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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Thermosusceptible Developmental Stage in Anthocyanin Accumulation and Color Response to High Temperature in Red Chrysanthemum Cultivars
Huh, Eun-Joo ; Shin, Hak-Ki ; Choi, Seong-Youl ; Kwon, Oh-Geun ; Lee, Young-Ran ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 357~361
The study showed that among the four different flower developmental stages, anthocyanin content was extremely decreased by high temperature when plants were exposed at bud opening stage for seven days. During that stage, anthocyanin content of ‘Relance’ flowers subjected to 35/20℃ was about 48% that of flowers exposed to 25/20℃. On the other hand, the color response to high temperature differed between two red chrysanthemum cultivars, ‘Relance’ and ‘Wembley’. Anthocyanin content of ‘Relance’ was reduced by 43.4% at high temperature (35/20℃) when compared with those exposed to 25/20℃. However, that of ‘Wembley’, which was less affected by temperature, resulted in only 10% reduction at 35/20℃. The gene transcripts, especially dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) and anthocyanin synthase (ANS), were reduced extremely by high temperature in both cultivars. Reduction in flavanone 3-hydoxylase (F3H) expression by high temperature was less in ‘Wembley’ than in ‘Relance’.
Effect of High Temperature and Plant Growth Regulators at Flowering Stage on Calyx Perpetual Fruitlet in 'Niitaka' Pear
Choi, Jang-Jeon ; Choi, Jin-Ho ; Han, Jeom-Hwa ; Jeong, Sang-Bouk ; Kim, Wol-Soo ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Kim, Tae-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 362~366
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of high temperature and plant growth regulator applications at flowering stage on the occurrence of calyx perpetual fruitlets in ‘Niitaka’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). Occurrence of calyx perpetual fruitlet in potted 7-year-old tree was 70.3% in the treatment of 18℃ and 100% in the treatment of 28℃ for 9 days from full bloom stage. However, 5 days treatment of 18 and 28℃ from petal fall stage showed low occurrence of 0.0 and 6.7%, respectively. In field grown 15-year-old tree, by treating NAA 25 mg L-1, GA4 50 mg L-1, Fulmet 10 mg L-1, and BA 25 mg L-1 at full bloom stage, occurrence of calyx perpetual fruitlet was produced 97.7, 63.8, 48.9 and 18.2%, respectively. Fruit weight was highly increased by treating BA 25 mg L-1 and GA4 50 mg L-1, and L/D ratio was high at Fulmet 10 mg L-1. Our results indicate that high temperature and increase of endogenous auxins at full bloom stage induce calyx perpetual fruitlet.
The Effect of Calcium Chloride, Prohexadione-Ca, and Ca-coated Paper Bagging on Reduction of Bitter Pit in 'Gamhong' Apple
Kim, Dae-Hyun ; Byun, Jae-Kyun ; Choi, Cheol ; Choi, Dong-Geun ; Kang, In-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 367~371
Gamhong’ is a midseason, high fresh eating quality red apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) that has high popularity in Korea. ‘Gamhong’ however is prone to bitter pit or russet. Over two growing seasons, different types of calcium (Ca) were applied in either soil or foliar spray to 5 year-old ‘Gamhong’/M.26 apples which had severe bitter pit in 2004. We sprayed calcium chloride (CaCl2), prohexadione-Ca (Pro-Ca) to soil or leaves, and covered fruits with Ca-coated paper bags in 2005. Drenching lime stone liquid or CaCl2 solution on soil were not effective in the reduction of bitter pit, while foliar spraying two times of 0.5% CaCl2 before paper bagging was effective in the reduction of bitter pit while increasing Ca content of peels. Great effect on reduction of bitter pit and on enhancement of Ca content in peels was attained by three different treatments: leaves spraying of 0.5% CaCl2 three times before bagging; Pro-Ca spraying five days after full blooming; and Ca-coated paper bagging 4-5 weeks after full blooming. However, the best result was shown by foliar spraying three times of 0.5% CaCl2 followed by Ca-coated paper bagging.
Effect of Waterlogging Condition on the Photosynthesis of 'Campbell Early' Grapevine
Kang, Seok-Beom ; Jang, Han-Ik ; Lee, In-Bog ; Park, Jin-Myeon ; Moon, Doo-Khil ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 372~379
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on the photosynthesis, and related physiological response of two-year old ‘Campbell Early’ grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) under waterlogged condition from June 15 to July 27, 2005. For the experiment, two-year old grapevine seedlings were transplanted to 40 L pot with a sandy loam soil. Treatments consisted of non-treated control with controlled at -40 kPa of soil water tension (NC), waterlogging with continuous aeration to supply dissolved oxygen (WO), waterlogging with exchange of water twice a week (WE), and continuous waterlogging without aeration as well as exchange of water (WL). After 29 days of waterlogging, predawn leaf water potential of NC was the highest at -0.23 MPa in treatments, but other treatments were -0.35 MPa (WO), -0.50 MPa (WE), and -0.57 MPa (WL) respectively. Difference between air and leaf temperatures was higher in WO (0.9℃) than other waterlogging treatments except NC (1.5℃). Net CO2 assimilation (Aco2), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (E) of waterlogged grapevines were decreased by continuous waterlogging but mitigated by supplying dissolved oxygen (WO). Leaf-to-air water vapor pressure deficit on leaf temperature (VpdL) was increased by the prolongation of waterlogging, but attenuated by WO treatment. From 8 days after waterlogging, Fv/Fm of WO in treatments was higher than other waterlogging treatments (WE, WO) except NC; also, there was no significant difference among the Fv/Fm of NC, WO and WE, but was significantly higher than WL at 24 and 31 days after waterlogging. Thus, it could be concluded that supplying dissolved oxygen by aeration decreases leaf temperature, increases predawn leaf water potential and Fv/Fm and resulted in alleviation of the reduction of photosynthesis of ‘Campbell Early’ grapevine under waterlogged condition.
Effect of Greenhouse Orientation on the Environment of Greenhouse and the Growth and Yield of Tomato and Oriental Melon
Choi, Young-Hah ; Kang, Nam-Jun ; Park, Kyoung-Sub ; Chun, Hee ; Cho, Myeong-Whan ; Lee, Si-Young ; Um, Yeong-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 380~386
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of greenhouse orientation on the microclimate of greenhouse and the growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cv ‘Momotaro-Yoku’ and oriental melon (Cucumis melo) cv ‘Obokggul’. The temperature in a closed greenhouse was higher in north-south orientation than that in east-west orientation because the angle of incidence became larger in north-south orientation with increase of solar altitude. The number of air changes and the variation of temperature became larger in east-west orientation than those in north-south orientation when the ventilation was set to start at 28℃. Relative humidity and soil temperature were not significantly different between the two greenhouse orientations. In tomato-raising greenhouse, the light intensity inside furrows was weaker in the early morning and the late afternoon in north-south orientation than that in east-west orientation due to shadows near plants. There was no significant difference in light intensity at midday between the greenhouse orientations. The leaf area exposed to direct sunlight was greater in north-south orientation than that in east-west orientation and the leaves of middle and low parts in north side of plants could not receive direct sunlight due to a low angle of azimuth. In north-south orientation, as ripening was promoted, early yields of tomato were obtained. It was considered that photosynthesis rate was better because temperature rose quickly early in the morning reducing the stresses induced by temperature variation and more leaves of plants can receive direct sunlight. In oriental melon-raising greenhouse, ripening time and yield were not significantly different between the greenhouse orientations because thermal stress by poor ventilation and mutual shading between plants did not occur so severely.
Effects of 1-MCP and Storage Condition on Fruit Quality of 'Whangkeumbae' Pear during Storage and Simulated Marketing
Moon, Seung-Joo ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Han, Jeom-Hwa ; Hwang, Yong-Soo ; Chun, Jong-Pil ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 387~392
Mature ‘Whangkeumbae’ pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) were separately exposed to 10 and 100 μL･L-1 ethylene and 0.1, 0.5 and 1 μL･L-1 1-MCP at 20℃ for 4 hours, then transferred to air at 20℃ and 80% RH for two weeks. There were distinct differences in ripening behavior in pears exposed to ethylene compared to those treated with 1-MCP. Ethylene treatment resulted in a rapid increase in flesh firmness loss and high respiration rate, while 1-MCP at >0.5 μL･L-1 effectively inhibited firmness loss during 14 days of simulated marketing. Following extended storage (14 days at 8℃) and simulated marketing (10 days at 20℃) of fruit exposed to 100 μL･L-1 ethylene or 0.5 μL･L-1 1-MCP, the 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced respiration rate and gave a higher external appearance index than for fruit treated with 100 μL･L-1 ethylene or untreated control. Additionally, ripe fruit following simulated exportation (1℃ and 8℃) for 20 days and marketing (20℃) for 7 days, with or without polyethylene wrapping treatment, exhibited increased internal browning of flesh tissue, particularly in fruit subjected to the lower temperature (1℃) without PE wrapping, but little damage was observed in unripe fruits, especially with PE wrapping. These data suggest the need to establish a clear fruit harvest maturity index and to improve postharvest temperature management of ‘Whangkeumbae’ pear during both export and local marketing.
Quality Maintenance of Oak Mushroom during Modified Atmosphere Storage as Affected by Packaging Materials under Various Temperatures
Cho, Sun-Duk ; Lee, Seung-Koo ; Kim, Gun-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 393~399
Appropriate storage temperature and film material were investigated to extend storability of oak mushroom (Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing.) which has a high respiration rate and continued growth after harvest. Weight loss of the oak mushroom in the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was only 2-8%, whereas oak mushrooms that were stored without film packaging ranged 62-85% indicating that MAP was an effective method for preventing weight loss. No significant differences in weight loss were observed among the film materials used for storage. Gas compositions inside the package changed rapidly during the early stages of storage, and the kinetics of O2 and CO2 within the pouches depended upon the film material and the storage temperature. The CO2 concentration inside the film package increased to 33% in packages stored at 20℃ when polyethylene (PE) and ceramic films were used to seal the package, but only by 27% when ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) film was used. In addition, the hardness of the mushroom continuously decreased with storage time, and ethanol production in the tissue increased as storage time and temperature increased. However, changes in the color and sugar alcohol contents showed little differences among the treatments. The results indicate that oak mushrooms should be stored using a combination of low temperature and EVA film to preserve optimum quality.
Removal Efficiency of Pesticide Residues in Chinese Cabbage Produced in Highland by Washing
Ahn, Soon-Young ; Kim, Ki-Deog ; Lee, Jong-Nam ; Im, Ju-Sung ; Nam, Chun-Woo ; Jung, Jin-Chel ; Lee, Eung-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 400~405
This study was conducted to examine the removal efficiency of 4 pesticides in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.) by different types of washing solution after harvest. To determine the removal efficiency of different washing solutions, samples were stored at 4℃, washed by different washing solutions and analyzed for amount of pesticide residues in Chinese cabbage. Removal efficiency of pesticide by tap water, baking soda (0.2%), charcoal water (20 g･L-1, pH 7.2), vinegar (5%) ranged from 26.5-83.8%, 32.7-93.3%, 40.3-89.7%, and 22.9-85.1%, respectively. The order of average removal efficiency of the pesticides was bifenthrin (82.7%), kresoxim-methyl (79.7%), pyraclofos (44.4%) and metalaxyl (38.2%). The washing efficiency of a pesticide is not correlated with its water solubility.
Browning and Quality Changes of Fresh-cut Iceberg Lettuce by Gas Flushing Packagings
Jung, Joo-Yeoun ; Shin, Se-Hee ; Choi, Jeong-Hee ; Jeong, Moon-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 406~412
This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of gas flushing packaging (CO2:O2=10:5, 25:20 and 50:20) on the quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa) by analyzing gas composition, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, browning index, firmness and sensory evaluation during storage at 5℃ with control (CO2:O2=0:21) packaged with OPP (oriented polypropylene) film. Concentration of carbon dioxide in control was increased by 4.5% than initial day after 10 days of storage, however that of gas flushing packaging (10:5) was slightly increased to 11.3%. PAL, PPO activity and browning index of gas flushing packaging were lower than control and had an effect on preventing browning of iceberg lettuce. Packaging (25:20 and 50:20) showed lower firmness for injures by high concentration of carbon dioxide on 4 days of storage. Control showed the browning of cutting parts from 2 days and reached marketable limit on 4 days. Gas flushing packaging (10:5) reached marketable limit for browning of cutting part and softening of texture on 20 days but led to extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce longer than the control.
Breeding of New Ever-bearing Strawberry 'Goha' for Summer Culture
Lee, Jong-Nam ; Lee, Eung-Ho ; Im, Ju-Sung ; Nam, Chun-Woo ; Yae, Byeong-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 413~416
‘Goha’ is new strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cultivar, which was released by Highland Agriculture Research Center, RDA, in 2007. In 2003, this cultivar was originated from a cross between ‘Elan’ and ‘Flamengo’ and showed excellent ever-bearing characteristics including continuous flowering habit and high yield under high temperature and long-day condition. It was named ‘Saebong No.1’ after examination of the characteristic and productivity in summer culture from 2005 to 2006. Again, after two regional adaptability tests in 2007, the cultivar name, ‘Goha’ was released on this cultivar. The general characteristics of ‘Goha’ include erect type, middle vigor, round leaf, and long cluster in growth. The fruit shape is long conic and fruit color is dark red. ‘Goha’ had high soluble solids contents, activity, and good hardness. Fruit weight of ‘Goha’ is about 10.4g and the marketable yield was relatively high because of low percentage of abnormal fruit bearing. It is resistant against powdery mildew and fusarium wilt. ‘Goha’ is suitable for summer culture use export because it shows continuous flowering habit, high yield, and fruit quality under high temperature and long-day condition.
Inheritance of the Second True Leaf Length in Lettuce
Kim, Zhoo-Hyeon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 417~421
Two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties, ‘Oakleaf’ (P₁) and ‘Baimach’ (P₂), have different leaf lengths: the leaves of ‘Oakleaf’ are short, but those of ‘Baimach’ are very long. ‘Oakleaf’ was crossed with ‘Baimach’ to study the inheritance of leaf length in lettuce; also, F₂ and F₃ generations were made. The leaf length was evaluated on the second true leaf length of individual plants for each generation. The results indicated that the F₁ plants were intermediate between their parents, but close to shorter parent, which indicates that shorter characteristic is partial dominance. Furthemore, the F₂ population segregated in a 3:1 of short and long, showing that the longer leaf length is controlled by a single recessive gene. The results from F₃ families confirmed the F₂ result. The gene is designated ‘leaf length’ and symbolized as ‘lfl’.
Determination of S-genotype of Korean-bred Pear 'Manhwang'
Kang, Sam-Seok ; Kim, Yoon-Kyeong ; Cho, Kwang-Sik ; Son, Dong-Soo ; Jeong, Sang-Bouk ; Choi, Jang-Jeon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 422~426
This study was conducted to determine the genotype of self-incompatibility of ‘Manhwang’ pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Microscopic examination of growing pollen tubes revealed that there were more than 10 pollen grains growing on each stigma in all cross combinations. Pollens of ‘Okusankichi’ on the stigma of ‘Manhwang’ showed low germination with 53.2%, while the other combinations showed relatively high germination rate from 86.4% to 99.7%. Cross-incompatibility between ‘Manhwang’ and ‘Shinsetsu’ was shown. Shinsetsu’s pollen tubes stopped growth 1.3 mm under the stigma of ‘Manhwang’ with malformed pollen tube tips. In degree of pollen tube elongation in terms of passing rate of pollen tubes to the basal part of style, all of the pollen tubes displayed degree 2 or less in ‘Shinsetsu’ combination while the other combinations showed degree 5. Cross-pollinations of ‘Manhwang’ with other cultivars resulted in relatively high rates of fruit set from 54.3% to 82.0%, except pollen from ‘Shinsetsu’ that represents only 3.2% of fruiting rate. Judging from the results of microscopic examination of pollen and fruit set, ‘Manhwang’ appears to be cross-incompatible with ‘Shinsetsu’. As result of PCR-RFLP, it could be identified that the S-allele of ‘Manhwang’ is S5S6, and confirmed that each allele of ‘Manhwang’ was derived from ‘Okusankichi (S₅)’ and ‘Chuwhangbae (S₆)’, respectively.
Genetic Relationship by RAPD Analysis of Korean Wild Radish and Local Cultivars in Radish
Choi, Wo-Jeen ; Lee, Sun-Ae ; Yoo, Su-Mi ; Lee, Soo-Seong ; Kang, Jung-Hoon ; Ko, Ho-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 427~431
Morphological characteristics of 41 entries consisting of 23 local cultivars and 18 wild collections (Gaenmoo) in radish (Raphanus sativus), were observed on the field and the genetic relationships were investigated with the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The root of 12 local cultivars designated ‘Jinju-daepyoung’ and the 5 others except ‘Altari-moo’ was as big as more than 1.3 ㎏ and 72 to 82% in portion of the plant weight. In the case of 6 ‘Altari-moo’, the root was as small as 0.6 ㎏ and 75% in portion of the plant weight. The wild radishes named ‘Gaenmoo’ are very similar in the morphology, even though they were collected from quite different areas. Their roots were as small as around 0.2 ㎏ and less than 50% in portion of the plant weight. Twenty two primers presenting more than 8 polymorphic bands in the test of a local cultivar of the ‘Jinju-daepyoung’ group and a wild accession of the ‘Gaenmoo’ group were selected among 146 operon random primers prior to genetic relationship investigation. They were applied to 41 entries and a dendrogram was figured with the results obtained. Twenty three local cultivars were divided into 3 different groups, the ‘Jinju-daepyoung’ group of 12 entries with the big root, another group of 5 entries with the big root and the ‘Aaltari-moo’ group of 6 small rooted entries. The 18 wild ‘Gaenmoo’ were also divided into 3 groups according to the collected area of Jeju Island, such as southern group of 5 entries, northern group of 6 entries including 3 south-east coast entries and the one-generation-selfed group of 4 entries originating from 2 plants of 2 collections in the southern part of Jeju Island. The small rooted local cultivar ‘Aaltari-moo’ was much more similar to the wild ‘Ggaetmoo’ radish rather than the big rooted local cultivar in the genetic relationship. In conclusion, 41 entries were divided into 2 main groups according to the plant weight and the size of the root.
Influential Factors for Identifying Levels of Resistance and in vitro Screening System against Gray Mold in Grapevines
Jung, Sung-Min ; Yun, Hae-Keun ; Ma, Kyeong-Bok ; Song, Gi-Cheol ; Park, Seo-Jun ; Kim, Jung-Bae ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 432~439
The optimal screening condition for evaluating resistance against inoculation of gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) was investigated on 8 different grapevines (Vitis spp.) varieties such as ‘Thompson Seedless’, ‘Reliance’, ‘New York Muscat’, ‘Alden’, ‘Golden Muscat’, ‘Sheridan’, ‘Concord’, and ‘Niagara’. The efficient screening system including inoculation method (spore suspension application and agar block inoculation), temperature (15, 20, and 25℃), and nutrient sources was developed and compared with the results obtained from other previous researches. As results, the factors temperature (20℃) and leaf age were included in the best model. Moreover, inoculating unwounded grapevine leaf of middle stage with spore suspension (10⁶ spores･mL-1), prepared with 24 ㎎･mL-1 of potato dextrose broth (PDB), showed clear differences among various grape varieties. After inoculation the vines maintained in saturated humidity at 20℃ showed different levels of resistance to gray mold among various grape cultivars. This screening system may be very useful for the precise evaluation of the resistance to gray mold by pathogen inoculation in the grape breeding programs.
Classification of Welsh Onion Cultivars by RAPD
Woo, Seo ; Nou, Ill-Sup ; Yang, Seung-Yul ; Eun, Moo-Young ; Cha, Young-Soon ; Yun, Doh-Won ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 440~444
RAPD analysis was used to determine the genetic relationship of 24 welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) accessions. Fourteen random primers were tested and two primers which showed polymorphism were selected. The amplified fragments ranged from 0.10 to 2.00 kb in size. The total number of polymorphic bands scored was 54 (19%). From cluster analysis, 24 accessions were separated into three major groups: Nineteen out of 24 accessions that belonged to ‘Seol Poong’ groups were divided into four subgroups. Also three out of 24 accessions that belonged to ‘Kincho’ groups were divided into two subgroups. And two out of 24 accessions that belonged to ‘Kincho 3go’ groups were divided into two cultivars.
Breeding of Rose 'Gippeumi' with Orange-Red Flower through Gamma Irradiation
Koh, Gab-Cheon ; Ahn, Kyu-Bin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 445~448
A new rose (Rosa hybrida Hort.) ‘Gippeumi’ was developed by a mutation breeding through gamma irradiation. The rooted cuttings of a rose ‘Kardinal’ were irradiated with 70 Gy of gamma-rays from 60Co source in 2002. The irradiated plants were planted at field in 2002, and tested for the appearance of petal color mutants from 2002 to 2003. A branch with an orange-red (Red group, 43A～43B) flower was induced from a ‘Kardinal’ plant with the red (Red group, 44A, 45B) flower in 2003. To induce a stable mutant, the plant with a solid mutant branch was transplanted and tested in greenhouse from 2004 to 2005. The stable mutant was propagated by cutting at 2006, and cultured from 2006 to 2008. It was named ‘Gippeumi’ in 2008 because its bright orange-red is different from the red of ‘Kardinal’. ‘Gippeumi’ shows a standard flower with beautiful shape. It has 11.7 ㎝ wide flowers, 38 petals per flower, more or less strong fragrance, and vase life of about 7.5 days. It has 65.7 ㎝ long stem and 10.0 ㎝ long peduncle close to its original cultivar, Kardinal.
Development of an Effective Inoculation Method for Large Quantaties of Clubroot Disease using Hydroponics in Chinese Cabbage
Park, Su-Hyoung ; Kwak, Jung-Ho ; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 449~453
The Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.) is one of the major vegetables in Korea that has been traditionally used as main ingredients of ‘Kimchi’. The cultivation system and varieties of Chinese cabbage have been so well developed that year-round culture using bare land is possible in Korea. However, the soil-born clubroot restricts cultivation of Chinese cabbage in the whole country. It caused root swelling and severe leaf wilting which reducing production of Chinese cabbage in Korea. To develop resistant varieties, breeders have to inoculate clubroot in their numerous breeding lines. However, current inoculation method demands much labor and time for investigation and sterilization. In order to solve the problems, we tried to develop a new method of soil-less inoculation method of clubroot using plug tray, urethane sponge as matrix and nutrient solution as media. Using this method, we successfully induced a typical symptom of clubroot after 8 weeks of hydroponic culture. The Russian accession showed less than 45% of resistance ratio and 3 collected varieties showed resistance ratio over 61%. We successfully induced the clubroot symptoms while reducing the amount of inoculums and labor required for the investigation and sterilization. This system can be used in clubroot resistant breeding program by screening numerous off-springs and germplasms of Brassica plants.
Selection and Physiological Characterization of Glyphosate-tolerant Zoysiagrass Mutants Derived from a Gamma Ray Irradiation
Lee, Hye-Jung ; Lee, Geung-Joo ; Kim, Dong-Sub ; Kim, Jin-Beak ; Ku, Ja-Hyeong ; Kang, Si-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 454~463
This study was conducted to determine the successful in vitro and in vivo conditions for a mutant induction of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), and to observe the physiological responses of the selected mutants resistant to a glyphosate herbicide. A mutation induction under in vitro conditions was found to be achievable when combined with the gamma ray in zoysiagrass (2 ㎎･L-1 2,4-D and 0.1 to 0.5 ㎎･L-1 BA with 50-70 Gy of a gamma ray). The electrolyte leakage (EL), malondealdehyde (MDA) and proline contents increased, while phyto pigments decreased with increasing glyphosate concentration, especially with 0.5-1.0% glyphosate level from 7 days after treatment. After the leaf blade of 100 M2 plants derived from a gamma ray treatment (300 Gy) was sprayed, three resistant and susceptible plants were selected and used to compare the physiological responses to a 0.5% glyphosate treatment. The EL was increased more in the susceptible plants than in the resistant mutants, while the MDA content was not evident statistically. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased in all the treated materials, with less reduction in the susceptible lines. The activity of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) was about 1.5-fold higher in the resistant mutants, allowing them resistance to glyphosate blocking the synthesis of aromatic amino acids. In those selected resistant mutants, more extended days of green leaves were observed after the glyphosate treatment, which allows economic and environmental savings and provides with more flexible management options.
Survey and Application of DNA Makers Linked to TSWV Resistance
Kim, Hyoun-Joung ; Yang, Hee-Bum ; Chung, Bong-Nam ; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 464~470
The incidence of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in pepper was recently reported and TSWV has been rapidly spreading in Korea. However, TSWV-resistant pepper cultivars have not been developed in Korea so far. To develop resistant cultivars, establishment of a reliable resistance screening method is most critical. Mechanical inoculation of TSWV is known to be very inefficient due to many escapes. Hence, deployment of molecular markers linked to the TSWV resistance gene (Tsw) will greatly improve efficiency of TSWV- resistant cultivar breeding. In order to deploy TSWV resistance-linked markers in a paprika breeding program, we applied previously developed molecular markers, which include five random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and one cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers, on six resistant and 11 susceptible paprika cultivars along with original TSWV-resistant materials, Capsicum chinense PI152225 and PI159236. In addition, several other markers close to the resistance locus (Tsw) were selected by a map comparison and applied on the same materials. Except for the CAPS marker SCAC568, no markers showed consistent polymorphisms between resistant and susceptible pepper materials. SCAC568 produced polymorphisms between three resistant cultivars of Zeraim and all susceptible cultivars. When the SCAC568 marker was applied on a BCF₁ population of 92 individuals, genotypes of SCAC568 were cosegregated with phenotypes in 90 individuals out of 92. These results demonstrate that SCAC568 can be deployed in pepper breeding programs in combination with TSWV-resistant cultivars from Zeraim.
Establishment of Primary and Sub-culture Conditions of Ardisia pusilla and Ardisia japonica in vitro
Goo, Dae-Hoe ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 471~475
Explants of Ardisia pusilla A. DC. and Ardisia japonica (Thunb.) Blume were established in vitro from greenhouse grown plants for primary cultures. The primary cultures tested lateral buds, shoot tips, and rhizomes as sources for micropropagation materials in combination with various concentrations of benzyl adenine (BA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). In A. pusilla, lateral buds were the best primary culture source and 58.5% of the explants produced shoots in 17.4 days. Shoot tips produced shoots in 30 days from 6% of explants. The results for A. japonica were similar to A. pusilla for primary culture; 27.4 days and 15.5%, respectively, for shoot formation from the lateral buds and 42 days and 12% from the shoot tip explants. Due to bacterial contamination, explants from rhizomes in both species failed to regenerate. Only one shoot in both species was produced from the primary cultures. In multiplication subcultures, BA at 0 to 5.0 ㎎ L-1 in combination with IAA at 0.1 to 5.0 ㎎ L-1 was tested. Effective concentrations for A. japonica were 1.0 ㎎ L-1 BA and 0.1 ㎎ L-1 IAA to yield 17.2 days for shoot formation, 100% sprouting, and 4.8 shoots. Effective concentrations for A. pusilla for shoot formation were 0.5 ㎎ L-1 BA and 0.5 ㎎ L-1 IAA to yield 61.9% sprouting in 17.8 days, forming only one shoot produced. A. pusilla explants required at least two nodes for multiplication during subculture.
GC/MS Analyses of Volatile Constituents from Native Schizandra chinensis
Lim, Soon-Sung ; Lee, Yeon-Sil ; Han, Saem ; Chung, Kyu-Hwan ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Shin, Kuk-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 476~483
To search for the new development of industrial application, chemical analysis of volatile constituents from native Schizandra chinensis was conducted by GC and GC/MS spectrometric analyses. The chemical composition of the volatile constituents from S. chinensis was confirmed by the aid of Wiley/NBS Library and RI indice searches. The major constituents were α-pinene (7.46%), β-pinene (30.66%), 1,8-cineole (4.81%), and 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexene-1-ol (7.90%) from the stems, and camphene (10.05%), β-pinene (17.67%), sabinene (4.02%), l-limonene (4.04%), 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)benzene (4.97%), linalyl acetate (7.86%), and linalool oxide (4.84%) from the roots. Among them, β-pinene is a major constituent in the stems and roots of native S. chinensis that presented possibilities for industrial applications.
Incidence of Phytophthora Rot Caused by Phytophthora capsici Leon. in Squash Field and Cultivar Resistance
Chang, Seog-Won ; Kim, Hee-Dong ; Yi, Eun-Seob ; Rho, Yong-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 484~489
Survey on incidence of Phytophthora rot and utilization of cultivar resistance to Phytophthora capsici Leon. could provide the basis for viable management strategy against the disease, a serious threat in squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) production. Our objectives were to survey the Phytophthora rot of squash caused by P. capsici in field and to evaluate squash cultivars or lines against the pathogen under a controlled condition. In Gyeonggi province, Phytophthora rot began to occur about 70 days after transplanting and continuously increased until harvest., It was more severe in creeping stem training method than upright one. Disease severity increased with planting density of squash plants. Fruit setting position significantly affected disease severity that lower fruits were severely infected than upper fruits. There were significant differences in virulence among isolates P. capsici, although they were quantitative. Disease index showed significant differences among squash cultivars or lines in their responses to P. capsici. Further studies under natural field conditions are required for further understanding of the interactions between P. capsici and squash cultivars.
Effect of Selenized Garlic as Dietary Selenium Sources for Broiler
Yun, Hyung-Kwon ; Seo, Tae-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 490~494
This study was to determine the selenium (Se) availability from selenized garlic to broiler. Selenized garlic was produced (38.2 ㎎ Se ㎏-1). Conventional and selenized garlic was dried and ground to be used as supplements in broiler diets depending on the dietary treatments. One hundred twenty broiler chickens at d 1 of age were allotted to five dietary treatments: NG (garlic); GS (selenized garlic 0.5, 2.5, 5 ㎎ Se ㎏-1 added Se) and PC (garlic + methylselenocysteine 0.5 ㎎ Se ㎏-1 added Se) with 6 replicates per treatment and 4 birds per cage. Birds were fed the experimental diets for 3 weeks and slaughtered to obtain tissues included liver, white meat and dark meat. Bird weight gain and feed intake were measured weekly. Total liver Se content of the GS 2.5 ㎎ Se ㎏-1 (2.676 ㎎ Se ㎏-1) was the highest (P＜0.05). The GS 0.5 (1.013 ㎎ Se ㎏-1) and 5.0 (0.797 ㎎ Se ㎏-1) had higher (P＜0.05) total liver Se than the NC (0.215 ㎎ Se ㎏-1) and PC (0.214 ㎎ Se ㎏-1). The bird weight of the PC (575.4 g) was higher (P<0.05) than the GS 5.0 (521.3 g). This study indicates that the Se from selenized garlic is highly bio-available and safe.
Physiological Activity of Methanol Extracts from Korean Kiwifruits
Park, Yong-Seo ; Kim, Byoung-Woon ; Kim, Tae-Choon ; Jang, Hong-Gi ; Chon, Sang-Uk ; Cho, Ja-Yong ; Jang, Shen-Hua ; Heo, Buk-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 495~500
This study was conducted to determine the physiological activities of methanol extracts from the fruit skin and flesh of Korean kiwifruit cultivars ‘Bidan’, ‘Daeheung’, ‘Jecygold’ and ‘Hayward’ which were harvested and stored at 2℃ for 30days. At the extract concentration of 2,000 ㎎･L-1, total phenol content was the highest in fruit skin and flesh of cv. ‘Daeheung’ by 37.6 and 17.3 ㎎･L-1, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity in 1,000 ㎎･L-1 were very high in the fruit skin of kiwifruit cv. ‘Daeheung’ by 89.0% and in the flesh of cv. ‘Bidan’ by 22.3%. Total flavonoid content in the fruit skin of cv. ‘Daeheung’ at 2,000 ㎎･L-1 was 17.1 ㎎･L-1 and in the flesh of cv. ‘Bidan’ 9.0 ㎎･L-1. Nitrite scavenging activity in 1,000 ㎎･L-1 showed the highest value in the fruit skin of kiwifruit cv. ‘Daeheung’ by 80.9%, and followed by the flesh of cv. ‘Jecygold’ by 78.3%. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity in 1,000 ㎎･L-1 were highest in the flesh of kiwi fruit cv. ‘Jecygold’ by 14.4%. These results indicate that Korean kiwifruits have a high nitrite radical scavenging activity, though the physiological activity of kiwifruits was affected by variety and regional parts.
Analysis of Volatile Compounds According to the Flowering Stages of Rose Using Gas-chromatography Mass Spctrometry
Lee, Young-Soon ; Kim, Soon-Jae ; Kim, Kwang-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 4, 2008, Pages 501~507
This experiment was conducted to find the optimum time for the extraction of volatile compounds in Rosa hybrid. Qualitative and qualitative variation of volatile compounds according to flowering stages was determined by using gas-chromatography mass spctrometry (GC/MS). The eleven volatile compounds were detected in flowers of R. hybrida ‘Orange Flash’, and a major compound was 3,5-dimethoxytoluene. The percentage of volatile compound in flowering stage IV accounted for 77% (3,5-dimethoxytoluene), 7.4% [2,6,10,10-tetramethyl-1-oxa-spiro(4.5)dec-6-ene], 7.1% (dihydro-ß-ionol) and 1.9% (1-hexanol). The thirty volatile compounds were detected in flower of R. hybrida ‘Blue Moon’, and the major compounds were geraniol, nerol and ß-citronellol. The percentage of volatile compounds in flowering stage IV accounted for 30.1% (geraniol), 17.0% (nerol), 9.9% (ß-citronellol) and 7.2% (germacrene-D). The contents of volatile compounds differed from the flowering stages of R. hybrida, which were the greatest in flowering stage IV. As a result, the flowering stage IV of R. hybrida was recommended as the optimum time to extract volatile compounds for industry.