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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Horticultural Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
Selecting the target year
Effect of Watering Control on Growth and Bulb Size of Plug Seedling in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Set Production
Lee, Eun-Ju ; Suh, Jun-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 167~173
This study was conducted to determine the most effective method of onion set production by increasing the ratio of properly sized onion set through watering control such as amount and interval of irrigation water. Two treatments in amount of irrigation water in 200-cell tray culture were leaching and non-leaching. Irrigation times were adjusted differently in tray culture and bed culture. The treatments in irrigation times were twice per day, once per day and once per two days in tray culture; and once per day, once per two days and once per four days in bed culture for those that were bench grown. In the method of watering control, once per day with leaching in both bench and bed were more effective. Production rate of small sized bulb (under 1.5 g) was higher in bench growing with non-leaching and once per two days with leaching, whereas 1.5~7.5 g were over 90 percent in twice and once per day with leaching. In bed growing, once per day with leaching and non-leaching produced big sized onion set over 7.5 g, and once per four days produced small sized onion set (under 1.5 g). From the above study, once per day with leaching in bench to increase the production rate of properly sized onion set is recommended.
Changes of Soil, Growth, and Fruit Quality by Soil Surface Management under Tree in Sod Culture of Apple Orchard
Choi, Dong-Geun ; Seo, Byung-Sun ; Kang, In-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 174~180
The effect of soil surface management under tree in sod culture on soil and weeds, and on apple (Malus domestica) tree growth, fruit quality, and yield was studied in 2006 and 2007 at the experimental orchard at Jangsu in Jeollabuk-do. The experimental orchard was established with the apple 'Fuji' on the rootstock M9. After planting, the following systems of soil surface management under tree in sod culture were employed: (i) sod management, (ii) shading screen mulching, (iii) non-woven fabric mulching, and (iv) clean management. The soil surface temperature in clean management was higher than in sod and mulching management during the growing season. Just after rainfall the water content of soil surface was similar in all treatments as 37.8-39.2% but 15 days after rainfall, the soil water content in sod and clean management (19.1-19.8%) was lower than in mulching treatments (23.7-24.6%). There were no significant effects on soil pH, exchangeable cations (K, Ca, Mg), and organic substances by treatments. The weed population and dry weight were significantly increased in sod management but decreased in mulching management at 3 months after treatments. The average shoot growth was recorded 16.6 cm in sod management, 18.1 cm in non-fabric mulching, 19.7 cm in shading screen mulching and 20.1 cm in clean management. The terminal bud in sod management was smaller than mulching and clean management. There was a higher hunter a value of fruit in sod management (26.8) and the lowest values were recorded in shading screen mulching (21.5). The highest percentile of over 375 g fruits was recorded in clean management (71%), and followed by shading screen mulching (70%), non-woven fabric mulching (64%), in sod management (56%).
Effects of Soil Environmental Condition on Occurrence of Allium White Rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) in Welsh Onion
Kim, Yong-Bum ; Choi, In-Hu ; Kim, Cheol-Woo ; Bang, Jin-Ki ; Kim, Yong-Gi ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 181~186
This study was conducted to establish the effective strategy to control white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) of welsh onion in the main cultivation region at the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula, from 2003 to 2005. White rot was affected by environment factors such as temperature and relative humidity. White rot pathogen germinated and grew from the end of August in the low soil temperature (20
) and at average temperature of 25
to the middle of September dropping the soil temperature below 20
. Generation of white rot in welsh onion fields increasing infection area began from the late of October and widely spread from the early September to the early May of the following year. White rot in welsh onion fields increasing infection area began from the late October and widely spread from the early September to the early May in the following year. The Imjado with sandy soil area occurred in white rot before December, but other regions were not infected throughout the whole cultivation period. On the correlation of water content with disease infection, either rain or irrigation with sprinkler to welsh onion fields of dry condition was not effective, but in the rice fields the correlation were nearly not affected. Infected plants were short plant height caused by dried leaves, and 47% of the roots in the root stem were dead. After harvesting, the sclerotia of white rot pathogen was remained at 86% within 20 cm depth from the host plants of soil in infected plants and at 97% within 10 cm from vertical directions. Infected plants with the sclerotia to put in welsh onion farm that infected at 100% in sandy soil; the others were 80% in loam soil. However, the infected rate decreased to 57.6~78.7% in the following year. The high infected rate was caused by the remaining of the onion waste in the field after harvesting.
Light Quality Affects Growth, Net Photosynthetic Rate, and Ethylene Production of Ageratum, African Marigold, and Salvia Seedlings
Heo, Jeong-Wook ; Lee, Yong-Beom ; Lee, Deog-Bae ; Chun, Chang-Hoo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 187~193
The effect of white fluorescent, blue, red, and blue plus red mixture light at a 90
light intensity on growth, net photosynthetic rate (NPR), and ethylene production in Ageratum houstonianum 'Blue Field', Tagetes erecta 'Orange Boy', and Salvia splendens 'Red Vista' plug seedlings was investigated for 14 days. Higher leaf area and NPR of ageratum seedlings were achieved by mixture radiation of blue and red as compared to monochromic blue or red, whereas ethylene production was not affected by different light qualities. Ageratum and salvia seedlings under blue or red light showed the greatest plant height. Photosynthesis of marigold and salvia seedlings was stimulated by all light qualities except for monochromic blue light. Red or mixture light quality was the most effective in the promotion of ethylene production of marigold and salvia, and inhibitory response was shown under blue light. It was found that growth, photosynthesis, and ethylene production in ageratum, marigold, and salvia plug seedlings depended upon different light qualities for the experimental period.
Change of Photosynthesis and Cellular Tissue under High CO
Concentration and High Temperature in Radish
Lee, Sang-Gyu ; Moon, Ji-Hye ; Jang, Yoon-Ah ; Kim, Seung-Yu ; Ko, Kwan-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 194~198
This experiment was carried out to figure out the changes of photosynthesis and cellular tissue of radish grown under the condition of high temperature and high CO
concentration to provide the information regarding the coming climatic change. Radish was cultivated in spring season under 4 treatments, 'ambient temp. + ambient CO
conc. (control)', 'ambient temp. + elevated CO
conc. (elevated CO
)', 'elevated temp. + ambient CO
conc. (elevated temp.)', 'elevated temp. + elevated CO
conc. (elevated temp.+CO
)'. The elevated temperature plot was maintained at 4
higher than atmospheric air temperature, and the elevated CO
concentration plot was maintained at 650 mg.L
. The fresh weight of root, photosynthesis ability and starch contents were increased at the 'elevated CO
' treatment. Also, the cellular tissue was tight and close at 'elevated CO
' treatment. However, elevated temperature conditions worsened results in growth, photosynthesis ability, and starch content.
Effect of Leaf Number and Rooting Media on Adventitious Rooting of Softwood Cuttings in Native Hydrangea serrata for. acuminata
Lee, Seung-Youn ; Yoon, Na-Hee ; Gu, Jin-Hee ; Jeong, Sun-Jin ; Kim, Kwang-Jin ; Rhee, Jung-Chul ; Lee, Taek-Joo ; Lee, Jeong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 199~204
An adventitious rooting of softwood cuttings was evaluated according to leaf number and rooting media in Native Hydrangea serrata for. acuminate. The shoots were carried to the lab in polyethylene bags and were cut to create cuttings of approximately 10 cm length. Softwood cuttings were prepared with 0, 1, 1/2+1/2 or 2 leaves and were planted in four different rooting media of S1 (vermiculite), S2 (coir dust : perlite = 1:1, v/v), S3 (coir dust : vermiculite = 1:1, v/v), and S4 (peat moss : perlite : vermiculite = 1:1:1, v/v/v), respectively. In scope of observations, rooting percentage, survival rate, bud-burst, and growth of root were determined. The more leaves attached to the cuttings resulted in the higher rooting and survival rate, resulting in the highest rooting (93.3%) in cuttings with 2 leaves. At six weeks after cuttings, rooting and survival rate had a positive correlation with leaf number (R
= 0.90 and 0.96, respectively). Leafy stem cuttings increased growth of root, while bud-burst was delayed. In rooting media, stem cuttings grown at S4 was found to be the best rooting percentage (96.7%) among four types of rooting media. Rooting media such as S3 and S4 contributed to the increase in root length, number, fresh wt., and dry wt., while rooting media such as S1 and S2 resulted in poor root growth.
Seasonal Changes of Dry Matter Productivity and Photosynthesis in Gerbera hybrida
Nam, Hyo-Hoon ; Woo, Jin-Ha ; Lee, Hyun-Suk ; Kim, Kil-Ung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 205~210
This study was conducted to study the seasonal changes of dry matter productivity and photosynthesis ability of Gerbera hybrida cv. Cosmo in greenhouse cultivation. For growth analysis, dry weight and leaf area were measured every month during growing period (Apr. 2006~Mar. 2007). Photosynthesis rates in accordance with light intensity, CO
and leaf characteristics were measured by LI-6400 and seasonal changes were also checked. The maximum RGR (relative growth rate) and NAR (net assimilation rate) were observed at early growth stage. Among the growth analysis characters, NAR of individual plant and LAI (leaf area index) of canopy were the main factors in plant productivity and it could be assumed that CGR (crop growth rate) was the maximum at 3.42 g.m
when LAI was 2.09. Light saturation and compensation points were 804 and 32
, respectively. Intercellular CO
concentration and photosynthesis were positively correlated and regressed as binomial. Maximum photosynthesis rate would be achieved at 784
of intercellular CO
concentration. Photosynthesis rates were increased until 4 months after transplanting and then decreased during winter season. Leaf area/leaf dry weight ratio and vapor pressure deficit in leaf were positively correlated with photosynthesis.
Effect of Different Rootstocks on Wilting Occurrence, Plant Growth, and Fruit Quality of Melon
Lee, Joo-Hyun ; Kwon, Joon-Kook ; Park, Kyoung-Sub ; Huh, Yun-Chan ; Lim, Chai-Il ; Park, Dong-Kum ; Ko, Kwan-Dal ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 211~217
Key growing characteristics of melon cultivars, 'Homerunstar' and 'Earl's elite' were investigated after they were grafted onto Cucurbita rootstocks 'Gangguntozwa', 'Shintozwa', 'Teuktozwa', 'Joinus', 'Rainbow', 'Ace', and 'Elite'. Significantly different results were obtained in wilting incidence, plant growth, fruit quality and fruit yield depending on various rootstocks. No wilting symptom was observed when cultivar 'Homerunstar' was grafted onto 'Gangguntozwa', 'Teuktozwa' and 'Ace' rootstocks, whereas the symptom occurrence was 83, 55, 22, and 16%, respectively, when grafted onto 'Rainbow', 'Elite', 'Joinus', and 'Shintozwa'. Occurrence of wilting symptom was 100% when the cultivar was grown without grafting. The occurrence of wilting symptom in cultivar 'Earl's elite' was 6% when it was grafted onto 'Elite' and 'Joinus' rootstocks, whereas it was 72% when the cultivar was grafted onto 'Rainbow' rootstocks. The highest soluble-solid content (
Brix) was observed when cultivar 'Earl's elite' was grafted onto 'Ace' or 'Joinus'. When the cultivar 'Homerunstar' was grown without grafting, the soluble-solid content was 1
Brix higher than that of grafted one; however, a higher ratio of sucrose to glucose+fructose (S/G+F) was observed in the fruit. Total fruit yield was higher when the two cultivars were grafted onto 'Gangguntozwa', 'Shintozwa', 'Teuktozwa', and 'Ace' rootstocks than those of non-grafted ones. These results suggest that the best rootstock for cultivar 'Homerunstar' is 'Teuktozwa' and for cultivar 'Earl's elite' is 'Ace'.
Effect of Girdling Dates on Dry Matter Increase and Reserve Accumulations in Permanent Parts of 'Nishimurawase' Persimmon Trees
Choi, Seong-Tae ; Song, Won-Doo ; Park, Doo-Sang ; Kang, Seong-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 218~225
This study was to evaluate the effects of girdling dates on dry matter (DW) increase and nutrient accumulations in permanent parts of 4- to 5-year-old 'Nishimurawase' persimmon (Diospyros kaki). Trees, grown in 70-L containers, were trunk-girdled to a 3 mm width on June 3, Aug. 3, and Sept. 3 in 2004 and 2005. The same girdling treatments were imposed to the same trees for two consecutive years. The trees were excavated on Oct. 28, 2004 and Nov. 17, 2005 for analysis. Calli were formed in more than 80% of the girdles in 30 to 45 days after the girdling; the wound healing was the slowest and visualized as incomplete in the Sept. 3-girdled trees. The girdling reduced the increase in DW more of the root than of the aerial woods; root DW decreased to 59% and 64% in 2004 and 74% and 56% of the control in 2005 by a June 3 and Sept. 3 girdling, respectively. Regardless of the dates, the girdling tended to reduce DW, carbohydrates, and inorganic elements of the roots, especially of the fine roots. The amount of root starch in June 3- and Sept. 3-girdled trees was 56% and 57% of the control in 2004, respectavely. In 2005, root soluble sugars and starch reduced mostly in Sept. 3-girdled trees to 52% and 46% of the control, respectively. Contents of root N, P, K, and Mg were the least in June 3-girdled trees in 2004 and in Sept. 3-girdled trees in 2005. There were no significant differences of inorganic elements in aerial woods in 2004, but P, K, and Mg contents were clearly reduced in Sept. 3-girdled trees in 2005. The consequences of the slow healing from a late girdling are discussed with regard to the susceptibility to winter injury, nutrient absorption, and tree growth.
Characterization of Symptom and Determination of Tissue Critical Concentration for Diagnostic Criteria in 'Maehyang' Strawberry as Influenced by Potassium Concentration in the Fertigation Solution
Choi, Jong-Myung ; Jeong, Suck-Kee ; Yoon, Moo-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 226~232
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of potassium concentration in fertilizer solution on growth and nutrient uptake by 'Maehyang' strawberry (Fragaria
ananassa Duch.). Tissue analysis based on dry weight and petiole sap was also conducted to determine the threshold concentrations in plants when potassium deficiency developed. Plant growths were not affected seriously in K deficient plants. Purple areas developed on the veins near the petiole of mature leaves. The purple areas rapidly became brown. Marginal chlorosis, marginal scorch and petiole necrosis occurred in K deficient plants. The dry weight and tissue K contents of above ground plant tissue at 120 days after transplanting increased as K concentration in fertilizer solution was elevated within concentration range from 0 to 6.0 mM and 0 to 8 mM, respectively. The trends in dry weight and tissue K contents were quadratic. The changes of fresh weight and K concentrations in petiole sap responded to elevated K concentrations in fertilizer solutions were quadratic responses with the equations of y=20.06+5.714x-0.4493x
) and y=66.52+229.97x-18.892x
), respectively. When the concentration of K at which growth of a plant is retarded by 10% is regarded as threshold concentration level, the potassium contents based on dry weight or petiole sap should be in the range between 1.9 to 2.8% and 480 to 720 mg.kg
Effect of Irrigation Amount in Rockwool and Cocopeat Substrates on Growth and Fruiting of Sweet Pepper During Fruiting Period
An, Chul-Geon ; Hwang, Yeon-Hyeon ; Shon, Gil-Man ; Lim, Chae-Shin ; Cho, Jeoung-Lai ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 233~238
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of irrigation amount in rockwool (Dry master, Grodan Co.) and cocopeat (chip : dust = 50 : 50 included fiber) substrates on growth and fruiting of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. 'Cupra') during fruiting period. The irrigation amount during fruiting period (4 weeks after rooting) was managed by 150-75 mL/plant/time in rockwool and cocopeat slabs. The lesser irrigation amount during fruiting period resulted in lower water content in both slabs. Water content in slab remained higher at cocopeat than at rockwool. Sixty five percent water content in the slab was maintained by 112 mL/plant/time irrigation in cocopeat and 150 mL/plant/time irrigation in rockwool. The lesser irrigation amount during fruiting period caused the higher EC in root zone. EC change in the slab was dependent on the amount of irrigation. The EC change in slabs was more stable at cocopeat with 3.0-5.0 ds/m than in rockwool with 3.0-8.0 ds/m. The growth and fruit size were better and bigger at cocopeat slab than at rockwool. Lower irrigation amount in both slabs during fruiting period reduced the plant growth, fruit size, pericarp thickness and fruit weight but increased the soluble solid contents of fruits. The less irrigation amount during fruiting period appeared to reduce fruit set at rockwool but to increase fruit set at cocopeat. The fruit productivity of cocopeat slab was higher at 75-112 mL/plant/time irrigation amount than at 150 mL/plant/time.
Modeling Approaches for Estimating Cardinal Temperatures by Bilinear, Parabolic, and Beta Distribution Functions
Cho, Young-Yeol ; Oh, Myung-Min ; Son, Jung-Eek ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 239~243
Estimation of the cardinal temperatures – the base, optimum and maximum temperatures – is indispensable because plant growth and development are affected by temperature. Although several models including linear and nonlinear functions are available to estimate the temperatures, a model suitable to the specific crop should be selected. The objectives of this study were to analyzed the estimated the cardinal temperatures for germination of spinach (Spinachia oleracea cv. Gwibin) by bilinear, parabolic and beta distribution models and to find a model reflecting the plant response to temperature adequately. Seeds of spinach were germinated in a growth chamber at constant temperatures of 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, and 36
. Radicle emergence of 1 mm was scored as germination. The time course of germination was fitted using a logistic function. The base, optimum, and maximum temperatures were estimated by regression of the inverse time to 50% germination rate against temperature gradient. We obtained the base, optimum and maximum temperatures of -4.0, 17.1 and 33.2
in bilinear function; -0.9, 15.8 and 32.5
in parabolic function; and -2.6, 16.6 and 32.6
in beta distribution function, respectively. Among the three functions, a beta distribution function had a good agreement with the plant response to temperature showing the highest R
(coefficient of determination) and the lowest RMSE.
Different Susceptibility of Sweet and Hot Pepper Fruits (Capsicum Annum L.) to Surface Pitting during Storage
Lim, Chae-Shin ; Cho, Jeoung-Lai ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 244~249
The study was conducted to compare susceptibility of pepper fruits to chilling injury during storage. Sweet 'Cupra' and hot 'Nockgwang' pepper harvested at the mature-green stage were stored at 1, 5 and 10
. After a 14-day storage, both cultivars showed surface pitting (SP) symptoms at 1 and 5
but not at 10
. Storing fruits at lower temperature caused a marked increase in SP of both cultivars, but more in 'Nockgwang' than in 'Cupra'. 'Cupra' exhibited lower respiration and produced higher ethylene than 'Nockgwang' during storage regardless of temperatures. Lower temperature induced higher weight loss (WL) and firmness loss (FL) in both cultivars. Compared with 'Cupra', about 4-fold higher WL occurred in 'Nockgwang' after a 21-day storage regardless of temperature. During storage, electrolyte leakage (EL) of both cultivars increased at 1 and 5
, whereas it increased relatively little at 10
. The SP development at 1 and 5
appeared to be associated with higher WL, FL, and EL.
Washing Efficiency of Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Microbial Reduction and Quality of 'Fuji' Apples
Nimitkeatkai, Hataitip ; Kim, Ji-Gang ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 250~255
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of electrolyzed water (EW) on quality and reducing microbial population in washed apples. Apples (Malus
domestica cv. Fuji) were washed separately in strong acidic (pH 2.8) EW and weak acidic (pH 6.5) EW, each containing 50
free chlorine for 2 and 5 min, and in 50
chlorinated water and tap water for 5 min. Samples were individually packaged in 50
m polypropylene film and stored at 10
for up to 35 days. Washing in strong acidic EW for 5 min was effective in reducing microbial population. However, apples washed in the EW for 5 min had less hue angle value throughout storage period and lower sensory evaluation score at the end of storage. Strong acidic (2 min dipping) and weak acidic (either 2 or 5 min dipping) EW was as effective as chlorine in reducing microbial growth of apples. No significant differences in color, soluble solid content, pH, and sensorial quality occurred among tap water, chlorine, and weak acidic EW. The results indicated that weak acidic EW could be an alternative sanitizer for washing apples.
Effect of Heat Treatment and Dipping Solution Combination on the Quality of Peeled Potato 'Jopung'
Kim, Ji-Gang ; Choi, Sun-Tay ; Pae, Do-Ham ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 256~262
Vacuum packaging induces high CO
and low O
levels to control browning of peeled potato (Solanum tuberosum). However, the presence of high CO
and low O
concentration may develop off-odor. A method that reduces browning and off-odor development was investigated in this study. Stored potatoes 'Jopung' at 5
were heat treated (24 h at 30
, 3 h at 45
, or non-heated), peeled, and immersed in either tap water or additive solution (with 300 mg.L
citric acid and 100 mg.L
sodium chloride) for 3 h. Samples were then vacuum-packaged with 80
m Ny/PE film and stored at 10
for up to 5 days. No difference was found in gas composition, off-odor, and sensorial evaluation in heat treated samples between tap water and additive solution treatments. Mild heat treatment (24 h at 30
) regardless of additive treatment was effective in reducing CO
concentrations and off-odor development in the packaged samples throughout the storage period. The heat treatment also delayed browning of peeled potatoes and maintained the highest overall quality score in sensory test. Results indicated that mild heat treatment at 30
before peeling can be a practical method to delay browning and off-odor development of 'Jopung' potato.
Effect of Holding Solutions on Vase Life and Sugar Content during Flower Senescence of Cut Lilium Oriental Hybrid 'Casa Blanca'
Hwang, Sun-Ae ; Lee, Poong-Ok ; Lee, Jong-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 263~268
To investigate the effects of floral preservatives on vase life and sugar content during flower senescence of cut lilies, Lilium Oriental hybrid 'Casa Blanca' flowers were treated with various chemical holding solutions. The holding solution containing 3% sucrose + 200 mg.L
HQC + 50 mg.L
+ 25 mg.L
or 50% soda pop (cider) + 50% tap water + 40 mg.L
NaOCl + 25 mg.L
significantly increased vase life, fresh weight, flower diameter of cut flowers as compared with the control (distilled water). These treatments maintained high water balance and high chlorophyll content as compared with the control during senescence of flowers. The holding solution containing 3% sucrose + 200 mg.L
HQC + 50 mg.L
+ 25 mg.L
maintained high levels of sucrose, glucose, fructose, and total sugar for a long time as compared with the control. These results indicate that vase life and carbohydrate supply have a strong correlation.
Morphological Characteristics of Interspecific Hybrids between Japanese Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) cv. Soldam and Apricot (P. armeniaca L.) cv. Harcot
Jun, Ji-Hae ; Kwon, Jung-Hyun ; Chung, Kyeong-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 269~274
Since 1999, interspecific crosses between Japanese plums and apricots have been made to breed new plumcot cultivars and to obtain basic data for stone fruit breeding at the National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science (NIHHS) of Rural Development of Administration (RDA) in Korea. A controlled interspecific cross between Prunus salicina Lindl. 'Soldam' (seed parent) and P. armeniaca L. 'Harcot' (pollen parent) was made in 1999, and 64 seeds were obtained. After sowing of those seeds in a greenhouse in the following spring, 23 seedlings were obtained. Eventually, 21 of 23 seedlings flowered, and 11 of 21 seedlings set fruits in 2006 and 2007. Morphological characteristics of these seedlings were investigated for two years. Whereas the leaf shape of 'Soldam' was elliptic and 'Harcot' was circular, 17 of 23 hybrid seedlings had obovate leaves and the others were circular like 'Harcot'. Thirteen seedlings bore white flowers like 'Soldam' and 8 seedlings bore pink flowers like 'Harcot'. All flowered seedlings had pubescent ovaries like 'Harcot'. Although 'Soldam' and 'Harcot' had abundant pollens, 11 of 21 flowered seedlings had no pollens. All fruits of seedlings had short fuzzy fruit skin. Six seedlings had red flesh color like 'Soldam' and 5 seedlings had orange flesh color like 'Harcot'. Eight seedlings were clingstone like 'Soldam' whereas 3 seedlings were semi-clingstone. None of the seedlings were freestone like 'Harcot'. The mean of progeny for quantitative characters were near the parents' mean. However, progeny mean of leaf and peduncle lengths were shorter than parents' mean. The appearance and flavor of the interspecific seedlings were medium type between 'Soldam' and 'Harcot'. However, there were some seedlings with excellent fruit quality. The polymorphism of two SSR markers confirmed that all seedlings were real hybrids between Japanese plum 'Soldam' and apricot 'Harcot'.
Distribution of Three Cytoplasm Types in Onion (Allium cepa L.) Cultivars Bred in Korea and Japan
Kim, Sung-Gil ; Lee, Eul-Tai ; Kim, Cheol-Woo ; Yoon, Moo-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 275~279
Previously, we reported a molecular marker designed on the basis of variation of mitochondrial genome organization for distinction of three onion (Allium cepa L.) cytoplasm types (Normal, CMS-T, and CMS-S). The CMS-T and CMS-S cytoplasms are involved in induction of cytoplasmic male-sterility, both of which are utilized in development of F
hybrid cultivars. Reliable application of this molecular marker was tested for 116 onion cultivars developed in Korea and Japan. The molecular marker was successfully utilized to identify specific cytoplasm types of all tested cultivars, showing reliable application of the molecular marker and absence of another unidentified cytoplasm type in tested cultivars. The frequency of CMS-T cytoplasm was high in cultivars developed in Korea compared with those developed in Japan. CMS-T cytoplasm is responsible for CMS-T male-sterility of which inheritance pattern of fertility restoration is complex due to involvement of at least three restorer-of-fertility genes. On the other hand, a few cultivars containing CMS-S cytoplasm were identified in Korean cultivars. CMS-S male-sterility is more stable in diverse environmental conditions, and its fertility restoration is controlled by only a single gene, rendering CMS-S suitable for establishment of molecular breeding systems. This distribution pattern was the most evident in late-maturing cultivars. The frequency of normal cytoplasm was relatively high in early-maturing cultivars, implying most early-maturing cultivars are still open-pollinated varieties.
Nutritional, Chemical and Physical Factors Affecting Somatic Embryo Formation and Germination in Pimpinella brachycarpa
Na, Hae-Young ; Chun, Chang-Hoo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 280~286
Formation and germination of somatic embryo (SE) are affected by the concentration of plant growth regulators; MS medium strength, sucrose concentration, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) level. The MS medium strength and sucrose concentration for an optimal condition of the SE formation and germination of Pimpinella brachycarpa were x0.5, sucrose 30 g L
and x0.25, sucrose 30 g L
, respectively. When 0.05 mg L
of kinetin was treated, the percentage of normal somatic embryo (NSE) formation was the greatest and the percentage of hyperhydric somatic embryo (HSE) formation was the lowest. SE germination rate was greater in treatment of IAA 0.05 mg L
or BA 0.01 mg L
than those of other treatments. Moreover, better SE formation and germination were found at dimmer lighting (20
of PPF) than that of higher PPFs. SE formation and germination were also retarded at higher PPFs. Optimum PPF for SE formation and germination was 20
. After forming SE from EC 0.1 g for 4 weeks, EC 0.1 g resulted in 700 total SE formation. Culturing four SEs for four weeks resulted in a secondary SE formation, germination and eventually 52 plantlets. These results indicate that a huge proliferation rate was achieved at up to 8 weeks of EC at liquid medium suspension culture and SE at solid medium culture. Through the experiment, after inducing EC from EC, the mass of EC was increased by 25 times (from 0.05 to 1.30 g) when each of the nutritional and chemical factors was controlled at the optimized condition.
Transformation of Chicory with
-TMT Gene Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Hwang, Hyeon-Jeong ; Ko, Boo-Kyung ; Baek, Kwang-Hee ; Choi, Geun-Won ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 287~292
-tocopherol methyltransferase (
-TMT) gene, which encodes an enzyme converting
-forms, was introduced into chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. foliosum) 'Precole' and the gene expression was investigated. Results from hygromycin sensitivity test showed that callus and shoot formation from cotyledon explants were completely inhibited by the supplementation of above 10 mg.L
hygromycin, and this level was applied for the primary selection. One-week-old cotyledon explants were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying binary vector pCAMBIA1302 harboring 1047 bp
-TMT gene which originated from Arabidopsis thaliana. The explants successfully produced calli and adventitious shoots on the MS selection medium with 1 mg.L
IAA, 1 mg.L
BAP, 10 mg.L
hygromycin, 200 mg.L
cefotaxime, and 10 mg.L
. New shoots regenerated on the selection medium were rooted on the 1/2MS rooting medium with only 200 mg.L
cefotaxime. PCR screening using
-TMT gene-specific primers produced 2 transgenic plants among 14 putative transgenic plants and the successful expression of
-TMT gene in these plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis.
Micropropagation of Paprika (Capsicum annuum) and Its Subsequent Performance in Greenhouse Cultivation
Song, Ju-Yeon ; Sivanesan, Iyyakkannu ; An, Chul-Geon ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 293~298
Paprika (Capsicum annuum) is one of the important fruit vegetable crops and there is a big demand in the world fresh market. Conventionally the species is propagated mainly by seeds, but seeds of paprika are expensive, especially in Korea, and a burden to growers. Therefore, a simple micropropagation system was developed for paprika 'Ferrari' using nodal explants. Also, plant growth and fruit productivity were investigated by comparing micropropagated plants (MPP) vs. seed propagated plants (SPP). In the micropropagated plants, seeds were germinated on the 1/2 MS in a dark condition, and shoot tip explants were taken and cultured on the MS medium. Elongated shoots were cut into multiple single nodal cuttings and then were cultured on the fresh MS for shoot growth and rooting. Well-rooted plants were acclimatized in a greenhouse. In the seed propagated plant, seeds were germinated in rockwool cubes and then seedlings were transplanted in rockwool slabs after true leaves appeared. In the comparison of greenhouse performance of SPP and MPP, no. of fruits from MPP was 49.8% higher than that of SPP, though its plant height and main stem length were smaller. Therefore, micropropagated plants can be expected to be used as alternative propagules and to increase grower’s income by decreasing cost on propagules.
In Vitro Medium Composition and Culture Method Affecting Masspropagation of Osmunda japonica Thunb. Prothalli
Shin, So-Lim ; Lee, Cheol-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 299~304
Present studies were carried out to investigate the effects of medium composition and cultural methods on the mass micropropagation of prothalli in Osmunda japonica Thumb. Prothallus proliferation was promoted on the media with low nutrient levels, such as Knop or one-eight strength MS medium. However, nutrient deficiency symptoms appeared during prothallus growth on Knop medium. To examine proper medium for good prothallus growth, various nitrogen sources and different concentration levels were employed using one-eight strength MS medium. The addition of 6 mM nitrogen resulted in best proliferation regardless of nitrogen sources. At the same level of nitrogen supplied, nitrate nitrogen was better than mixture of
at 1:2 ratio. Ammonia nitrogen retarded prothallus growth in this species. The multiplication of prothalli was compared between homogenized culture of chopped prothallus colony and culture of divided colony on modified one-eight strength MS medium (6 mM
, 3% sucrose, pH 5.8, 0.8% agar), and the former was better in proliferation through vigorous gemma formaton. So the homogenized prothalli were cultured on solid media containing agar concentation upto 1.2%, as well as on liquid media. Vigorous muliplication was observed on liquid culture with no glassy prothalli and no variation in form and frequency of sexual organ formation. Shaking liquid culture resulted in retarded growth of prothalli due to dying of prothalli tissue. In conclusion, recommended cultural method for mass micropropagation for O. japonica is stationary liquid culture using modified one-eight strength MS medium containing 6 mM of
as nitrogen source.
Determination of the Efficiency of Formaldehyde Removal According to the Percentage Volume of Pot Plants Occupying a Room
Kim, Kwang-Jin ; Kil, Mi-Jung ; Jeong, Myeong-Il ; Kim, Hyoung-Deug ; Yoo, Eun-Ha ; Jeong, Sun-Jin ; Pak, Chun-Ho ; Son, Ki-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 305~311
The amount of formaldehyde removal by indoor pot plants was assessed in actual space, and compared with removal amount calculated from a sealed chamber test. Epipremnum aureum, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Gardenia jasminoide were placed in a room, occupying 3, 6, and 9% of the room volume, respectively. When each species occupied 3, 6, and 9% of the room volume, formaldehyde was removed by 30.9, 47.7, and 67.0%, and the relative humidity increased by 4.8, 8.3, and 10.0%, respectively. When pot plants occupied 1% of the room’s volume, formaldehyde was decreased by 6-7% in the room. A small difference in the rate of formaldehyde removal was observed among the species. The ratio of the formaldehyde removal measured in the room over the its theoretical removal calculated as the chamber test was found to be 0.05, approximately 20 folds. As a result, it has been found that indoor plants could be an effective method for the purifying of indoor air, according to the results suggesting that pot plants occupying about 1% of the room’s volume reduced formaldehyde by approximately 7%.
Removal of Indoor Tobacco Smoke under Light and Dark Conditions as Affected by Foliage Plants
Yoon, Jee-Won ; Son, Ki-Cheol ; Yang, Dong-Sik ; Kays, Stanley J. ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 312~318
The efficacy of three species of indoor plants (Spathiphyllum spp., Ficus elastica and Syngonium podophyllum) for the removal of environment tobacco smoke (ETS) particulate matter (PM) in the light and dark and changes in physiological responses (photosynthesis, transpiration, respiration) of the plants to ETS was assessed. Cigarette smoke was generated in sealed chambers to give an initial concentration of ~182
and after normalization (10 min) the concentrations of various size categories (PM
, and PM
) were determined. ETS PM diminished with time due to adsorption and sedimentation. However, the decrease was accelerated by the presence of indoor plants in both the light and dark. Removal efficiency varied among species and was not correlated with leaf area. Spathiphyllum spp. had the highest removal efficacy on a leaf area basis among the species tested in both light and dark conditions, and removal was more efficient in the light than in the dark. In the dark there was little difference in removal efficiency among species or in respiratory rate. The removal efficiency in the light was higher in species with higher photosynthetic rates, suggesting that photosynthesis may be involved in the accelerated removal.
Growth Inhibitors of Lettuce Seedlings from Curvibacter sp. GA75-1
Hoang, Lam ; Joo, Gil-Jae ; Kim, Won-Chan ; Yang, Eun-Ju ; Kim, Sang-In ; Lee, Sang-Man ; Shin, Jae-Ho ; Rhee, In-Koo ; Song, Kyung-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 319~324
The microbial strain GA75-1, which exhibited growth inhibitory activity on lettuce seedlings, was selected out of more than five hundred bacterial colonies by pot experiment for isolation and identification of plant growth retardants. The strain was identified as Curvibacter sp. by the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. The culture broth was consecutively partitioned with dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol. The bioassay-guided fractionation of butanol extract led to the isolation of compound 1 and 2 which inhibited 56.8 and 54.1% of lettuce root elongation and 22.5 and 47.3% of shoot growth at 50 mg L
, respectively. From
H NMR and EI-MS spectra, 1 and 2 were identified as uracil and 4-methoxybenzoic acid, respectively. The concentrations of uracil and 4-methoxybenzoic acid required for 50% inhibition of root were 48.4 and 49.1 mg L
and of shoot were > 100.0 and 51.3 mg L
, respectively. Uracil derivatives are one of very well-known herbicide groups; however, this is the first report on the herbicidal effect of uracil itself on lettuce. In addition, 4-methoxybenzoic acid is firstly isolated from the genus C. lanceolatus as an inhibitor of lettuce seedling growth. C. lanceolatus containing the above compounds is expected to be useful as the lodging-preventer and/or biotic herbicide.
A New Kiwifruit, 'Jecy Sweet' with High Soluble Solids Content
Kim, Chun-Hwan ; Kim, Seong-Cheol ; Song, Eun-Young ; Ro, Na-Young ; Kim, Mi-Sun ; Kang, Kyung-Hee ; Jang, Ki-Chang ; Chun, Seung-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 325~328
'Jecy Sweet' is a new promising kiwifruit variety developed at the National Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Rural Development Administration, located in Jeju Island, Korea for green flesh and high soluble solids content. The cross between Actinidia chinensis cv. 'Apple Sensation' and A. deliciosa cv. 'Tomuri' was conducted in 1998. Seedling and line selections were conducted from 1999 to 2000, and characteristic trials were carried out from 2001 to 2003. After selection was made, adaptability test was also conducted at kiwifruit orchards in Jeju Island from 2004 to 2006. Shoots of 'Jecy Sweet' sprout slightly strongly and color of upper-side of leaf is dark green. Fruit shape is ellipsoid, and fruit skin color is yellowish-green with medium brown hair. Average fruit weight is 106.9 g. Fruit has large and soft core, green pericarp and fragile and juicy flesh. Compared with 'Hayward', 'Jecy Sweet' showed higher soluble solids content of 17.8
Bx and lower total acid content of 0.25%. The harvesting time is mid-November, almost the same as 'Hayward'. Fruits can be stored for about 60 days at 2
. This variety can be recommended for cultivating below 100 m sea level in Jeju Island and should be grown under shelter to prevent disease and cold injury.
A New Spray Chrysanthemum Cultivar 'Hwiparam' with Single Type and Bright Yellow Color
Pak, Ha-Seung ; Choi, Taeg-Yong ; Won, Mi-Kyoung ; Choi, Won-Chun ; Yang, Euy-Seog ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 329~331
A new spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat.) cultivar 'Hwiparam' was bred by open pollination 'Hwarang'. The characteristics of this cultivar were tested from 2002 to 2004 for the evaluation and selection including shading and retarding culture. The natural flowering time of 'Hwiparam' is late October. This cultivar was bright yellow in color, single in flower type for the spray cut chrysanthemum. It was possible to cultivate from October to May with enough stem length and the flower number was 31.5 per plant. The petals tended to be twisted at high temperature flowering in summer season. In natural and forcing cultivation it was possible to harvest after 8 week response time. It had resistance to white rust and the vase life was about 23 days in autumn season.
Breeding of Powdery Mildew Resistant Squash 'Kwangmyeong'
Cho, Myeong-Cheoul ; Om, Young-Hyun ; Huh, Yun-Chan ; Cheong, Seung-Ryong ; Kim, Dae-Hyun ; Mok, Il-Gin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 2, 2009, Pages 332~335
A new powdery mildew resistant squash (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) 'Kwangmyeong' was bred from a cross between powdery mildew resistant true variety 'Sigol' and powdery mildew resistant inbred line 'PRS 1031' at National Horticultural Research Institute. The 'Kwangmyeong' variety was vigorous and highly tolerant to powdery mildew. It showed dark green fruit color. The variety yielded 21.1MT/ha which is 52% more than check variety.