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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Horticultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Analytical Methods of Pyruvic Acid and Difference of Pyruvic Acid Content in Relation to Bulb Characteristics in Onion
Lee, Eun-Ju ; Suh, Jun-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 337~342
Six methods including Schwimmer and Weston (1961) method were compared for analysis of pyruvic acid. Among them, Yoo et al.'s (1995) method was the most efficient method but pyruvic acid contents were overestimated. Therefore based on those methods, we have designed a new analytical method to complement the existing methods. Although the newly designed method for this experiment took as much time as Yoo et al.'s (1995) method, it dramatically decreased the standard deviation between samples. Furthermore by this method the exactitude, uniformity and efficiency of trituration and extraction of sample were increased. The result of pyruvic acid in relation to the bulb characteristics showed that there were negative correlations between bulb weight, diameter and pyruvic acid content. On the other hand there were positive correlations between dry matter, the number of bulb scales and pyruvic acid content. Therefore when we considered the dry matter, the bulb diameter and the number of bulb scales as a functional formula, there were more correlation (r=0.72) with pyruvic acid content. With this functional formula, it can be concluded that pyruvic acid contents are predictable by investigating bulb characteristics.
Accumulation of Soluble Solids and Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes by Deficit Irrigation in Fresh Tomato Fruits
Kang, Nam-Jun ; Cho, Myeong-Whan ; Kang, Kyung-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 343~352
The effects of deficit irrigation on the accumulation of soluble solids and activation of antioxidant enzymes in fresh tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits were investigated. Although fruit weight was reduced by deficit irrigation, dry matter was significantly increased. Deficit irrigation significantly increased sugars and organic acids compared with the normal irrigation. Content of hexoses (glucose and fructose) in fruits of moderate deficit-irrigated (MDI, -30 kPa) and severe deficit-irrigated (SDI, -40 kPa) plants was higher as 127.6% and 157.8% than those in fruit of normal-irrigated (NI, -20 kPa) plants. Content of citric acid was significantly increased to 127.0% and 160.7% by MDI and SDI compared with the fruit of NI plants, respectively. Activation of antioxidant enzymes exhibited differential patterns in terms of specific and gel activity by irrigation levels through developmental stages. The specific and gel activities of SOD, POD, PPO and G6PDH in fruits of NI plants were activated 50 d at ripening stage after anthesis. However, both activities of these antioxidant enzymes are activated as early as 10 d and 20 d by MDI and SDI treatment, respectively. These results suggest that accumulation of soluble solids by deficit irrigation is associated with activation of antioxidant enzymes, and its activation seems to play a critical role in the restriction of fruit size and acceleration of ripening.
Morphological Structure and Chemical Composition in Epicuticular Wax of Fruits in Four Kinds of Grape Cultivars
Shin, Kyoung-Hee ; Park, Hee-Seung ; Lee, Chang-Hoo ; Do, Gyoung-Ran ; Yun, Seok-Kyu ; Choi, In-Myung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 353~358
The epicuticular wax appears to cover the skin of grapes as white powder, so it's often misunderstood as agricultural chemicals, yeast, or sugar. In order to find the components of this kind of fruit powder, a qualitative analysis was conducted through GC-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) on 'Campbell Early', 'Kyoho', 'Hongisul', and 'Cheongsoo'. As the results, the aliphatic compounds of alkanes, primary alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and fatty acid were detected from all four species. It was also found that the main components of red grape species were alkanes and ester, whereas the main component of white grape species was alkanes. In addition, the inspection result for the quantity of epicuticular wax in each species showed that the highest was 'Cheongsoo'(943.07
), followed by 'Campbell Early'(636.78
), 'Hongisul' (605.30
), and 'Kyoho'(147.62
). In order to examine the ultrastructure of fruit epicuticular wax, the grape berries of the harvesting seasons was observed through a scanning electron microscope, and it was found that all four species of grapes, 'Campbell Early', 'Kyoho', 'Hongisul', and 'Cheongsoo', had platelets with no regular direction, and in particular, 'Kyoho' and 'Cheongsoo' were examined to have both basic and long line-shaped platelets.
Baby Vegetable Production Using Plug Tray
Park, Kuen-Woo ; Park, Hye-Ran ; Beak, Jun-Pill ; Kim, Jun-Hong ; Yang, Dong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 359~364
The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and quality of 5 baby vegetables [i.e., Compositae (romaine red, lollo rosa, endive) and Cruciferae (pak-choi and ssamchoo)] grown under 50, 72, 128, and 162 cell-plug tray, and determine proper cell size of plug tray for the practical cultivation of the baby vegetables. The baby vegetables were grown with 1.0 time of Yamazaki nutrient solution and harvested on 23 days after sowing. The baby vegetables of Compositae and Cruciferae showed different growths and qualities depending on the cell size of plug tray. Compositae baby vegetables (i.e., romaine red, lollo rosa, and endive) showed the higher yield per plug tray, visual quality, and edible ratio grown in 162 cell-plug tray than others. Vitamin C content was not affected by cell size, but nitrate content increased as cell size decreased. However, Cruciferae baby vegetables (i.e., pak-choi and ssamchoo) had high top fresh weight, high vitamin C contents and low nitrate in 72 cell-plug tray. In conclusion, 162 cell-plug tray for Compositae baby vegetables and 72 cell-plug tray for Cruciferae baby vegetables were determined to increase the production of baby vegetables with high quality.
Effect of Soil and Foliar Applications of Supplemental Nitrogen on Tree Growth and Yield of 'Fuyu' Persimmon
Park, Doo-Sang ; Choi, Seong-Tae ; Kang, Seong-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 365~370
Efficiency of foliar and soil applications of supplemental N in June and Sept., alone or in combination, was compared in 4- through 6-year-old 'Fuyu' trees (Diospyros kaki). When the N was foliar-applied in June alone and in both June and Sept., trunk cross-sectional area increased 2.9- and 1.83-fold, respectively, in the three years. Total shoot length per tree increased the most from 15.4 to 50.5 m in the same period with soil-N applications in both June and Sept., and the least with a soil-N in either June or Sept. Number of leaves tended to be more with the soil-N in both June and Sept. Leaf area of a 6-year-old tree tended to be more with foliar than with soil-N applications. In general, different methods of N applications did not affect tree growth to the level of statistical significance. A 4-year-old tree produced 35 fruits with the foliar-N in Sept. weighing 7.7 kg. Numbers of fruits from a 5- and 6-year-old tree were 54 with the soil-N in both June and Sept., and 97 with the foliar-N in June, weighing 10.5, and 20.3 kg, respectively. However, neither per-tree yield and yield efficiency nor fruit weight was significantly affected by the methods of N applications. The per-tree cumulative yield for the three years was more than 36 kg with the foliar-N in June and with the soil-N in both June and Sept.; however, it was in 33 to 35 kg ranges in other treatments. Results indicated that the foliar applications of supplemental N to young ‘Fuyu’ trees in both June and September resulted in tree growth and productivity comparable to the conventional soil-N applications.
Seasonal Changes in Dry Matter Productivity of Korean Native Plants, Aster koraiensis, Iris ensata, and Hemerocallis fulva
Nam, Hyo-Hoon ; Lee, Hyun-Sook ; Woo, Jin-Ha ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 371~379
This study was conducted to investigate the seasonal changes of dry matter productivity of three species of Korean native plants, Aster koraiensis, Iris ensata, and Hemerocallis fulva. Dry weight of aboveground organs from transplanting to flowering and that of underground organs after flowering respectively contributed to the greatest part of whole dry weight. Ratios of dry weights of the aboveground and underground organs in the first year were higher than that in the second year, indicating that assimilation product was distributed more to storage organs, rhizome or tuberous root in the second year. There was one peak point in relative growth rates (RGRs) and net assimilation rates (NARs) of A. koraiensis and H. fulva, while there were two peak points in I. ensata at the same year. Those points were concurrent with an early growth stage and an enlargement period of storage organs. The distribution of photosynthetic organ changed in the similar pattern of RGR or NAR. Changes of specific leaf area for yearly averages of crop growth rate (CGR) of A. koraiensis, I. ensata and H. fulva were 4.6, 6.9, and 3.3 g.m
in the first year, and 23.4, 31.5, and 14.7 g.m
in the second year, respectively. NAR or leaf area index was positively correlated with CGR. There was a positive correlation between soil moisture and LAI, while a negative correlation was observed between NAR and climatic factors.
Effect of Low Temperature on Flowering and Cut Flower Yield of Limonium spp. 'Fantasia'
Chin, Young-Don ; An, Dong-Chun ; Hwang, Ju-Chean ; Song, Ju-Yeon ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 380~385
This study was focused on the promotion of growth, flowering and production of cut flowers of Limonium spp. as affected by low temperature treatment. Plant materials used were micropropagated Limonium spp. 'Fantisia' obtained from the Tissue Culture Lab., Flower Breeding Research Institute, Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services. This study investigated 1) effect of lighting during the low temperature storage of plantlets on plant survival, 2) effect of duration of low temperature, and of raising period on the flowering and flower yield, and 3) effect of different planting dates and pinching on flowering of Limonium spp. Light intensity had a significant effect on plant survival. The survival percentages were 100 and 67% in light and dark treatment, respectively. A low temperature treatment for six weeks resulted in earlier bolting and flowering, and decreased days to flowering by 11 days, as compared to the control. Cold treatment promoted the quality of cut flowers and yield, and also increased weight and diameter of flower stem. A low temperature treatment prior to a raising period had little effect on bolting and flowering. However, the greatest yield of cut flowers (2,045 bundles per 10a) was obtained when plantlets were raised for 10 weeks. A low temperature treatment resulted in earlier flowering regardless of the transplanting date. However, transplanting on the first week of July resulted in improved quality and the greatest yield of cut flowers per plant.
Changes in Tree Growth and Yield of 'Fuyu' Persimmon by Tree Ages
Choi, Seong-Tae ; Choi, Jae-Hyeok ; Cho, Yong-Cho ; Shin, Hyun-Yul ; Kang, Seong-Mo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 386~390
This study was conducted to analyze tree growth and yield of 'Fuyu' persimmon of various age groups to set-up a plan for managing trees on a long-term basis. Tree growth, fruit characteristics and the yield of three- to 81-year-old trees were investigated from 49 orchards in Gyeongnam Province during 2007. As the trees were becoming older, trunk cross-sectional area linearly increased, while the increase in tree height was curvilinear after 15 years. Average length of terminal shoots and leaf area gradually decreased after 37 and 44 years, respectively. Fruits tended to become smaller from around 40 years of age, and the fruits of extra-large grade were few in those trees older than 60 years. However, fruit soluble solids did not differ significantly depending on tree ages. Number of fruits and yield per tree increased with increasing tree age, the yield of 80-year-old trees being 2-fold more than that of 30-year-old trees. On the other hand, the yield per unit area of land gradually increased until around 50 years of age, and then tended to decrease from around 60 years due to the reduction of tree density. Regression analysis showed the greatest yield per hectare was in 54-year-old trees and 80% of that yield was maintained to 81 years of age.
Interaction Effects between Light Level and Plant Density on Plant Growth, Development and External Quality in Year-around Cut Chrysanthemum
Lee, Jeong-Hyun ; Heuvelink, Ep ; Bakker, Menno J. ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 391~398
Aims of this study are to analyze growth pattern and development of cut chrysanthemum and test simple regression models in relation to light level and plant density. Cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), cv. Reagan Improved, was grown at four different plant densities of 16, 32, 64 or 80 plants m
combined with three different light levels of 100%, 66% or 43% of light in three greenhouse compartments in summer at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. Plant fresh and dry mass, stem strength, number of flowers and stem length had shown interactive effects between light level and plant density. All these parameters increased with increased light level and with increased plant density; however, the decrease as a result of light reduction was much larger at low plant densities except for stem length. Stem length increased with increased plant density, following a saturation-type of response, except for the lowest light level, where an optimum-response was observed, resulting in a reduced stem length at the highest density. Dry mass production per m
greenhouse area and final leaf area index increased with increased light level and with increased plant density. Light use efficiency (LUE, unit dry mass per unit of cumulative intercepted PAR) was 48% higher at lower light levels than 100%. LUE also showed a quadratic response to plant density in range of 16 and 80 plant m
. Using an existing empirical linear model for plant, fresh mass and number of flowers for cut chrysanthemum showed overestimation in plant fresh mass and under estimation for number of flowers at the lowest plant density in all light level in this study. Plant shape, calculated as a ratio between stem length and a length between a node with first lateral stem to top point of plant, linearly decreased with increased LAI. Plant qualities hence strongly varied depending on crop canopy like leaf area index. Although the simple regression models are good tools for summary of experiment, it does not fit at lower plant density. To produce a constant product quality throughout the year, optimal number of plant m
with amount of available light should be considered through the growing period.
Growth and Yield of Potatoes with Different Mini-tubers in Wick-based Hydroponics
Kim, Chan-Woo ; Song, Chang-Khil ; Park, Jung-Sik ; Mun, Hyun-Ki ; Kang, Young-Kil ; Kang, Bong-Kyoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 399~403
A glasshouse experiment was carried out to evaluate effects of size of mini-tubers produced through aeroponics on growth and yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. 'Dejima') grown in wick-based hydroponics. Nine mini-tubers weighing 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, and 40 g, respectively, were planted in a polystyrene box (51 cm long
31 cm wide
20 cm high) containing 20 L of medium consisted of perlite and peatmoss (1:2, v/v). The number of stems per plant, stem length and diameter, and leaf size tended to increase with increasing mini-tuber size. The total number of tubers per plant was about 3 regardless of mini-tuber size. The number of tubers greater than 5 g increased from 1.9 to 3.1 tubers/plant, average tuber weight increased from 19.3 to 48.3 g, and yield of tubers greater than 5 g increased from 3,2 to 9,4 kg.m
as mini-tuber size was increased from 1 to 40 g. Considering that yield of tubers greater than 5 g was 3.2 kg.m
when 1 g mini-tubers were planted, even 1 g mini-tubers produced through aeroponics could be used for seed tuber production in the wick-based hydroponics.
Growth and Photosynthesis of Single-Stemmed Roses as Affected by Macro- and Micro-Element Amendment in a Closed Aeroponic System
Yeo, Kyung-Hwan ; Lee, Yong-Beom ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 404~413
The effect of mineral nutritional control on the growth and photosynthesis of single-stemmed roses 'Red Velvet' and 'Vital' was examined in order to find a method of controlling inorganic ions properly. Levels of inorganic ions in a closed aeroponic system were adjusted by changing electrical conductivity (EC treatment), concentrations of N, P and K (NPK treatment), macro-elements (M treatment), and macro- and micro-elements (MM treatment) and by supplementing a nutrient solution of 1.5 dS.m
(S treatment). The photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate for 'Vital' were high in the S treatment, but low in the EC and NPK treatments. In 'Red Velvet' these were the greatest in the MM treatment, and showed a tendency of being low in the EC and S treatments. Both cultivars showed lower Fo and higher Fm and Fv/Fo values in the M and MM treatments than in the EC, S and NPK treatments, with a Fv/Fm value reaching to approximately 0.8, the yield value of plants grown under a normal environment. The quantum yield decreased in all treatments with increasing light intensity. For 'Red Velvet', the quantum yield value was the least in the EC control treatment, with values smaller than 0.1 at a light intensity of 1,200
and the greatest in the MM control treatment. To determine the effect of these treatments on the growth of single-node cuttings, length of cut flowers, stem diameter, fresh and dry weight, flower height, and flower width were measured. Length of cut flowers was the longest in the M and MM treatment for both cultivars. Fresh weight was the heaviest in the MM treatment and the lightest in the EC treatment in both cultivars. Both cultivars showed the greatest anthocyanin content in the petal in the M treatment, with the greatest chlorophyll content, and the least in the petal in the NPK treatment, but no significant differences were observed among the EC, S and NPK treatments.
Ethylene Inhibitors Efficacy on Flower Opening and Lifespan of Potted Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Grown in a Greenhouse after Simulated Export Conditions
Park, Sin-Ae ; Son, Ki-Cheol ; Oh, Myung-Min ; Kwon, Youn-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 414~419
Ethylene sensitivity has been shown in several studies as a problem in kalanchoe. An ethylenecontaminated environment such as transportation or display stands in supermarkets deteriorates visual appearance and display life. In this study we determined the efficacy of two ethylene inhibitors, silver thiosulfate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), on flower opening and lifespan of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana 'New Alter' cultivated in a greenhouse after simulated transport. STS and 1-MCP were applied to kalanchoe plants at similar commercial maturity prior to simulated transport (dark, 12
and 60% relative humidity). STS (0.2 mM, 0.5 mM, and 1 mM) was sprayed and 1-MCP (50 nL.L
, 100 nL.L
, and 200 nL.L
) was injected into sealed glass chambers containing kalanchoe plants for 6 hours. After simulated export for 5 days, the plants were immediately moved to a simulated retail room. The number of inflorescence, buds, and dead florets on all inflorescence were counted weekly for 7 weeks. Percentages of open flowers and dead florets were then calculated. Both STS and 1-MCP had significant effects on improving the quality of kalanchoe flowers by inducing flower opening or extending lifespan compared to the control, suggesting the inhibition of ethylene production by these inhibitors. Among the treatments, 0.5 mM and 1 mM STS showed the best results for induction of flowering and extension of lifespan. 1-MCP was not as effective as STS although the inhibitor had significantly better effects on flower opening than the control. Thus, in this study we showed great possibilities for practical usage of these two ethylene inhibitors on potted kalanchoe plants.
Effect of Silver Thiosulfate Pretreatment and Holding Solution on Vase Life of Cut 'Blue Magic' Iris Flowers
Kim, Young-A ; Lee, Jong-Suk ; Lee, Jang-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 420~425
This experiment was conducted to clarify the effect of silver thiosulfate (STS) pretreatment and several holding solutions on vase life of cut 'Blue Magic' iris (Iris hollandica). The pretreatment with a STS solution extended the vase life of flowers. A holding solution containing 3% (w/v) sucrose + 200 mg.L
HQS + 100 mg.L
BA was effective for high water balance, increased fresh weight, promoted flowering, and prolonged vase life of cut flowers. Distilled water and a holding solution containing ethephon promoted solution uptake, but shortened the vase life. Water balance of the flowers became negative at early days because of high transpiration rates.
Effect of Postharvest Ethylene Treatment on the Quality Characteristics in Processed Berry Product of 'Campbell Early' Grape
Hong, Se-Ra ; Yang, Yong-Joon ; Park, Youn-Moon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 426~431
Effects of postharvest ethylene application were investigated as a pretreatment for minimal processing of 'Campbell Early' grape. Grapes were harvested at commercial maturity for fresh market, treated with 0, 10, 100
ethylene, and then stored at 0
for 4 months. Storage loss and shattering pattern of raw produce were examined at one-month intervals for 4 months while quality of processed product was estimated until 2-month storage. Berry shattering increased significantly by ethylene treatment reaching 80-90% even after 3 days at room temperature following the treatment and 98-99% after 1-month refrigerated storage at 0
. Incidence of berry decay in the whole cluster was less than 8% until 2-month storage regardless of ethylene treatment, while it increased sharply between 2- and 3-month storage. Considering decay, storability of grape as a raw material seemed to be shorter than 2 months for 10
ethylene treatment and 3 months for control and 100
ethylene treatment. In processed berries, ethylene treatment had no consistent effects on the instrumental and eating quality. In contrast, appearance of the product was significantly improved by the induction of natural shattering. Overall results indicated that postharvest treatment of 10 and 100
ethylene effectively induced berry shattering and facilitated the processing procedure while avoiding quality deterioration until 2-month refrigerated storage.
Isolation and Characterization of Flavanone 3-Hydroxylase Genes from a Korean Raspberry
Lee, Seung-Sik ; Lee, Eun-Mi ; An, Byung-Chull ; Cho, Jae-Young ; Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Choi, Yeon-Ok ; Chung, Byung-Yeoup ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 432~440
Flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) is one of the key enzymes acting during a bifurcation of the anthocyanin and flavonols branches. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of an F3H gene from a Korean raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel). By rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR, the full-length cDNA of the RcoF3H gene contains a 1,098-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 41.1 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) value of 5.45. The comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of RcoF3H with other F3Hs indicated that the protein is highly homologous with various plant species. The RcoF3H gene exists as a single-copy in R. coreanus and had three exons and two introns. Transcription analysis revealed that RcoF3H was expressed at similar levels in the flower, stem and leaf. In addition, the gene had a different expression pattern during fruit development. At the early stage of fruit development, the expression level was extremely low, but the levels dramatically increased during the progress of ripening. Our results suggest a correlation between anthocyanin accumulation and expression of the RcoF3H gene during the ripening of fruits.
Selection of Potato Clones Resistant to Bacterial Wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum) Disease and Evaluation of Their Genetic Diversity with RAPD
Cho, Ji-Hong ; Won, Hong-Sik ; Cho, Kwang-Soo ; Ahn, Won-Gyeong ; Park, Young-Eun ; Kim, Jeom-Soon ; Kim, Hyun-Jun ; Cho, Hyun-Mook ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 441~447
This study was carried out to select potato (Solanum tuberosum) clones resistant to Bacterial wilt (BW) disease (Ralstonia solanacearum) and evaluate genetic diversity with RAPD (Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA). A total of 440 clones collected and maintained at Highland Agriculture Research Center were tested in the hydroponic culture system with R. solanacearum race 1 and 3. After 40 days in dipping in hydroponic culture system, the resistance was evaluated as the range from 0 (resistance) to 4 (susceptible). Seventy-two clones were selected in the first screening as a resistant to race 1 or 3 in 2007, and the selected lines were tested again as the same procedure above. After the second screening, a total of 20 lines were selected as resistance to BW in 2008. For the evaluation of genetic diversity of the selected 20 clones, RAPD analysis was carried out with potato URP primer sets. From the 11 URP primers, 5 to 7 polymorphic DNA bands were amplified in selected resistant clones with each primer. With RAPD analysis, the genetic similarity was shown from 0.56 to 0.82. The selected clones were separated into two distinct groups at the genetic similarity value point of 0.56. Four clones including AG14252 were integrated into the first group, and the others, 16 clones, were grouped in the second group. In the second group, the two sub-groups showed genetic similarity value of 0.59. Seven clones including AG34326 and nine clones were separated into the first and second sub-groups, respectively. The results have revealed that bacterial wilt resistance test using hydroponic culture is favorable for the selection of BW resistant potato clones, and that RAPD analysis is useful for the identification of genetic similarity. The selected potato clones could be used as parent clones in BW resistance breeding program of potatoes.
Evaluation of Genetic Relationships among Persimmon Cultivars Introduced and Indigenous in Korea Using RAPD
Je, Hee-Jeong ; Park, Yeo-Ok ; Kim, Sung-Churl ; Hwang, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, Yong-Jae ; Son, Beung-Gu ; Park, Young-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 448~455
The genetic relationships among 60 oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) accessions including 30 pollination-constant non-astringent (PCNA), 16 pollination-variant non-astringent (PVNA), 6 pollination-variant astringent (PVA), and 8 pollination-constant astringent (PCA) cultivars were evaluated using 39 RAPD (randomly amplified polymorphic DNA)-PCR primers. A total of 185 polymorphic bands out of 250 RAPD bands scored were obtained and unique fingerprints for all 60 cultivars were produced, despite inclusion of closely related bud-sport cultivars. Pair-wise genetic similarity coefficient (Nei-Li) among all pairs of 60 cultivars varied from 0.62 (between 'Taishu' and 'Saijo') to 0.99 (between 'Superhiratanenashi' and 'O-tanenashi'). Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA) clustering analysis revealed two main clusters, I and II; all 30 PCNA cultivars formed cluster I and showed a narrow genetic diversity among themselves (0.85-0.99). Cluster II contained PVNA cultivars and other astringent type cultivars. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed a third group consisting of seven PVA cultivars, in addition to cluster I and II that were revealed by UPGMA clustering. RAPD-based phenetic relationships among the persimmon cultivar were comparable to known pedigree records, morphological observations, and reports from previous DNA fingerprinting studies that used different molecular marker types. Our study demonstrated that RAPD markers can be efficiently used for genetic diversity assessment of closely related persimmon varieties and cultivar identification, which are essential for modern breeding program.
Karyotype Analysis of Three Brassica Species Using Five Different Repetitive DNA Markers by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization
Hwang, Yoon-Jung ; Kim, Hyun-Hee ; Kwon, Soo-Jin ; Yang, Tae-Jin ; Ko, Ho-Cheol ; Park, Beom-Seok ; Chung, Jae-Dong ; Lim, Ki-Byung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 456~463
The karyotypes of three Brassica species, B. rapa (AA, 2n=20), B. nigra (BB, 2n=16), and B. oleracea (CC, 2n=18), were constructed based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using various DNA probes, including 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, 176 bp centromere satellite repeats, and Cot-100 DNA. The lengths of the somatic metaphase chromosomes ranged from 2.05 to 4.21
in B. rapa, 2.37 to 3.13
in B. nigra, and 2.94 to 4.44
in B. oleracea. The karyotypes were composed of eight pairs of metacentrics and two pairs of submetacentrics in B. rapa, five pairs of metacentrics and three pairs of submetacentrics in B. nigra, and six pairs of metacentrics and three pairs of submetacentrics in B. oleracea. Ten 45S rDNA loci were detected in B. rapa, whereas six were detected in B. nigra, and four were detected in B. oleracea. In addition, six 5S rDNA loci were detected in B. rapa, whereas two 5S rDNA loci were detected in both B. nigra and B. oleracea. Both CentBr1 and CentBr2 originated from the B. rapa centromere sequence were detected in nine and five pairs of chromosomes in B. oleracea, respectively; however, they were not observed in B. nigra. Cot-100Br signals were detected on the centromeric regions of all chromosomes in the three Brassica species; however, BDB signals appeared in the centromere region of B. rapa and B. oleracea, but not in B. nigra.
Transplant Establishment of Pimpinella brachycarpa in Photomixotrophic and Photoautotrophic Culture System
Na, Hae-Young ; Chun, Chang-Hoo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 464~469
Pimpinella brachycarpa somatic embryos were cultured photoautotrophically at different CO
concentrations, and conversion of the somatic embryos was compared to those cultured photomixotrphically. The growth rate of plantlet in photoautotrophic system did not show significant difference with that of plantlet in photomixotrophic system. While somatic embryo at torpedo stage didn’t germinate at all at CO
concentration 400, 1,500 and 4,500
, the germination rate at CO
was 31.3%. The germination rate of somatic embryos in cotyledonary torpedo stage increased as CO
concentration rate increased, showing that high concentration of CO
increases the photoautotrophic ability. When transplanting plants germinated at photomixotrophic system to ex vitro, the survival rate at three days after ex vitro was 0%. All explants withered in 24 hours. However, the survival rate of plants germinated at photoautotrophic system after transplanting to ex vitro was 100%, and it was possible to transplant without acclimatization process. Photoautotrophic system was applicable to P. brachycarpa for development of micropropagation system using somatic embryos being provided with the CO
Protoplast Isolation, Fusion and Colony Formation from Two Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Cultivars, 'Namdo' and 'Jejujaerae'
Song, Seung-Yeob ; Kim, Chun-Hwan ; Seong, Ki-Cheol ; Kang, Kyung-Hee ; Kim, In-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 470~475
Protoplasts were isolated from callus derived from the bulbils of garlic cultivars 'Namdo' and 'Jejujaerae', and were fused by polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution. When treated with the enzyme solution of 1% Macerozyme R-10 and 2% Cellulase Onozuka R-10, callus induced from 'Jejujaerae' yielded the highest number of protoplasts (1.8
protoplasts/mL). The number of protoplasts from 'Namdo' was the highest (1.1
protoplasts/mL) when the callus was treated with an enzyme solution of 1-2% Macerozyme R-10, 1-2% Hemicellulase and 1-2% Cellulase Onozuka-RS adjusted to pH 5.3. The optimal durations required for enzyme treatment to produce the stable protoplasts were 5 hours for 'Namdo' and 4 hours for 'jejujaerae'. The frequency of protoplast fusion was the highest when treated with PEG solution having a molecular weight of 6,000 daltons at room temperature for 5 minutes and then cultivated for two hours in the dark. The fused protoplasts were cultured at 25
with 16 hours photoperiod in MS medium containing 0.1-1.0 mg.L
6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.1-1.0 mg.L
-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) or their combinations. Colony was induced from fused protoplasts in 2 weeks and then cultivated in 1/2 MS containing 1.0 mg.L
BA and 1.0 mg.L
NAA. Colony formation is an important step leading to the regeneration of the plants.
Photosynthetic Photon Flux (PPF) Affects Growth, Photosynthesis and Acclimatization of Phalaenopsis 'Amaglade' Plantlets
Shin, Yun-Kyung ; Yoon, Yeo-Jung ; Hahn, Eun-Joo ; Paek, Kee-Yoeup ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 476~481
Phalaenopsis 'Amaglade' plantlets were cultured in vitro under different photosynthetic photon flux (15, 30, 60, 90
) to investigate characteristics of growth, photosynthesis, and acclimatization. CO
concentration inside the culture vessel was maintained the highest at 15
both day and night, while maintained the lowest at 60
. Photosynthetic rate started to increase just before the beginning darkness and maintained high level until the end of darkness, showing a typical CAM photosynthesis. Plantlet growth was greater at high PPFs (60, 90
) compared with low PPFs (15, 30
). Low PPFs decreased fresh weight, dry weight, and leaf and root development. After acclimatization, photosynthetic rate was measured at days 2, 15, and 40, respectively. Photosynthetic rates dropped right after acclimatization in all plantlets, increased thereafter and reached normal level after 40 days of acclimatization. Plantlets cultured at a high PPF of 60
showed the highest photosynthetic rate, shoot and root growth, and 100% of plantlet survival at the end of acclimatization, while those cultured at a 15
PPF exhibited the lowest plantlet growth and survival (66.7%). The results indicate that the increase of PPF level was crucial for both growth and acclimatization of Phalaenopsis 'Amaglade' plantlets.
Direct Somatic Embryogenesis and Plant Regeneration from Plumules of Hot Pepper Seedlings
Han, Jeung-Sul ; Kim, Jin-Hwa ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 482~488
A regeneration protocol via direct somatic embryogenesis from the plumules of in vitro-sown seedlings was developed in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). To induce somatic embryogenesis of hot pepper, the effects of various culture conditions and genotypes were evaluated. After mature seeds were directly sown on a modified Murashige and Skoog's medium for pepper (MMSP) supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), and high sucrose, the germination rate, formation of callus, and somatic embryogenesis were checked. The germinated seedlings of selected MC-12 and CCA323 among tested genotypes were transferred to plant growth regulator (PGR)-free MMSP, and then the frequency of somatic embryogenesis was investigated. The somatic embryogenesis from plumules of hot pepper seedlings was affected by cytokinins in particular genotypes: the frequency of somatic embryogeneis was decreased on the sowing media with more than 1 mg.L
BA and the transplanting medium with zeatin. Meanwhile, the partial substitution with D-mannitol for high sucrose did not influence the somatic embyrogeneis. Collectively, the highest rate (38.3%) of somatic embryo induction from plumule was obtained when the seeds of 'MC-12' inbred line were sown on the MMSP with 2 mg.L
2,4-D, 1 mg.L
BA, and 80 g.L
sucrose at 25
with illumination for 16 hours each day, and then transferred into the MMSP with no PGR and 30 g.L
sucrose. Isolated somatic embryos germinated into normal plantlets after sub-culturing to PGR-free MMSP. The regenerants were easily acclimatized in a greenhouse and grew into mature plants. Most of the somatic embryo-derived plants were undistinguishable from the wild-type ones by their phenotypes except for only one somaclonal variant. In addition, all of the somatic embryo-derived mature plants normally set the fruits and generated the next progenies. We believe that the present results might be helpful for incorporating into a genetic engineering system in hot pepper.
Quantification of Quercetin and Kaempferol Contents in Different Parts of Cudrania tricuspidata and Their Processed Foods
Kim, Jin-Young ; Chung, Jin-Ho ; Hwang, In ; Kwan, Yong-Seok ; Chai, Jung-Ki ; Lee, Kye-Han ; Han, Tae-Ho ; Moon, Jae-Hak ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 489~496
Contents of quercetin (Q) and kaempferol (K) in fruits, roots, and leaves of Cudrania tricuspidata and their processed foods (fruit liquor, root liquor, and leaf tea) before and after hydrolysis were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Total contents of Q (58.82
2.49 mg) and K (26.82
0.66 mg) in the leaves were higher than those in the fruits (Q, 5.70
0.02 mg; K, 2.58
0.02 mg) and roots (Q, 1.60
0.01 mg; K, 2.93
0.02 mg). The results suggest that a large portion of Q (95%) and K (93%) contained in the leaves, fruits, and roots exist in glycoside forms. However, the contents of Q and K in the processed foods were consistently and markedly reduced [fruit liquor, 90% (Q) and 89.8% (K); root liquor, 74.5% (Q) and 76.2% (K); leaf tea, 94% (Q) and 87% (K)] in comparison with raw materials (fruits, roots, and leaves); it is likely due to oxidative conversion of components contained in the materials during storage and processing. This quantitative analysis of components of C. tricuspidata may prove to be valuable as fundamental data for plant physiological research, estimation of bioactivity, and research on storage and processing of C. tricuspidata.
Effect of a Horticultural Program with Nutrition Emphasis on Preschool Children to Promote Healthy Eating Habits
Park, Seong-Hyun ; Huh, Moo-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 497~502
A horticultural program with a hands-on gardening and nutrition emphasis was taught to determine the effect it had on promoting healthy eating habits of preschool children. Sixty preschool children aging 5 to 7 participated in this study. Children in the experimental group participated in a one-hour horticultural program that occurred twice a week for 4 months. Activity room and outside garden in the preschool were used for the horticultural program. The Food Preference Questionnaire (FPQ), the Dietary Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Horticultural Program Evaluation (HPE), and demographic measures were obtained before and after the program. Children in the horticultural program had significantly more positive outcomes than those in the control group. Measurement of the FPQ was significantly different between two groups (P<0.0001). Among the FPQ subcategories, fruit and vegetable preferences did significantly increase over the course of the program for the experimental group, especially for the fruits and vegetables that children grew themselves during the program. Horticultural program made a statistically significant impact on differences in the DBQ scores between groups as well (P=0.005). Children in the experimental group had improved dietary behavior as compared to the control group. Positive outcomes were also noted in the HPE for the experimental group indicated by high preference of the program. In conclusion, the horticultural program with a gardening and nutrition emphasis was effective in preschool children to promote healthy eating habits by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Further research is needed to clarify long-term benefits of gardening-based nutrition education program for promoting healthy behaviors and preventing obesity and other negative impacts across childhood and throughout adolescence.
Effect of Different Greening Periods on Antioxidant Activities of Sprout Vegetables of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. and Saussurea pulchella (Fisch.) Fisch
Shin, So-Lim ; Chang, Young-Deug ; Jeon, A-Rueom ; Lee, Cheol-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 503~510
Present studies were conducted to examine the effects of different treatments on antioxidant activities, antioxidant levels and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in sprout vegetables of Coreopsis tinctoria and Saussurea pulchella. C. tinctoria exhibited higher scavenging activities on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals by 3 days of greening, higher ABTS
[(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt] scavenging activities by 1 day, higher ferrous ion chelating effects by 3 days, higher flavonoid contents by 1 day, and higher inhibition of peroxidation of lipids by 1 day. Sprout vegetable of S. pulchella showed higher levels of polyphenol compounds after 1 day treatment. Both species had higher antioxidant activities compared to commercially available sprout vegetables such as bean, pea, red cabbage, and broccoli, demonstrating the great potential for use as sprout vegetables. As period of greening treatment influences antioxidant activities of vegetables, it seems to be reasonable that different greening periods should employed during vegetable growth to get maximum benefits out of sprout vegetables, like the 2 species tested in this research.
Current Research Status of Postharvest Technology of Grape
Jang, Seong-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 3, 2009, Pages 511~520
The grape has been classified as a non-climacteric fruit with a relatively low physiological activity. However, some studies report that transient increase of endogenous ethylene production occurs just before verasion. Major problems after harvest include stem browning, berry shattering, wilting of berry, and gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea. The grape is stored at -1 to 0
with 90 to 95% RH. Constant low temperature and high RH are important to control water loss and decay. Preharvest applications of chitosan, abscisic acid, ethephon, or ethanol improve grape quality (skin color, decay, and weight loss) and shelf-life. Chitosan, UV irradiation, eugenol or thymol, sulfur dioxide, and chlorine dioxide gas are treated on grape after harvest in order to extend shelf-life and preserve quality. Controlled atmosphere or modified atmosphere packaging can be used as supplemental treatments to extend postharvest-life. 2-5% O
+ 1-3% CO
is currently recommended for table grapes. SO
is used for decay control. 10-15% CO
in air can be used to control gray mold. Optimum range of temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric composition depends on the cultivar.