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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Affecting Asparagus officinalis Shoot and Root Growth Characteristics with CPPU Foliar Sprays and Soil Drench
Ku, Yang-Gyu ; Woolley, David J. ; Ahn, Sung-Ju ; Lee, Jeong-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 167~171
The effect of foliar spray and soil drench applications of N1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N3-phenylurea (CPPU) on shoot (fern) numbers, fern height, axillary bud break, root number and bud production were investigated. A soil drench with CPPU stimulated fern production, but applying CPPU (
) to foliage of 'Jersey Giant' seedlings reduced the numbers of ferns. Since CPPU is poorly transported these results suggest that CPPU may be stimulating the production in the fern of a mobile inhibitor of shoot production. In contrast, CPPU applied directly to the crown buds using a soil drench could act directly in stimulating bud outgrowth, as is typical of cytokinin-like substances. CPPU as a foliar spray or soil drench stimulated the height of initial ferns, but decreased the height of subsequent ferns. All CPPU treatments significantly enhanced axillary bud break of the fern compared to the control. Although CPPU, applied as a soil drench, was effective in promoting fern production, it did not influence root and crown bud numbers.
Effect of Waterlogging Conditions on the Growth, Root Activities and Nutrient Content of 'Campbell Early' Grapevine
Kang, Seok-Beom ; Lee, In-Bog ; Park, Jin-Myeon ; Lim, Tae-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 172~179
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of waterlogging conditions on the growth, root activities and nutrient contents of two-year old 'ampbell Early'grapevine (Vitis labrusca L.) under waterlogged condition from June 15 to July 27, 2005. For the experiment, two-year old grapevine seedlings were transplanted to 40 L pot with a sandy loam soil. Treatments consisted of non-waterlogging (control) with controlled at -40 kPa of soil water tension (NW), waterlogging with continuous aeration to supplying dissolved oxygen (WO), waterlogging with exchange of water twice a week (WE), and continuous waterlogging without aeration as well as exchange of water (WL). Eh of waterlogged soil (WO, WE and WL) maintained as reduction status of 70-80
20 mV but control was maintained as oxidation status of 520
60 mV during the experiment. The growth of shoot length, fresh and dry weight of grapevine by aeration (WO) was not significant among the waterlogged grapevine but had higher tendency than WE and WL treatments, except control. Nitrogen contents of leaf and petiole in waterlogged grapevines were not different among the treatments. P, K, Ca and Mg contents of waterlogged grapevine were reduced, but it' of leaf and petiole was higher in WO than in WE. However, Na contents of petiole in waterlogged condition were significantly increased compared to control. Formazan content of roots was higher in WO (0.466 mg
) than in WE and WL, but was not different in control (0.496 mg
). These data show that supplying dissolved oxygen by aeration could alleviate water stress which reduced growth and nutrient content of grapevine caused exhausting dissolved oxygen by waterlogging. However, aeration effect varied with situation, thus searching for a proper method to supply dissolved oxygen in waterlogged condition is very important to control the waterlogged situation which occurred in our vineyard.
Effect of Short Daylength and Temperature Control on Garlic Florogenesis
Ahn, Yul-Kyun ; Yoon, Moon-Kyoung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 180~185
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of short daylength and temperature control on garlic florogenesis. The number of days to varies among the clones. The earliest plant was '8611' at 165 days and the latest plants were in '9210', '9211' at 205 days in the short daylength and temperature control. In the time to bolting, the plants grown in the short daylength and temperature control were early than those in plastic house. The shape of bolting is different depending on genotype. The number of flowers and bulbils in an umbel varies from less than 30 to 396 and from 37 to 186 in the natural condition, respectively. The ratio of flower to bulbils were 0.8 to 3.1. The number of flowers and bulbils in an umbel varies from less than 19 to 154 and from 3.5 to 87.7 in the short daylength and temperature control, respectively. The high ratio of flower to bulbils were observed in '99-6-13', '9-9-6', '94-12-2'; however, the number of flowers decreased in the short daylength and temperature control. Reduced number of small and easy to remove bulbils remarkably reduces labor in cross breeding; hence, this method is a more efficient breeding process for garlic cross breeding.
Changes of Cysteine, Glutathione and Ascorbic Acid Content in Chinese Cabbage, Head Lettuce and Spinach by the Growth Stage
Kim, Ju-Sung ; Shim, Ie-Sung ; Kim, Il-Seop ; Kim, Myong-Jo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 186~191
This study was conducted to gather basic information on the relationship between growth condition and formation of the functional substances in plants. Several vegetable crops were screened in consideration of glutathione and ascorbic acid contents; vegetable consumption amount was also used as a selection criteria. Chinese cabbage and spinach were selected for their higher glutathione contents and head lettuce for its lower. The different tendency of relationship between the growth condition of each plant and the glutathione content was observed. When vegetables were grown at various combination ratios of andosol, river sand, and compost, the growth rate was the highest at the ratios of 6.5:3.5:2.0. The glutathione content in Chinese cabbage and head lettuce differed depending on the soil condition, while it did not differ in spinach. Glutathione and ascorbic acid contents were higher at four-leaf stages than two-leaf stages of each vegetable. Moreover, they were higher in the young leaves than the old leaves of each seedling. These results suggest that the functional substances such as glutathione and ascorbic acid in vegetables are changed with the growth stage. Therefore, growth conditions to obtain their highest contents should be studied further.
Growth of Syngonium podophyllum in Drainless Containers Fitted with Drainage Layers
Jang, Hye-Sook ; Lee, Sang-Gyu ; Moon, Ji-Hye ; Pak, Chun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 192~199
This experiment reviewed the growth reaction of Syngonium podophyllum when grown in a drainless container that is fitted with a drainage layer, 1 cm to 3 cm in depth, using charcoal, germanium stone and hydro ball as substrate additions. According to the results, the use of geranium-gravel is most effective in fostering growth related to the plant height, number of leaves and fresh weight shoot. The corresponding results according to the depth of the drainage layer indicate that a drainage layer of 3 cm in depth is most effective for the growth of plant height and the number of leaves. There was no significant difference when the drainage layer was 1 cm deep, save in the case of root growth, wherein it displayed the most comparative growth among the control group, indicating a significant difference to when only drainless containers were used. There was no difference in the amount of chlorophyll. The root activity factor, however, was 2.9
which was 70% higher than under the charcoal treatment, which displayed the lowest result among the study group. The quantity of inorganic components, T-N and K, of the Syngonium podophyllum varied according the material of the drainage layer while the quantity of T-N, K and Ca varied according the depth of drainage-layer.
Variation of Glucosinolate Content in the Root of Susceptible and Resistant Chinese Cabbage Cultivars during Development of Clubroot Disease
Lee, Jun-Gu ; Kim, Jeom-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 200~208
Variations of major glucosinolate (GS) contents in root among 35 clubroot-resistant and -susceptible Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp. pekinensis) cultivars cultivated on infected soil were evaluated. Two indolic (glucobrassicin and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin) and one phenyl GS (gluconasturtiin) were identified as major GSs in Chinese cabbage root. Among the three identified GSs, the contents of glucobrassicin and gluconasturtiin were found to be positively correlated with the clubroot disease severity (
=0.519), while the 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin content was negatively correlated (
=0.684). After artificial infection with P. brassicae, the glucobrassicin and gluconasturtiin contents in root increased after 20 days in only the two susceptible cultivars 'Chilsung' and 'Kangryeok-Yeorum', while the content changes in the two resistant cultivars 'CR-kangta' and 'CR-saerona' were not significant. The 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin content significantly decreased in the two susceptible cultivars from 20 days after infection, showing the inverse fluctuation compared to the other GSs. Consequently, we could detect the characteristic positive or negative correlation of individual GS with clubroot disease severity and rapid fluctuation of GS contents after infection in Chinese cabbage root.
Effects of Pesticides on Pear Pollen Germination and Pollen Tube Elongation
Kang, Sam-Seok ; Kim, Yoon-Kyeong ; Jeong, Sang-Bouk ; Cho, Kwang-Sik ; Choi, Jang-Jeon ; Han, Jeam-Wha ; Lee, Hee-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 209~215
Pear pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in artificial medium were evaluated following the application of ten pesticides which are generally used at flowering period. Pollen germination was not significantly affected by abamectin, fenarimol, and myclobutanil sprayed on the medium immediately after pollen sowing. On the other hand, kresoxim-methyl and mancozeb were most inhibitory. Intermediate inhibitory effects on pollen germination were also observed in the sprays of azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, difenoconazole, dithianon, and imidacloprid. Pollen tube elongation was not affected by myclobutanil spray in 'Wonwhang' and 'Chuwhangbae' pear cultivars.Intermediate inhibitory effects were observed in the sprays of azoxystrobin + difenoconazole, difenoconazole, and mancozeb. Dithianon and kresoxim-methyl were most inhibitory in pollen tube elongation. As the result of cluster analysis, pollen germination and pollen tube elongation type of the pear cultivars could be divided into five groups by three pesticides.
Investigation of Ginsenosides in Different Parts of Panax ginseng Cultured by Hydroponics
Kim, Geum-Soog ; Hyun, Dong-Yun ; Kim, Young-Ock ; Lee, Seung-Eun ; Kwon, Hyuck ; Cha, Seon-Woo ; Park, Chung-Berm ; Kim, Young-Bum ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 216~226
It has been known that 4-6 years old roots of Panax ginseng are used traditionally for medicinal purpose as white ginseng or steamed red ginseng. In this research, the contents and composition of ginsenoside in different parts such as root, leaf, and stem of Panax gingeng were investigated after short term hydroponics in several kinds of mixed culture media for 120 days to evaluate Panax ginseng as new functional vegetables. Total ginsenoside contents of root and leaf were higher on the ginsengs cultured after planting on March 25, 2008 (PMar) than planting on January 20, 2008 (PJan), regardless of the kinds of mixed culture media. Especially, total ginsenoside contents in root and leaf were the highest as 1.47 (T5 culture medium; Loess:Perlite:Expanded rice hull mixed 4:3:3) and 16.06% (T6 culture medium; Sand:Horticultural substrate mixed 4:6), respectively. On the other hand, the content of total ginsenoside in stem was higher in PJan, and the content was the highest as 1.39% in T5 culture medium. Rh1 that is hardly detected in 4-6 years old ginseng root was contained in leaf of hydroponics ginseng as 0.15-0.25% (T5, T6). Leaf of hydroponics ginseng showed that Rd was second ingredient next to Rg1, differently from ginseng root. The ratio of protopanaxdiol (PD) and protopanaxatriol saponins (PT) in root, leaf, and stem of Panax ginseng were lower than root of 4-6 years old ginseng as 0.5-0.6, 0.5-0.7, and 0.1-0.2 (PJan, PMar; T5, T6), respectively. Conclusively, T5 and T6 culture media of PMar condition were the most excellent hydroponics condition due to high ginsenoside content, and the content of total ginsenoside in leaf was significantly higher than in root and stem, which suggested that the whole ginseng plant including root, leaf, and stem might be an excellent source as new functional vegetables.
Water Content Characteristics of Coconut Coir Substrates on Different Mixture Ratios and Irrigation Rates and Times
Park, Sung-Tae ; Choi, Ki-Young ; Lee, Yong-Beom ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 227~233
This experiment was conducted to investigate the water content characteristics of coconut coir substrates on component (dust + fiber or chip) ratios and irrigation rates and times using FDR (Frequency domain reflectometry) sensor for rose in bag culture (35 L) hydroponics from January to May 2008. When water supply rate was 60 mL, average water contents of substrate were 48.7, 42.7, 37.1, 35.8 and 34.8% for 0, 10, 20, 30 and 50% of fiber mixed substrates, respectively and 51.1, 45.3, 37.6 and 30.3% in 0, 30, 60 and 80% of chip mixed substrates, respectively. The margins between maximum and average water contents were the smallest for the substrates with 20% fiber and 30% chip. Substrate with 20-30% of fiber or chip looked appropriate for hydroponics because of low water content variation. Water content changes by water supply rates were investigated with 20% of fiber mixed substrates. The total amount of daily water supply was 600 mL per plant with 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 or 150 mL each time. The average, minimum and maximum water contents of the substrates were 35.4-37.7, 31.7-34.1 and 37.4-41.4%, respectively. It was possible to reach average water content with water supply over 60 mL each time. Margin between average water content and minimum water content was the smallest with water supply of 60-90 mL each time. The water supply of 60-90 mL each time was proper for the coconut coir substrate with 20% fiber.
Insect Disinfestation and Quality Change of 'Fuyu' Persimmon Fruit Influenced by Hot-water Treatment Methods and MAP Storage
Lee, Yong-Jae ; Park, Young-Hoon ; Kim, Keun-Ki ; Lee, Heung-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 234~241
This study was performed to establish an effective method of hot-water treatment and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) storage for disinfestating insects that disturb quarantine and the quality preservation of sweet persimmon fruits during postharvest storage and shipping. Hot-water dipping was treated at 15
for 10 min., 48
for 10 min., and 50
for 5 min., and hot-water brush was treated at 15
for 20 sec., 60
for 10 sec., and 60
for 20 sec. For a simulated shipping condition at 20
, the fruit samples were evaluated 5 days after treatment. For MAP storage, the sample were either packaged individually or in five-fruit units and stored for 60 and 120 days. The insects were investigated immediately after storage, and fruit quality was evaluated after simulated shipping for 3 days at 20
. No fruit disorder by hot-water was observed from the simulated shipping for 5 days at 20
after hot-water treatment. Higher visual fruit quality was observed from hot-water brushing in comparison to hot-water dipping. Fruit blackening occurred from untreated control and 15
water treatment, while it was suppressed from hot-water treatment. All (100%) mites, collembolan, and Eriococcus lagerstroemiae, which were observed in our study, were killed by hot-water dipping at 48
for 10 min., but many of them survived from hot-water brushing. Although a number of insects could be destroyed by MAP storage without hot-water treatment, MAP storage alone was not effective enough to completely remove the insects. In conclusion, insect disinfestation was more effectively achieved by hot-water dipping, while better fruit quality was maintained after hot-water brushing. The best treatment to control insects and at the same time suppress fruit quality deterioration was hot-water dipping at 48
for 10 min., which can be applied practically in the industry.
The Change of Ethylene Production, Respiration, and Flesh Firmness as Influenced by Treatment with Aminoethoxyvinylglycine and 1-Methycyclopropene in 'Fuyu' Persimmon Fruits Stored at Low Temperature
Choi, Seong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 242~247
Non-astringent 'Fuyu' persimmon fruits has an excellent crispy texture due to a firm flesh. The flesh, however, softens rapidly, if the fruits are exposed to an ambient temperature after low temperature storage. Softening is the most ethylene sensitive ripening response, thus in this study the ethylene production of the fruits was investigated in relation to the flesh softening. The 'Fuyu' fruits produced and accumulated only very small amounts of ethylene and ACC, especially during storage at low temperature. The flesh firmness was also well maintained for 4 months so long as they were stored at a low temperature. Such a reduced softening rate seems to be closely related to the inhibited ethylene production at low temperature. However, longer storage at low temperature resulted in more rapid softening when exposed to an ambient temperature. Immediately after exposure to ambient temperature, the fruits showed a transitional ethylene peak concomitantly with a respiration burst. The AVG treatment could not only inhibit the transitional ethylene production, but rather shortened the time to the initiation of climateric ethylene production. Unlike AVG, 1-MCP reduced the respiration burst and effectively retarded the softening rate at the ambient temperature.
Effect of Storage Temperature on Chilling Injury and Fruit Quality of Muskmelon
Lim, Byung-Seon ; Hong, Sae-Jin ; Oh, Su-Hwan ; Chung, Dae-Sung ; Kim, Kee-Hong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 248~253
The effects of storage temperature on the incidence of skin browning disorder and decay, and quality changes in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Reticulatus) were investigated in different cultivars and harvest seasons. Melons were harvested at commercial maturity, stored at 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20
for two weeks in netted muskmelon 'Earl's' or 4 weeks in non-netted muskmelon 'Homerun Star'. The incidence of skin browning was 100% after 2 weeks of storage at 0 and 2
, and also after 3 weeks storage at 5 and 10
in 'Homerun Star' fruit. This symptom appeared more quickly and severely in the fruits stored at lower temperatures. The decay in 'Earl's' fruit was induced by Ascochyta sp. and Fusarium semitectum. The fruits harvested in summer season decayed up to 100% and 33% after 1 week storage at 20
, respectively. No decay was observed on fruit harvested in autumn season at the same storage temperature. Only 12% of fruit decayed even after 2 weeks of storage at 20
and no decayed fruit was found at 10ºC. When the stored fruits were transferred to 20
after 2 weeks at 0, 2, 5, 10 and 20
, the sensory quality was lower in fruit stored at lower temperatures such as 0 and 2
than 5 to 10
The Practical 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatment Method for Preventing Post-storage Softening of 'Fuyu' Persimmon Fruits
Ahn, Gwang-Hwan ; Choi, Seong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 254~258
1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), the gaseous ethylene action inhibitor, is an effective compound for delaying post-storage flesh softening of 'Fuyu' persimmon fruits. Conventionally, 1-MCP is treated on fruits in storage room by dissolving SmartFreshTR powder, the 1-MCP generating agent, in water. In this study, the practical methods were positively worked out when a small portion or a dilute of SmartFresh, either stuck on adhesive tape or premixed with silica powder, was enclosed directly into a modified atmosphere (MA) packaged fruit box. The 1-MCP gas was generated from the SmartFresh by absorbing moisture from atmosphere of the package. Treatments by these methods delayed the post-storage softening of 'Fuyu' persimmon as effectively as the conventional method.
Introduction of Ac/Ds Transposon System to Chinese Cabbage for Insertional Mutagenesis
Yu, Jae-Gyeong ; Lee, Mi-Kyung ; Woo, Eun-Taek ; Eom, Seok-Hyun ; Kim, Jung-Sun ; Park, Young-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 259~264
Insertional mutagenesis has proven to be a useful method for the isolation of genes defined by a mutant phenotype. Now Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposon system has become a very popular tool for gene tagging and functional genomics in various plant species. This study was carried out to produce a large number of insertional mutant lines by using Ac/Ds transposon system. To apply Ac/Ds transposon system, hypocotyl explants of Chinese cabbage 'CT001' (inbred line, Carrotop Seed Co., Korea) were transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method using Agrobacterium GV3101 strain harboring the activation tagging T-DNA vector, pJJ91. Thirty three pJJ91 transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis. Then, the finally selected 23 lines were treated with four different levels (2, 5, 10, and 15
M) of dexamethasone (DEX) to activate Ac and to transpose Ds by spraying to stigma at fertilization stage. We established that the pollination after 5 or 10
M DEX spray was an appropriate treatment condition for Ds transposition in Chinese cabbage transgenic plant with pJJ91 vector. The 340 bp PCR product that was the expected size after transposition of Ds fragment in T1-progeny was shown and sequenced. Southern blot analysis of T
transgenic plants was conducted to analyze the possibility of Ds transposition under DEX treatments. From PCR and Southern blot analysis, 8 of 23 lines showed Ds transpositions to other sites of genome. These results mean that Ac/Ds transposon system could be applied to Chinese cabbage for production of large scale insertional mutant lines.
Effects of CMV Resistant Gene Introduced Pepper Line on the Life Span of Green Peach Aphid
Chun, Yong-Shik ; Na, Ja-Hyun ; Shin, Jae-Hyub ; Nam, Young-Woo ; Ryoo, Mun-Il ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 265~269
The life table statistics of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sülzer) on CMV resistant gene introduced pepper (Capsicum annuum L., H15 line) was compared with that on the non transgenic control pepper line (P2377 line) without the introduction of the gene at 23
. Adult life span of M. persicae on the 'P2377' and 'H15' lines were similar to each other; 26.88 and 25.92 days for 'P2377' and 'H15', respectively. Numbers of nymphs produced per female and net reproduction rate were also similar to each other; the net reproduction rate of M. persicae on 'P2377' was 64.13 per generation and that on 'H15' was 66.43. The intrinsic rate of increase of M. persicae on 'P2377' and 'H15' were also estimated to be similar to each other (0.294 and 0.299 per day for 'P2377' and 'H15', respectively). The results suggested that the transgenic pepper line (H15) did not affect the life span of M. persicae.
Development of Molecular Marker Linked to a Genic Male-Sterile Gene, msk in Chili Pepper
Lee, Jun-Dae ; Lee, Won-Phil ; Han, Jung-Heon ; Yoon, Jae-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 270~274
Male sterility is the most important trait for F
hybrid seed production in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). Although cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CGMS) system has advantages in aspects of cultivar development and variety protection, a genic male sterility (GMS) system has been used for producing hybrid seeds with the advantages of using diverse germplasm of different cytoplasm and restorers, stable male sterility, and short duration for cultivar development. In Korea, a GMS ms
line has been used as an alternative of CGMS in some pepper breeding materials showing unstable CGMS. In this study, we aimed to develop msk-linked markers for increasing selection efficiency of maternal male sterile lines. Two F
segregating populations (GMSK-1 and GMSK-2) were made by selfing hybrids (Ms
) and subjected to BSA-AFLP using 256 primer combinations (E-GNN/M-ANN). Among four reproducible polymorphic primer combinations (E-GAG/M-ACG, E-GTA/M-ACG, E-GTC/M-ACG and E-GGG/M-ATC), an AFLP marker E-GTA/M-ACG
was converted to a codominant cleavage amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) marker by using PCR walking method. This marker, named GMSK-CAPS, cosegregates with ms
gene with estimated linkage distance 0 cM. The marker validity has been confirmed and the marker is being used for breeding maternal lines of GMS in Korean chili pepper.
Detection Method for Genetically Modified Carnation Plants Using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Lee, Jea-Eun ; Yoo, Sang-Jin ; Park, Young-Doo ; Kim, Hae-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 275~280
A multiplex PCR method was developed to simultaneously detect two transformation vectors (pCGP1470 and pCGP1991) used in the development of GM carnation plants (Moonvista, Moonaqua, Moonshadow, Moonlite, Moonshade, and Moodust). To screen for GM carnation plants, one specific primer was designed from acetolactate synthase (SuRB/ALS) terminator sequence. The anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) was also used as an endogenous reference gene of carnation in PCR detection. The primer pair ANS-KF/KR producing 100 bp amplicon was used to amplify the ANS gene and no amplified product was observed in any of the 10 different plants used as a template. The primer pair C1991-KF/KR was designed to amplify the junction sequence between dihydroflavonol reductase (DFR) gene and DFR terminator in pCGP1991. To confirm pCGP1470, the primer pair C1470-KF/KR was designed to cover the junction sequence between Mac promoter and DFR gene. The detection limit of the multiplex PCR method is approximately 1%. This result indicates that this multiplex PCR method could be a useful tool for monitoring unauthorized GM carnation in Korea.
Analysis of Hybridization in Korean Ecotypes of Poa pratensis L. Using RAPD and SCAR Markers
Hyun, Soo-Jung ; Shim, Sang-Ryul ; Ahn, Byung-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 281~287
Ecotypes of Poa pratensis that exhibit desirable traits as turfgrass such as fast proliferation for ground covering and environmental tolerances were collected in southern Korea. Like most typical varieties of Kentucky bluegrass, the ecotypes had varying levels of apomixis which resulted in low hybridization efficiency. Therefore, experiments were carried out to (1) develop genotype-specific RAPD and SCAR markers, and (2) to determine hybridization rates among the ecotypes and to aid the selection of desirable hybrids. Hybridization among the ecotypes and improved cultivars such as Midnight', 'Unique', 'Challenger', 'Award', and 'Blacksburg' were performed using an in vitro hybridization technique. From 115 crossing combinations among 47 ecotypes and improved cultivars, 8,612 progeny plants were obtained. Desirable progenies were identified in '2-73' which was outstanding in ground covering from a seeded plug as well as its fine texture with darker blue leaf color, and '31-40', which showed relatively early spring green-up. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of 27 ecotypes and 5 improved cultivars were examined using OPB primers of 4, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 18, and twenty polymorphic markers were obtained. Sequences for six of the polymorphic RAPD bands were developed into Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) markers. The SCAR markers were useful in determining crossing rates between the ecotypes and the improved cultivars used as pollen parents. They were also used to confirm the hybridization of selected progenies like '2-73' ('P77'
'Midnight') by the presence of a SCAR marker of the pollen parent.
Accumulation of Cell Biomass Anthraquinones, Phenolics, and Flavonoids as Affected by Auxin, Cytokinin, and Medium Salt Strength in Cell Suspension Culture of Morinda citrifolia
Shim, Kyu-Man ; Hahn, Eun-Joo ; Jeon, Won-Kyung ; Paek, Kee-Yoeup ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 288~294
Morida citrifolia cells were cultured with various medium compositions to determine optimal conditions of auxin, cytokinin and medium salt strength for cell biomass and secondary metabolite accumulation. Cell growth was enhanced by NAA (3.0
) and IBA (5.0 and 7.0
), while the accumulation of secondary metabolites (total anthraquinones, phenolics and flavonoids) was inhibited by auxin. The combination of 3.0
NAA and 0.9
BA accelerated the accumulation of secondary metabolites. The optimal MS medium strength for cell biomass and secondary metabolites differed: Cell growth was maximized at 1 MS, while the secondary metabolite contents reached the highest at 2 MS. The results suggested that a two-stage culture method is required for the cell suspension culture of Morinda citrifolia: Two different culture media should be supplied for the accumulation of cell biomass and secondary metabolites.
Gametophyte Development of the Moss Bartramia pomiformis under in Vitro Culture Condition
Ahmed, Giush Uddin ; Chang, Young-Deug ; Lee, Cheol-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 295~300
The present studies were conducted to develop a mass micropropagation system for Bartramia pomiformis. Spores of B. pomiformis were germinated in vitro and gametophytic development was examined by observing development of primary and secondary protonema. In vitro cultures of indehiscent mature spores yielded primary protonema and suspension cultures of gametophytes secondary protonema. Distinctive bud development of gametophytes was obtained from comparative studies of primary and secondary protonema. The time taken for bud induction was shorter in secondary protonema. After the transition of chloronema, the highest percentage of caulonema was observed from secondary protonema. Caulonemae from a secondary protonema were thicker-walled and darker than those from primary protonema when grown on the same media. During the differentiation stage, bud induction formed three-faced apical cells for primary protonema and multi-faced for secondary protonema. Gametophytes also produced gemmae, rhizoid and stoloniferous caulonema as specialized propagules. The most pertinent morphological finding in these studies was that it took different amounts of time for growth of single caulonema strands and for bud initiation.
Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Sporophyte Formation from in Vitro Cultured Prothallus of Bracken Fern
Shin, So-Lim ; Lee, Moo-Yeul ; Choi, Jae-Sun ; Lee, Cheol-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 301~306
Present studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of composts, prothallus chopping time, inoculation amounts, and growth regulators on sporophyte formation from prothallus of edible Pterdium quilinum var. latiusculum. Horticultural compost was most effective in sporophyte formation and growth from chopped prothallus among 8 different soil media containing horticultural compost, peatmoss alone or with vermiculite and perlite. On chopping the prothallus using grinder for 5 to 30 second, optimum prothallus chopping time was 10 seconds for excellent sporophyte formation and growth. Various amounts of prothalli, ranged from 0.5 to 4 g, were placed on horticultural compost. Optimum amount of prothallus inoculation for the best sporophyte formation was 2 g when growing on 9
14 cm pots. To determine the optimum kind and concentration of plant growth regulator, and soaking time on formation and growth of sporophyte from prothalli, 2 g of prothalli were soaking in 20, 50, 100
of GA3, NAA, kinetin, IAA, and BA for 1, 3, 6 hours. After wash and grind for 10 seconds, prothalli were cultured on horticultural composts. The most efficient condition for sporophyte formation was observed with soaking in 50
GA3 for 3 hours, while the vigorous growth of sporophytes was in 100
NAA for 6 hours.
Highly Efficient Shoot Regeneration from Cotyledonary Nodes of Vegetable Soybean
Liu, Qian-Qian ; Chen, Gang ; Gai, Jun-Yi ; Zhu, Yue-Lin ; Yang, Li-Fei ; Wei, Guo-Ping ; Wang, Cong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 307~313
To establish a highly efficient system for shoot regeneration in vegetable soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill), explants were obtained from six genotypes and adventitious shoots were regenerated from cotyledonary nodes cultured on medium supplemented with different concentrations of N-phenyl-N'-1, 2, 3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron TDZ) and 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA). The most effective combination of plant growth regulators was selected first and then the effects of medium types, inoculation methods and genotypic differences on shoot regeneration were studied. The explants were inserted either vertically or horizontally into the medium and five basal media, including B5, 1/2 B5, MS, 1/2 MS, and MSB (MS salts and B5 organics), were tested. The shoot regeneration frequency of the six genotypes ranged from 53.5% to 88.9% and three of them reached 88.9%, 87.5% and 83.3%, respectively, on B5 medium supplemented with 1
NAA, and 5
. The shoot regeneration frequency of explants cultured on B5 medium was significantly higher than that of the other four basal media. The vertically inserted explants were found to yield a higher shoot regeneration frequency than that of horizontally inserted ones; the maximum difference of regenerating percentages between the two methods was 37.5%. In summary, TDZ was an efficient plant growth regulator for shoot induction. B5 medium and vertically inserted explants promoted shoot regeneration. We believe this highly efficient shoot regeneration system will provide foundation for the further transgenic studies in vegetable soybean.
Effect of the Ecological Horticultural Activity Program of the Nature School on Elementary School Student's Self-esteem and Sociability
Nam, Jo-Eun ; Jang, Eu-Jean ; Pak, Chun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 314~318
In this study, we conducted pre- and post surveys on the nature school program implemented at Songchon-ri Camp Ground in Namyangju, Gyeonggi Province, organized by the Institute of Light Finders, targeting as treatment group, 73 elementary school students who participated in the horticultural activity program through weekend nature school in the wild and the control group, another 73 elementary students who did not participate. After an examination of self-esteem and sociability in treatment group and control group pre- and post-horticultural activity program, both self-esteem and its sub-areas in the control group improved at the P<0.05 level (p=0.161) but exhibited no statistically significant difference while both self-esteem and its sub-areas in the treatment group improved at the P<0.05 level (p=0.000), indicating a statistically significant increase. While sociability in the control group showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.025), there was no statistical difference in the three sub-areas of sociability -confidence, sociability, interpersonal relations (P>0.05). On the other hand, there was a statistically significant increase at the P<0.05 level in the treatment group in sociability and its three sub-areas (p=0.000). As a result, the weekend nature school's horticultural activity program was evaluated and analyzed as being effective for children's positive development of self-esteem and sociability. Also, we discovered that children's horticultural activity is more beneficial when it occurs in the early stage of their development because that is when children's emotional scope expands and view widens.
Effect of Various Horticultural Therapy Programs on Emotional Behavior and Social Skill of Intellectually-Challenged People
Lee, Min-Jung ; Kim, Hong-Yul ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 319~323
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the effects of four horticultural therapy programs: pressed flower, planting, flower decoration, and topiary on the emotional behavior and social skill of intellectually-challenged people. The research was conducted from January 4th, 2007 to November 28th, 2008. The test results of persons with social skill showed a significant difference in each group at the level of P<0.05 and group analysis revealed that the flower decoration program has more favorable effects on all groups than the other programs. The emotional behavior test results also showed a significant difference, in the pressed flower, planting and topiary groups, P<0.01 and the flower decoration group, P<0.05. Group analysis showed that the flower decoration program had more favorable effects on the groups than the others.
A New Spray Chrysanthemum Cultivar, 'Green Joy' with Spider Type and Green Color for Cut Flower
Hwang, Ju-Chean ; Chin, Young-Don ; Chung, Yong-Mo ; Kim, Su-Kyeong ; Ro, Chi-Woong ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 324~327
A new spray chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Ramat.) 'Green Joy' was developed from a cross between 'Rocky' and 'Biarritz' by selections of seedlings and lines at the Flower Research Institute, Gyeongnam Agricultural Research and Extension Services from 2003 to 2007. Its characteristics were investigated three times from 2005 to 2007 under the condition of forcing culture in spring and retarding culture in autumn. The natural flowering time of 'Green Joy' was October 27th, and year-round production was possible by day length treatment. Its capitulum was 4.3 cm in diameter, and had 225.6 ray florets and 16.6 head per stem in autumn. Its ray floret was green color. Days to flowering under the short day treatment is about 42 in spring, and the vase life was 21.5 days in autumn. This cultivar was registered for a commercialization in 2008.
Analysis of Study Tendency of Korean Master's and Doctorate Degree Dissertations on Horticulture Therapy
Ji, Seung-Eun ; Jang, Eu-Jean ; Pak, Chun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 2, 2010, Pages 328~333
This study aimed to analyze the study tendency of Korean master's and doctorate degree dissertations on horticulture therapy and present basic material necessary to establish future Korean studies on horticulture therapy and improve substance quality of studies. A total of 203 Korean master's and doctorate degree dissertations on horticulture therapy from 1998
2007 were analyzed. There were 203 studies in 1998 (2), 1999 (9), 2000 (7), 2001 (16), 2002 (18), 2003 (19), 2004 (40), 2005 (27), 2006 (33) and 2007 (32). A total of 190 master's degree dissertations (94%) and 13 doctorate degree dissertations (6%) have been published on the topic. There were 107 dissertations from departments related to horticulture therapy (52.7%) and 96 dissertations from non-related departments (47.3%). For study method, most were quantitative studies with 105 studies (51.7%), and there were 63 studies that combined qualitative and quantitative study methods (31.0%). There were only 35 qualitative studies (17.2%). Study tools were divided into self-made surveys, evaluation sheets and physical measurements. Evaluation sheets were used the most, in 365 studies (78.5%), 58 used self-made surveys (12.5%) and 42 used physical measurements (9.0%). The number of statistical tools used in the 203 dissertations was 342, which means an average of 1.6 tools was used per study. When the statistical methods were divided according to type, the t-test had the highest frequency, followed by technical statistical analysis, one-way analysis, spread analysis, frequency analysis, reliability verification, x
, correlation analysis, cross analysis, factor analysis, regression analysis and multivariate analysis. It was used 1,676 times (43.6%). In terms of number of times of execution, 89 studies executed 11-20 times (48.9). 99 studies executed a program once a week (58.9%), the time of one period was 1 hour to 1 and a half hours for 65 studies (57.0%), The tendency of structures where the studies were carried out were schools (74 studies, 37.8%), which were the highest.