and UV-spectrophotometer. Among the cultivars tested ‘Nokjae’ contained higher sulforaphane level than ‘Grace’ and its content varied depending on different maturity stages of broccoli; immature, mature and overmature stages. In the case of ‘Nokjae’, the highest sulforaphane level was detected at mature stage as compared to the other two stages. The ascorbic acid contents in both cultivars were found to be higher in the overmature stage than in either immature or mature stage. However, β-carotene contents were not in accordance with the maturity stages, its highest level was detected at the mature stage in both cultivars, whereas the lowest at the immature stage. Chlorophyll contents were also varied depending on the maturity stages. The highest level was detected at the overmature stage in ‘Nokjae’ and at the mature stage in ‘Grace’, while its lowest level was observed at the immature stage in both cultivars. Among the three parts of broccoli tested, florets of ‘Nokjae’ contained the highest level of sulforaphane, whereas leaf exhibited a very low level. The stalk of broccoli had the highest level of ascorbic acid; in contrast, the leaf contained high level of β-carotene and chlorophyll. In summary, our data showed that sulforaphane contents of broccoli were the highest in the florets at the mature stage, whereas ascorbic acid, β-carotene and chlorophyll levels were higher in leaves and stalks of broccoli.
Current Research Status of Postharvest Technology of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Cho, Jung-Eun ; Lee, Seung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 2008, Pages 350~356
Garlic has been reported to contain various organosurfur compounds which have antibiotic and anticarcinogenic properties and thus may reduce the possibility of cancer and chronic diseases. Garlic bulbs maintain dormancy for about 3 months after harvest at ambient temperature and then sprouting occurs. Garlic bulbs are stored at 0℃ for 6℃ months and then moved to -4℃~-2℃ to control sprouting and decay. Hot-air drying at 38℃ for 3-6 days is an essential pre-storage treatment to prevent frozen injury and sprouting. Recently, the steady growth in retail sales of fresh-cut produce has led to pre-peeled and crushed garlic products. During distribution and sale, unfavorable color changes like blueing and browning reduce the marketability of processed garlic product. Blueing in crushed garlic occurs when garlic bulb is stored under 15 for more than 3℃ months and the amount of 1-PeCSO increases enough to react with alliinase by disruption. Although organic acids and heat treatments are used to control blueing, better control methods need to be developed. Browning in crushed garlic is due to oxidation of phenolic compounds by polyphenol oxidase and it can be inhibited by pH adjustment with organic acids.