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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Sulforaphane and Total Phenolics Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Radish according to Genotype and Cultivation Location with Different Altitudes
Im, Ju-Sung ; Lee, Eung-Ho ; Lee, Jong-Nam ; Kim, Ki-Deog ; Kim, Hwa-Yeong ; Kim, Myung-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 335~342
Sulforaphane (SFN) and total phenolics (TPC) contents and antioxidant activity (AA) were analyzed from 13 radish genotypes (Rhaphanus sativus L.), cultivated at 3 locations with different altitudes (Gangneung: asl 5 m, Jinbu: asl 550 m, and Daegwallyeong: asl 750 m). SFN varied greatly from 0.1 to
in dry weight test and was significantly affected by location (
), genotype (
). Radishes, cultivated at Daegwallyeong site, showed higher SFN than those of other locations. Among different genotypes, the root of 'Black radish' and leaves of 'Purunmu' of Daegwallyeong had the highest SFN (107.8 and
, respectively). TPC in root was affected by genotype (
), but not by location. In leaves, TPC was affected by location (
), genotype (
). AA expressed as electron donating ability was significantly influenced by location, genotype and
interaction and correlated positively with TPC (
=0.897) in root. These results suggest that radish could be a good source of functional food and high altitude location such as Daegwallyeong has potential for the production of radish with high content of health promoting factors.
Physiological Response of Chinese Cabbage to Salt Stress
Kim, Ju-Sung ; Shim, Ie-Sung ; Kim, Myong-Jo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 343~352
In order to understand the plant responses to salt stress (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl), Chinese cabbage seedlings grown up to two leaf stages by hydroponic culture were used. Fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll (Chl), antioxidant materials, polyamine content, antioxidant enzyme activities, and inorganic ion level were evaluated. Fresh and dry weights of Chinese cabbage increased with the increase in salinity while the optimal growth occurred at 50 mM NaCl. The Chl a, total Chl, carotenoid content, and Chl a/b ratio increased by the 6 days after treatment with 100 mM NaCI; however, the Chl b content decreased. Glutathione increased in the root of Chinese cabbage for 6 days. Dehydroascorbate increased remarkably by day 6 caused by the salt stress in both leaf and the root. While ascorbate peroxidase increased, the activity of catalase and glutathione reductase decreased gradually in the first leaf for 6 days. The
content increased by 12.5-fold in the 3 days after treatment with 100 mM NaCI in the shoot, whereas the
content measured in the same treatment decreased by 43 to 57%. Spermidine content decreased as salinity increased, but spermine content increased. The growth promotion, glutathione and ascorbic acid content in Chinese cabbage were increased by low salt stress, and shortening of the cultivation period for growth increase of Chinese cabbage is expected.
Effects of Soil pH on Nutritional and Functional Components of Chinese Cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. campestris)
Lee, Jo-Eun ; Wang, Pingjuan ; Kim, Gyung-Yun ; Kim, Sung-Han ; Park, Su-Hyoung ; Hwang, Yong-Soo ; Lim, Yong-Pyo ; Lee, Eun-Mo ; Ham, In-Ki ; Jo, Man-Hyun ; An, Gil-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 353~362
The contents of functional and nutritional components of 13 cultivars of Chinese cabbage (CC,
) were analyzed to compare the effects of soil pH of the greenhouse (pH 6.2) and outdoor (pH 7.6). The CC cultivated on pH 6.2 (CC-6.2) soil contained significantly increased amounts (2-9 fold) of pectin, crude protein, vitamin C and vitamin E compared to the counterpart (CC-7.6). The contents of ash and the minerals (Ca, Fe, Na, and Mn) were also significantly increased in CC-6.2. However, CC-6.2 contained 40-50% lower contents of reducing sugars, cellulose and crude fat than CC-7.6. CC-7.6 contained more glucosinolates, gluconasturtiin (18.33 vs.
wet weight) and gluconapin (145 vs.
wet wt), than CC-6.2. In conclusion, CC-6.2 had an improved texture (high pectin and low cellulose) and nutritional value (high in protein, Ca, Fe, vitamin C, and E), whereas the CC-7.6 had better taste (high in reducing sugars) and anticancer functionality (high in glucosinolates).
Proper Planting Density and Depth for Acclimation of Tissue-cultured Bulblets in Lilium Oriental Hybrids
Ko, Jae-Young ; Choi, Kang-Joon ; Hong, Dae-Ki ; Rhee, Hye-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 363~369
This study was carried out to investigate proper planting density and depth of tissue-cultured oriental lily bulblets for bulb production. Planting densities of bulblets were 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000 bulblets/
, and planting depths were 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 cm. Proper planting density of tissue-cultured 'Siberia' bulblets was 400 bulblets/
with 87.3% of survival rate, 6.4 cm of bulb circumference, and 8.3 g of bulb weight. For 'Sorbonne', it was thought to be 400 bulbs/
with 88.8% of survival rate, 5.0 cm of bulb circumference, and 7.1 g of bulb weight. Proper planting depth of tissue-cultured 'Siberia' bulbs was 3 cm with 77.8% of survival rate, 5.9 cm of bulb circumference, and 7.9 g of bulb weight. For 'Sorbonne' bulbs, it was 3 cm with 87.1% of survival rate, 5.1 cm of bulb circumference, and 6.5 g of bulb weight.
Anatomical Changes and Anthocyanin Contents of the Exocarp by Ethyl Oleate Treatment on 'Merlot' Grapes
Lee, Byul-Ha-Na ; Kwon, Yong-Hee ; Shin, Kyoung-Hee ; Park, Hee-Seung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 370~373
Preharvest treatment with 4% ethyl oleate on 'Merlot' (
L.) grape reduced the thickness of the epidermal and hypodermal layers with significantly enhanced pigmentation. Thickness of the skin in treated berries was
, whereas those in control berries were
. Decreases in the thickness of epidermal and hypodermal cell layers seemed to be due to cellular death or dehydration by rapid senescence after the treatment. Immediate change observed in treated berries was the deformation of the wax that appeared melted resulting in color improvement. Total anthocyanin was also increased by ethyl oleate treatment. Separate forms of anthocyanins, acylated and methoxylated anthocyanins increased, whereas hydroxylated anthocyanins tended to decrease.
Evaluation of Early Productivity of High Density 'Fuji' Apple Orchards by Planting Well-feathered Trees/M.9 EMLA
Yang, Sang-Jin ; Park, Moo-Yong ; Song, Yang-Yik ; SaGong, Dong-Hoon ; Yoon, Tae-Myung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 374~380
Well-feathered (5.2 feathers, stem diameter 13 mm) trees of 'Fuji' apple/ M.9 EMLA were planted at
m and whip trees (stem diameter 10 mm) of 'Fuji'/M.26 at
m were trained to the slender spindle. The productivity and yield efficiency of two orchard systems were compared for 6 years. The canopy volume of the tree/M.9 EMLA reached
in 2nd year and increased slowly to almost the targeted tree volume of
in 4th year. Trees/M.26 grew slowly at the begin but from 3rd year the tree volume expanded quickly to reach
in 5th year, covering over the allowed space. Yield of M.9 EMLA per 10a increased from 0.3 ton in 2nd year to 4.6 ton in 5th year, and 5.0 ton in 6th year, but yield of M.26 per 10a increased from 0.5 ton in 3rd to 2.9 ton in 6th year. Cumulative yield per 10a up to 6th year was 13.9 ton for M.9 EMLA but only 9.8 ton for M.26. Fruit weight for M.9 EMLA was heavier than that for M.26. In conclusion, the high density planting system with well-feathered trees/M.9 EMLA was better than the conventional wide planting system with whip trees/M.26.
Effects of Bagging Periods on Pericarp Characteristics and Berry Cracking in 'Kyoho' Grape (Vitis sp.)
Son, In-Chang ; Kim, Dae-Il ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 381~386
The berry growth and pericarp characteristics were characterized to confirm the effects of bagging periods on berry cracking during berry development in 'Kyoho' grape. The berry weight was the highest at 13.4 g in late period of bagging treated at 7 to 9 weeks after full bloom (WAFB) as compared with the lowest of 12.3 g in total period bagging. The berry cracking rate under critical turgor pressure in the non-bagging control was 53.3%, while those of bagging treatments were decreased in the order of 42.7%, 37.3%, 33.3%, and 18.7% in bagged during 3 to 9, 3 to 5, 5 to 7, and 7 to 9 WAFB, respectively. In the results of observation on histological characteristics of pericarp, berry lenticels of whole bagging treatments had smaller and normal shape compared with non-bagging control treatment. Especially on the pericarp of late period bagged during 7 to 9 WAFB, suberization around stomata and micro-cracking were not observed and structural strength of pericarp was increased with thicker sub-epidermal layer and cell wall. Therefore, the results indicate that bagging treatment for two weeks just before the veraison when the day length and daylight is relatively longer and stronger can effectively reduce berry cracking by strengthening structure of pericarp in 'Kyoho' grape.
Comparison of Free Sugar Content and Related Enzyme Activities on Different Parts of 'Changhowon Hwangdo' Peach Fruit
Kim, Sung-Jong ; Park, Hye-Young ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 387~393
The free sugar content and related enzymes of four different parts, inner, outer, stylar end and stem end, of 'Changhowon Hwangdo' peach (
, L. Batsch) fruit were compared from August to September in 2006, i.e., from 120 to 150 days after full bloom (DAFB). The soluble solids content (SSC) of stylar end was the highest among the four fruit parts at 150 DAFB. Changes of free sugar content were similar to that of SSC in the four parts. The starch content at the stylar end was the highest at 120 DAFB, while all the other parts showed low starch contents at 150 DAFB. The free sugar composition of peach changed during fruit development. The sucrose was low at 120 DAFB and increased gradually in all parts of peach fruit. On the contrary glucose, fructose and sorbitol decreased with fruit development. The free sugar contents and related enzymes activities were investigated during fruit development. The rapid increase of sucrose contents during fruit development was more affected by sucrose synthase than sucrose phosphate synthase. Activity of SS in the four fruit parts increased continuously over the fruit development period, but activity of acid invertase showed a downward trend. This study found that the free sugar content was affected by enzyme activity for the synthesis or the cleavage. However, it was very difficult to explain sugar accumulation of peach segments with related-enzymes.
Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme, and Anatomical Difference of Sedum kamtschaticum and Hosta longipes to Ozone
Cheng, Hyo-Cheng ; Woo, Su-Young ; Lee, Seong-Han ; Baek, Saeng-Geul ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 394~402
The objective of this study was to identify the effects of ozone on the two species in controlled environment.
were exposed in both control and ozone chamber to investigate photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activity, visible damage, the number and the size of stomata and the plastogloubuli. Ozone was fumigated in the concentration of
for 8 hours in a day (from 08:00 AM to 04:00 PM). Firstly, net photosynthesis of two species was decreased after ozone fumigation. Secondly, glutathione reductase activities showed significant difference between control and ozone treatment. Thirdly, visible symptoms of leaves were expressed such as chlorosis, necrosis and decoloration. Also, the size of stoma was significantly decreased in ozone-exposed plants. Furthermore, the intercellular space of
showed increased phenomenon because the mesophyll was collapsed. The number and the size of the plastogloubuli were significantly larger in ozone stress.
Physiological Responses of Rhododendron mucronulatum and R. indicum with Shading Treatment in Autumn Season
Lee, Kyung-Jae ; Song, Ki-Sun ; Chung, Young-Suk ; Yoon, Taek-Seong ; Hong, Sung-Kwon ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Woo ; Kim, Jong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 403~408
This study was carried out to investigate the physiological responses of
(L.) Sweet seedlings with 0%, 35%, 55% and 75% shading of full sunlight in polyethylene film house. The shading treatments were performed during the late growth season for each species (from Sept. 9 to Nov. 5, 2008). The shading treatment was effective in reducing the daily temperature by 0.9 to
during September and by 0.8 to
during October. Before the shading treatments, the water content of
amounted to 68.5% and 66.3%, respectively. The water contents of two species after 75% shading treatment period decreased to 66.2% (3.4% reduction) and 65.9% (0.6% reduction), respectively. Notably, both species had a similar tendency indicating less reduction rate of water content with 75% shading.
showed higher photosynthetic capacity with higher level of shading, and its photosynthetic capacity reached the highest level (
). On the other hand, shading-treated
showed higher intercellular
concentration, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate (55% shading > 35% shading > 75% shading) than non-treated ones. In addition, non-treated seedlings showed higher water use efficiency than treated ones. In particular, it was found that the leaf color of
turned equivalent to purple under full sunlight, while its leaf color kept equivalent more to green with higher level of shading, as evidenced even in naked eyes. According to comprehensive analysis using Munsell Color Chart on potential leaf color variations of
depending on the level of shading, it was found that relatively many leaf colors under full sunlight were equivalent to R (red) and Y (yellow) chart, while relatively many leaf colors with higher level of shading were equivalent to G (green) and Y chart, where the latter still showed green color.
Control of Daily First Drainage Time by Irrigation Management with Drainage Level Sensor in Tomato Perlite Bag Culture
Kim, Sung-Eun ; Sim, Sang-Youn ; Kim, Young-Shik ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 409~414
The first drainage time in a day was controlled for precise irrigation management with low consumption of nutrient solution in tomato perlite bag culture system by measuring water level of drained water in drainage catchment part. This method automatically adjusted the irrigation time under any condition of light, temperature and humidity, resulting in stable water content in substrates. However, it was difficult to keep the time consistent as they were set. It drained with the deviation of 20 min in the treatment in which the first drainage time was set at 10:00 and 50 min in the treatment set at 10:30. The first drainage time was not constant, but the drain occurred stably before noon in the treatment of which irrigation frequency was longer than 30 min. The drainage ratio was better balanced in all the treatments using drainage level sensors than the treatment using time clock for irrigation control. High water and fertilizer efficiencies were obtained. Although the growth, total yield and sugar content were not significantly different between the treatments, fruit weight was higher in the treatments using drainage level sensors than that using timer.
Effect of Root Zone Restriction on the Growth Response and Phytonutrients Contents of Leafy Vegetables Grown in a DFT System
Seo, Tae-Cheol ; Rhee, Han-Cheol ; Yun, Hyung-Kwon ; Chun, Chang-Hoo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 415~422
Two leaf lettuces, chicory, endive, edible chrysanthemum, and pak-choi were hydroponically cultured under root restricted conditions in a deep flow technique system and their growth and nutritional values were investigated. Cylindrical plastic tubes with 100 mm height and diameters of 20, 25 or 30 mm were used for root restriction. Growth of all species was retarded by 25-95% as the roots zone was restricted. Pak-choi and edible chrysanthemum showed greater reduction in growth as compared with chicory and endive. Percent dry matter, C/N ratio, and contents of total ascorbic acid and total anthocyanin increased in the root restricted treatments. Contents of P and K decreased in the root restricted treatments, while contents of Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn were not consistent among the tested species. Optimized root volumes to improve the nutritional values and to reduce the growth retardation varied depending on species of leafy vegetables. Tubes of
were suitable for chicory, endive and lettuce, and edible chrysanthemum and pak-choi, respectively. Results indicate that nutritional values of hydroponically-cultured leafy vegetables can be improved by root restriction.
Quality Changes of Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) by Maturity during Distribution
Kim, Byeong-Sam ; Kim, Ji-Young ; Lee, Hye-Ok ; Yoon, Doo-Hyun ; Cha, Hwan-Soo ; Kwon, Ki-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 423~428
The quality change of musk melons, divided into ripened (90 days) and over-ripened (92 days) set by the formal day maturing melons, was investigated during marketing period at both 10 and
. The rate of weight loss was increased in all samples as the storage period passed and greater in ripened melons than over-ripened melon. The hardness decreased in both well and over-ripened melon as the storage period passed. Furthermore, changes in hardness were prevented in fruit stored at
compared to fruit stored at
. Immediately after harvest, the solid solubility of over-ripened melon was 14.6%, while that of ripened fruit was 12.8%. The respiration rate of both well and over-ripened melon increased temporarily when stored at
, which is characteristic of climacteric fruits during the first day of storage; however, no change in respiration rate was observed in fruit stored at
. When sensory evaluation was conducted, there were no differences observed in flavor and taste among samples. However, with the exception of over-ripened melon, the texture of all samples increased significantly with storage time when melon was stored at
. The score of overall acceptability remained high for 12 days in both well and over-ripened melon, while that of ripened melon stored at
and over-ripened melon stored
remained high for 7 and 5 days, respectively (p<0.05).
Fruit Quality of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treated 'Formosa' Plum on the Shelf Life at Ambient Temperature
Jung, Jae-Hoon ; Kim, Young-Chil ; Jung, Seok-Kyu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 429~433
The effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for controlling ripening processes such as weight loss, fruit softening, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), and fruit skin color were investigated and also the possibility that 1-MCP can inhibit the development of brown rot was explored in 'Formosa' plum (
L.). Fruit were treated with
1-MCP on the day of harvest and one day after harvest for 16 h at ambient temperature (
), followed by 14 days of shelf life. 1-MCP treatment delayed fruit softening, weight loss and changes in skin color and TA during the shelf life period, but did not affect SSC. These 1-MCP effects were similar with and without delayed treatment. 1-MCP treatment inhibited the development of brown rot caused by
during storage. Our data shows that treatment delays of
day before 1-MCP application had no negative effect of fruit softening, fruit skin color, and TA at ambient temperature (
). Overall, these results indicate that 1-MCP can be used to maintain the quality of non-refrigerated plums.
Transportation and Distribution Temperatures Affect Fruit Quality and Physiological Disorders in 'Wonhwang' Pears
Oh, Kyoung-Young ; Lee, Ug-Yong ; Moon, Seung-Joo ; Kim, Young-Ok ; Yook, Hong-Sun ; Hwang, Yong-Soo ; Chun, Jong-Pil ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 434~441
'Wonhwang' pear (
Nakai) often showed physiological disorder and quality deterioration during long-term storage and shelf life although this cultivar has the advantage of a good appearance and better taste for overseas exportation. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of temperature during transportation and continuing market temperature on fruit quality, and the occurrence of physiological disorder to set up the appropriate transportation and distribution temperatures in the fruits harvested at different times. Unripe fruits harvested 120 days after full bloom maintained higher firmness until 21days of shelf life at both 18 and
than late harvested ones. Otherwise, ripe fruits harvested 130 days after full bloom showed high incidence of mealiness breakdown of flesh tissues in 21 days of shelf-life at
of market temperature, but not in the fruits stored at
. Late harvested fruits showed much severe physiological disorders when compared with early harvested ones that showed relatively lower respiration rates. Fruit quality parameters were more highly affected by market temperature than transportation temperature. Results showed that unripe fruits harvested at 120 days after full bloom maintains high marketability until 21 days of shelf-life, while the maximum shelf-life of ripe fruits harvested 130 days after full bloom will be considered at within 7 days.
Analysis of Mutant Chinese Cabbage Plants Using Gene Tagging System
Yu, Jae-Gyeong ; Lee, Gi-Ho ; Lim, Ki-Byung ; Hwang, Yoon-Jung ; Woo, Eun-Taek ; Kim, Jung-Sun ; Park, Beom-Seok ; Lee, Youn-Hyung ; Park, Young-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 442~448
The objectives of this study were to analyze mutant lines of Chinese cabbage (
) using gene tagging system (plasmid rescue and inverse polymerase chain reaction) and to observe the phenotypic characteristics. Insertional mutants were derived by transferring DNA (T-DNA) of
for functional genomics study in Chinese cabbage. The hypocotyls of Chinese cabbage 'Seoul' were used to obtain transgenic plants with
harboring pRCV2 vector. To tag T-DNA from the Chinese cabbage genomic DNA, plasmid rescue and inverse PCR were applied for multiple copies and single copy insertional mutants. These techniques were successfully conducted to Chinese cabbage plant with high efficiency, and as a result, T-DNA of pRCV2 vector showed distinct various integration patterns in the transgenic plant genome. The polyploidy level analysis showed the change in phenotypic characteristics of 13 mutant lines was not due to variation in somatic chromosome number. Compared with wild type, the
progenies showed varied phenotypes, such as decreased stamen numbers, larger or smaller flowers, upright growth habit, hairless leaves, chlorosis symptoms, narrow leaves, and deeply serrated leaves. The polyploidy level analysis showed the change in phenotypic characteristics of 13 mutant lines was not due to variation in somatic chromosome number. To tag T-DNA from the Chinese cabbage genomic DNA, plasmid rescue and inverse PCR were applied for multiple copies and single copy insertional mutants. Mutants that showed distinct phenotypic difference compared to wild type with 1 copy of T-DNA by Southern blot analysis, and with 2n = 20 of chromosome number were selected. These selected mutant lines were sequenced flanking DNA, mapped genomic loci, and the genome information of the lines is being recorded in specially developed database.
Development of Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation Method for Domestically Bred Chrysanthemum Cultivar 'Moulinrouge' and Genetic Change of Leaf Morphology Using AtSICKLE Gene
Kim, Yun-Hye ; Park, Hyun-Myung ; Jung, Ji-Yong ; Kwon, Tack-Min ; Jeung, Soon-Jae ; Yi, Young-Byung ; Kim, Gyung-Tae ; Nam, Jae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 449~455
'Moulinrouge' was selected as the best regenerating cultivar among 18 different spray-type chrysanthemum cultivars bred in the Gyeongnam Flowers Breeding Research Institute. When the leaf explants from standard- and spray-type chrysanthemum 'Jinba' and 'Moulinrouge' were incubated on MS basal medium supplemented with
NAA, both 'Jinba' and 'Moulinrouge' induced adventitious shoots that can be regenerated into plantlets. Based on these regeneration conditions, we developed an efficient
-mediated chrysanthemum 'Moulinrouge' transformation method by using sequential selection of shoots from low (
) to high (
) concentrations of kanamycin after co-cultivation of leaf explants with
for 10 days and induction of shoots. All kanamycin resistant plants investigated with genomic PCR analysis carried the report gene,
, in their genome. Although expression levels of the report gene in the transgenic plants investigated with RT-PCR were relatively low because of inefficiency of CaMV 35S promoter in chrysanthemum, transgenic lines expressing
efficiently showed leaf epinasty phenotype. We expect that our results will provide a useful method that can perform a high-throughput investigation of genes isolated and studied well in model plants for molecular breeding of chrysanthemum.
Effect of Topophysis and Uniting Method of Rootstock and Scion on Rooting and Subsequent Growth of Stenting-propagated (Cutting-grafted) Roses
Park, Yoo-Gyeong ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 456~461
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of topophysis, and uniting method of rootstock and scion on rooting and subsequent growth of stenting-propagated cut rose (
Hort.) in an effort to develop an efficient stenting propagation method for domestic rose cultivars. Four cultivars used in this study were two standard type cultivars 'Sweet Yellow' and 'Hanmaum', and two spray type cultivars 'Chelsi' and 'May'. Scions were grafted on cuttings of a rootstock
'Major'. The stenting-propagated scion-rootstock unions were planted in rockwool cubes (
, Delta, Grodan, Denmark) and were placed in a graft-take chamber for five days before being placed on misted greenhouse beds. The rootstock was removed of all leaves and nodes. Both the base of scions and top of stocks were simultaneously cut at a
angle for grafting. Scions were prepared as single node cuttings, each with a five-leaflet leaf. Three positions of topophysis used were 7-9th (top), 4-6th (middle), and 1st-3rd (bottom) nodes from the stem base. Four uniting materials used were tube, tube + parafilm wrap, tube + clothespin, and clothespin. Rooting and growth were affected by the topophysis and cultivar. The best topophysis for rooting was 7-9th (top) nodes in all cultivars. Topophysis affected percent rooting, and number of roots, length of the longest root, and but not weight, shoot length and graft-take. Rooting and growth were affected by the uniting method and cultivar. Tube uniting method generally showed higher percentage graft-take, percent rooting, and number of roots than other methods. However, rootstock and scion union was not complete in this treatment. On the whole, the greatest rooting and subsequent growth of stenting-propagated plants were found in the tube + clothespin method. Except 'Sweet Yellow', rooting and growth were not adequate in the clothespin method. The results suggested that a tube + clothespin method was the most effective, and this method may be used as a substitute to save labor compared to a tube + parafilm wrap method which is currently being used in commercial nurseries.
Antioxidant Effect according to Extraction Method in Extracts of Dendranthema zawadskii var. yezoense and Cosmos bipinnatus
Woo, Jeong-Hyang ; Shin, So-Lim ; Chang, Young-Deug ; Lee, Cheol-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 462~468
Top parts of
(CB) are believed to contain substances with antioxidant effects and activity. Present experiments were undertaken to investigate an adequate and efficient extraction method which ensures the highest yield of antioxidant components. Extraction yield was 1.11-1.92 times higher by ultrasonic method than other methods in both species. By 45 minute ultrasonic extraction, total polyphenol contents reached the highest level,
tannic acid equiv./DW in
and total flavonoid contents
naringin equiv./DW in DZY. DPPH radical scavenging activity was almost the same among extraction methods or slightly higher in reflux extraction. The highest DPPH radical scavenging was observed by reflux extract in CB (
). ABTS radical scavenging activity was the highest by 15 minute ultrasonic wave in DZY and CB,
, respectively. High ferrous ion chelating effects were obtained by 30-minute ultrasonic wave in DZY (
). Extracts of top parts of DZY obtained by reflux method showed the highest inhibition effect against peroxidation of linoleic acid, and extract of CB obtained by ultrasonic for 45 minutes showed the highest inhibition effect. In conclusion, optimum extraction method should be adjusted according to plant species and antioxidant substances.
Composition Analysis between Kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) and Radish (Raphanus sativus)
Choi, Seung-Hyun ; Ryu, Dong-Kul ; Park, Su-Hyoung ; Ahn, Kyoung-Gu ; Lim, Yong-Pyo ; An, Gil-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 469~475
The major deterring factor of radish consumption is bitter and pungent tastes caused by glucosinolates. Recently kohlrabi was introduced in Korea and mainly cultivated in Jeju Island during winter. Since the texture and taste of kohlrabi are similar to radish, the kohlrabi is expected to substitute radish. This study was done to compare compositional quality between kohlrabi and radish. The kohlrabi contained less reducing sugars, cellulose and pectin than the radish. The kohlrabi had harder texture than the radish. The total amino acid content in the kohlrabi was 2.7-fold higher than that in the radish. Especially hydrophilic amino acids including aspartate, glutamate and arginine, were about 3-fold higher in the kohlrabi, suggesting that the kohlrabi was more palatable than the radish. The total contents of glucosinolates in the radish in inner and outer section were higher than those in the kohlrabi by 12.4- and 28.5-fold, respectively. In a sensory test, the kohlrabi was evaluated less bitter and pungent than the radish. The kohlrabi contained more glucoraphanin, an anticancer compound, than the radish. Furthermore, the sweetness of the kohlrabi was evaluated higher than that of the radish, though kohlrabi contained less reducing sugars, probably due to high contents of hydrophilic amino acids. In conclusion, the kohlrabi was evaluated as more favorable in taste and contained more functional compounds than the radish, and thus it can be a good replacement vegetable for radish.
Effect of Bacterial Population from Rhizosphere of Various Foliage Plants on Removal of Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds
Chun, Se-Chul ; Yoo, Mung-Hwa ; Moon, Young-Sook ; Shin, Mi-Ho ; Son, Ki-Cheol ; Chung, Ill-Min ; Kays, Stanley J. ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 476~483
Total bacterial populations were cultured from the Hydroball cultivation media in the rhizospheres of 9 different plants including
cv. Warneckii Compacta, etc. These cultured bacterial populations were studied to test if the bacterial populations in the plant growing pots may play a role on removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene and toluene in the air. To meet this objective, first, we tested the possibility of removal of VOCs by the cultured total bacteria alone. The residual rates of benzene by the inoculation of total bacterial populations from the different plant growth media were significantly different, ranging from 0.741-1.000 of
sp. 'Marrianne' Hort.,
, compared to the control with residual rate of 0.596 (LSD,
=0.05). This trend was also similar with toluene, depending on different plants. Based on these results, we inoculated the bacterial population cultured from
into the plant-growing pots of
inside the chamber followed by the VOCs injection. The inoculated bacteria had significant effect on the removal of benzene and toluene, compared to the removal efficacy by the plants without inoculation, indicating that microbes in the rhizosphere could play a significant role on the removal of VOCs along with plants.
Effects of the Intergenerational Horticultural Activity Program on Emotion and Self-esteem of the Elderly and Young Children
Lee, Eun-Sook ; Pak, Hyun-Goo ; Kim, Mi-Ok ; Pak, Chun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 484~491
This study investigated the effects of the intergenerational horticultural activity program on the improvement of emotion and self-esteem for the elderly and young children. When the pre- and post-treatments of the elderly was compared, both the control and treatment didn't show a significant difference in emotion. In self-esteem of the elderly the control didn't show a significant difference; on the contrary, treatment showed a highly significant difference (
<0.01). When a comparison was made on the pre- and post-treatment of young children, the control didn't show a significant difference in emotional intelligence; on the contrary, treatment showed a highly significant difference (
<0.001). In self-esteem of young children both the control and the treatment didn't show a significant difference. The results suggest that intergenerational horticultural activity program can improve young children's emotional intelligence and the elderly's self-esteem.
A Comparative Study for Obtaining Maximum Essential Oil from Six Herbs on the Basis of Harvesting Time, Cultivation Regions & Type, and Drying Methods
Choi, In-Young ; Song, Young-Ju ; Choi, Dong-Chil ; Lee, Wang-Hyu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 492~496
This experiment was carried out to obtain the maximum quantity of essential oil on the basis of harvesting time, cultivation regions & types, and drying methods. We have selected 6 native and introduced herbs viz.
. The quantity of essential oil ranged from 0.06% to 3.46% in all six herbs. Native herbs produce 30.5% higher quantity of oil in comparison to introduced herbs. The quantity of essential oil obtained from
was 3.46%, followed by
2.89%, while minimum in
0.60%. Higher quantity of essential oil obtained if they are cultivated under rain shelter culture (PE film) in comparison to open field conditions. Recovery of essential oil is always high if herbs flower in July. Semi-alpine region was found better than the plain region for herbs production. Quantity of oil is high if oil is extracted from fresh herbs followed by freezed herbs, shade dry and hot wind dry herbs. As far as plant part is concern flower produced maximum oil than any other part.
Environmental Characteristics and Vegetation of Hanabusaya asiatica Habitats
Jang, Su-Kil ; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik ; Jeong, Ji-Hee ; Kim, Zin-Suh ; Yoo, Ki-Oug ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 497~506
This study intended to investigate the environmental factors including soil and vegetation in order to better understand the environmental and ecological characteristics of ten different habitats of
. These habitats, according to investigations, are mostly located on the slopes of mountains facing north at an altitude of 580 m to 1,396 m above sea level with angles of inclination ranging from 5 degrees to 80 degrees. A total of 146 vascular plant taxa are identified in 32 quadrates of the ten habitats. The importance value of
is 8.87%, and 5 highly ranked species such as
(3.11%) are considered to be an affinity with
in their habitats. Dominant species of woody plants in ten habitats are represented as
in tree layer (T1),
in subtree layer (T2),
in shrub layer (S). The degree of their average species diversity is 1.30, and that of dominance and evenness are 0.08 and 0.88, respectively. The type of soil is sandy loam, loam and loamy sand, and the average field capacity of soil is 23.95%. Their average organic matter is 12.28%, soil pH 5.79, and available phosphorus is 25.48%. Correlation coefficients analysis based on environmental factors, vegetation and soil analysis shows that the coverage of tree layers is correlated with richness, diversity, dominance, evenness and coverage of
Quality Properties and Preference of Fermented Gastrodia elata Blume
Kim, Jeong-Mee ; Moon, Yong-Sun ; Yoon, Kyung-Young ; Suh, Sang-Gon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 507~514
This study was performed to reduce unpleasant taste and flavor of
Blume as well as to improve utilization as functional food materials using fermentation. The component, antioxidant activity, and taste test were compared between fresh and fermented
Blume powder (FGP). FGP contained higher level of total fat, protein, mineral, and fiber than raw material. The pH of FGP was higher compared to raw
Blume powder (RGP), and antioxidant activity was as high as vitamin C regardless material status (raw vs. fermented). This result indicated that its activity was not decreased by fermentation. Dispersiveness and solubility of
Blume powder was the best in 60-70 mesh. For sensory evaluation, FGP or RGP was mixed with either orange juice or yoghurt. The results showed that overall preference, taste, flavor, texture, and color were better in fermented
Blume drinks than in raw ones. It is plausible that unpleasant taste and flavor of
Blume was declined by fermentation. Thus, fermentation can be easily applied to eliminate unpleasant smell in
Blume, and FGP can be mixed with other beverages to produce healthy food and drinks.
Breeding of New Ever-bearing Strawberry 'Gangha' for Summer Culture
Lee, Jong-Nam ; Lee, Jun-Gu ; Lee, Eung-Ho ; Kim, Hye-Jin ; Jang, Suk-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 515~518
'Gangha' is new strawberry (
Duch.) cultivar, which was released by National Institute of Highland Agriculture, RDA, in 2008. In 2004, this cultivar was originated from a cross between 'Samahberi' and 'Elan' and showed excellent ever-bearing characteristics including continuous flowering habit, high yield under long-day and high temperature condition. It was named 'Saebong No.2' after examining its characteristic and productivity in summer culture from 2006 to 2007. Again, after two regional adaptability tests in 2008, 'Gangha' was selected as an elite cultivar. The general characteristics of 'Gangha' include semi-spreading type, middle vigor, elliptic leaf, and long cluster in growth. The fruit shape is oval and fruit color is red. Fruit quality had 1ow activity, hardness but high soluble solids contents. This average fruit weight of 'Gangha' is about 12.0 g and the marketable yield is relatively high because of more flower cluster appearance. It is resistant against powdery mildew, anthracnose, and fusarium wilt. 'Gangha' is suitable for summer culture using domestic consumption because it is shows continuous flowering habit, high yield, and fruit quality under long-day and high temperature condition.
'Asian Flame' an Asiatic Hybrid Lily with Unspotted Red Petals
Rhee, Hye-Kyung ; Cho, Hae-Ryong ; Lim, Jin-Hee ; Kim, Mi-Seon ; Park, Sang-Kun ; Shin, Hak-Ki ; Joung, Hyang-Young ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 519~521
An Asiatic lily cultivar 'Asian Flame' was bred in 2007 at National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science (NIHHS), Rural Development Administration (RDA) of Korea. The crossing was conducted between female parent A94-34 ('Montreux'
'Anabelle') and male parent 'Fire' by stigmatic pollination at Suwon in 1996. First selection was done and tentatively named as A98-98 in 1998. After in vitro multiplication and bulb production of A98-98 line, growth and flowering characteristic tests has been conducted from 2005 to 2007. The evaluation of characteristics and preference were surveyed at a lily flower show of NIHHS in 2007 in Taean. The new cultivar 'Asian Flame' flowers in middle of June and grows to an average of 122.7 cm in height. Flowers bloom upward-facing, red (RHS 45B) petals. Year-round flowering is possible by storage of the bulb under
conditions. For forcing culture, it is necessary to add calcium to the fertilizer or remove side scales of large bulb to prevent leaf scorch.
Current Research Status of Postharvest Technology of Onion (Allium cepa L.)
Cho, Jung-Eun ; Bae, Ro-Na ; Lee, Seung-Koo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 3, 2010, Pages 522~527
Onion has been reported to contain various organosulfur compounds which have antibiotic and anticarcinogenic properties and flavonoid like quercetin which is a valuable natural source of antioxidants. Carbohydrates in onion constitute about 80% of dry matter, and the major non-structural carbohydrate of onion bulb is fructo-oligosaccharides, well known as fructan, followed by glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The sugar concentration is associated with dormancy and storage life of onion, occurring as decrease in glucose, fructose and fructan, particularly towards the end of storage. Forced air pre-drying for 15-20 days at room temperature is an essential procedure to reduce freezing injury and sprouting, then onion bulbs can be stored at
for 6 months to control sprouting and decay. Bacterial soft rot caused by
is the main postharvest disease when the bulbs are infected with the bacteria and stored at room temperature. Browning in sliced onion is due to oxidation of phenolic compounds by polyphenol oxidase and it can be inhibited by citric acid treatment, packing with nitrogen gas, and polyethylene film.