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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Wilted Symptom in Watermelon Plant under Ventilation Systems
Cho, Ill-Hwan ; Ann, Joong-Hoon ; Lee, Woo-Moon ; Moon, Ji-Hye ; Lee, Joo-Hyun ; Choi, Byung-Soon ; Son, Seon-Hye ; Choi, Eun-Young ; Lee, Sang-Gyu ; Woo, Young-Hoe ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 529~534
Occurrence of wilted symptom in watermelon plant (
L.) is known to be caused by physiological disorder. The symptom results in the loss of fruit production and thus the economical loss of watermelon growers. The incidence of symptom is often found from the middle of March to the end of May in the major watermelon crop production areas of Korea (i.e. Uiryeong, Gyeongnam (lat
99'97"E)). Despite of extensive information about the physiological disorder, little study has been conducted to understand a relationship between the wilted symptom and accompanying environment factors (e.g. temperature). This study aimed to investigate effects of environmental conditions amended by a forced-ventilation system on physiological characteristics of watermelon and incidence of the wilted symptom. Watermelon plants were grown from January to May, 2009 with either the forced-or natural-ventilation treatment in a greenhouse located in the Uiryeong. In the result, the forced-ventilation treatment decreased the air, leaf and root-zone temperature approximately
, respectively, compared to the natural-ventilation. The fruit growth rate was maximized twice during the entire growing period. The higher rate of fruit growth was observed under the natural-ventilation than the forced one. Maximization of the fruit growth rate (approximately 430 g per day) was first observed by 12 days after fruiting under the natural-ventilation treatment, while the second one (approximately 350 g per day) was observed by 24 days after fruiting. The wilted symptom started occurring by 22 days after fruiting under the natural-ventilation, whereas no incidence of the symptom was found under the forced-ventilation treatment. Interestingly, the forced-ventilation lowered the fruit growth rate (approximately 320 g per day) compared to the natural one. Maximization of the fruit growth rate under the forced-ventilation was found at 4 days later than that under the natural one. This result coincided with a slower plant growth under the forced-ventilation treatment. These results suggest that the forced-ventilation slows down extension growth of fruit and plant, which may be associated with lowering leaf temperature and saturation deficit. We suggest the hypothesis that the forced-ventilation may alleviate stress of the wilted symptom by avoiding extreme water evaporation from leaves due to high temperature and thus by reducing competition between leaves and fruits for water. More direct and detailed investigations are needed to confirm the effect of the forced ventilation.
Improvement of Runner Plant Production by Increasing Photosynthetic Photon Flux during Strawberry Transplant Propagation in a Closed Transplant Production System
Kim, Sung-Kyeom ; Jeong, Mi-Seon ; Park, Seon-Woo ; Kim, Moo-Jung ; Na, Hae-Young ; Chun, Chang-Hoo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 535~539
The formation and elongation of runners, growth of runner plants, and transplant propagation rates of 'Maehyang' strawberry were investigated at various photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) levels. Strawberry plants having
of crown diameter were used as propagules and were cultured for 35 days in 9 transplant production modules using fluorescent lamps as artificial lighting sources. Applied PPF levels were
as measured on the surfaces of empty shelves. The numbers of runners and runner plants per propagule were the greatest at
PPF. The runner plant propagation rate was 0.27 plant/day/propagule at
, which was significantly greater than that of conventional propagation methods. Results indicate that high PPF levels promotes the formation of runners and runner plants of strawberry and that the rapid propagation method with high PPF levels can be feasible for production of vigorous transplants in a closed transplant production system.
Influence of the Differences in Altitude during Raising Seedlings on Daughter Plant Characteristics and Subsequent Strawberry Production
Lee, Jong-Nam ; Lim, Ju-Sung ; Lee, Jun-Gu ; Nam, Chun-Woo ; Kim, Ki-Deog ; Lee, Eung-Ho ; Yeoung, Young-Rog ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 540~544
The nursery plant quality and flower bud induction of new strawberry cultivars, 'Maehyang' and 'Seolhyang' in forcing culture were evaluated in the highland and lowland region. In order to produce daughter plants, the new cultivars were grown in the open field located at both highland (Daekwallyung, above 800 m sea level) and lowland (Gangneung, above 20 m sea level) region, respectively. The average air temperature at highland during nursery plant propagation period was
lower than those at lowland. The number of daughter plants produced at lowland was 2 times as high as those of highland, presumably due to the higher air temperature. Anthracnose incidence rates of runner plants produced at lowland were 4 to 7% as high as those in highland. Mean temperature in the highland (
) during flower bud differentiation treatment was
lower than that in the lowland (
). Seedlings produced in highland showed higher C/N ratio and lower T/R ratio compared to those produced in lowland. The average flower bud formation date of the daughter plants grown in highland were advanced by 30 days compared to the date in lowland. Accordingly, highland was supposed to be appropriate region for raising seedlings in forcing culture of the new strawberry cultivars of 'Maehyang' and 'Seolhyang'.
Fruit Quality Characteristics and Pithiness Tissue Occurrence with Fruit Gravities in 'Niitaka' Pear Fruit
Cho, Joon-Shik ; Kim, Wol-Soo ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 545~551
The primary objective of this study was to determine the relationship between fruit quality characteristics and pithiness fruit occurrence for confirming occurrence factors of pithiness tissues in 'Niitaka' pears (
Nakai). Fruits were harvested 4 times in 1 week intervals from 160 days after full bloom (DAFB) to 181 DAFB. Harvested fruits were separated with the specific gravity by Archimedes laws. Also, with specific gravity level in pear fruit, sugar content, acidity, and texture profile analysis (TPA) were investigated. Final verifiability of pithiness fruit was approved by eye observation at 90 days after storage. Also, in ASS (Alcohol Soluble Solid) and AIS (Alcohol Insoluble Solid), calcium contents were investigated. Although the differences in sugar and organic acid content were not significant in fruits divided by gravity, flesh hardness was depressed in fruits that showed low gravity. These results were more conspicuous in late harvested fruits (at 174 and 181days after full bloom) which showed low gravity, representing less content of AIS content and calcium in ASS and AIS when compared with early harvest fruits. Fruits of lower gravity below 1.0 measured with dipping induced the progression of pithiness symptom up to 76%. Consequently, harvest timing is a more concise factor in pithiness fruit occurrence although those symptom also affected by storage condition. Furthermore, the cause of pithiness fruit occurrence by late harvest is due to the lower cell wall binding calcium.
Effects of Application Method of GA
+BA on Tree Growth and Fruit Characteristics of 'Gala' Apple
SaGong, Dong-Hoon ; Yoon, Tae-Myung ; Choi, Seak-Won ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 552~560
+BA, a plant growth regulator for induction of feathering in young apple tree and increasing fruit size, was applied by various methods on 'Gala'/M.9 apple trees in high density orchard for 4 years to investigate its effect on fruit and shoot growth.
) increased fruit length, fruit weight, and L/D ratio regardless of application methods, but it did not affect soluble solid content, acidity, leaf area, and chlorophyll. Seed number was not affected by
+BA application, however, more immature seeds was observed in treated 'Gala' fruit. Shoot growth was increased when spraying
+BA at tree crown but not affected when spraying at fruit directly. More significant fruit growth was observed when
+BA was applied on the fruits between late of May and early of June when fruit cell division ended; however, high concentration of
+BA resulted in lower fruit storability because of lower firmness. Hence, more attention should be paid when applying high concentration of
+BA to small sized fruit cultivars like 'Gala'.
Effects of Calcium Concentrations of Coating Bag on Pericarp Structure and Berry Cracking in 'Kyoho' Grape (Vitis sp.)
Choi, Hyo-Min ; Son, In-Chang ; Kim, Dae-Il ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 561~566
The effects of calcium concentrations of coating bag treatment to reduce berry cracking were investigated through the changes of pericarp structure and berry cracking rate in 'Kyoho' grape. The soluble solids and anthocyanin contents in harvested grapes were highest at
in non bagging group compared with those of calcium coating bag treatments. The firmness of pericarp was lowest in non bagging group (
) compared with bagging treatments (1.23, 1.24, 1.27,
) which increased effectively in proportion to calcium concentration. As a result of histological observation of the fruit skin, the bagging with higher calcium concentration developed thicker epidermal and sub-epidermal layer of cell wall than that of non bagging. Moreover, the strengthened berry skin of calcium treatments effectively decreased berry cracking rate under critical turgor pressure. However, the 9% calcium coating bag treatment which was the most effective for cracking reduction seriously decreased marketability of harvested grape with white color staining on berry skin caused by eluted calcium from the coated paper bag. Based on our results, we recommend that 6% calcium coating bag be available for berry cracking reduction and higher quality production.
Comparison of Germination Characteristics and Daily Seed Germinating Pattern in Fine-textured Fescues
Kim, Kyoung-Nam ; Park, So-Hyang ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 567~573
Research was initiated to investigate early establishment characteristics and germination pattern of fine-textured fescues (FF). Six varieties from Chewings fescue (
Gaud., CF), creeping red fescue (
Gaud., CRF), hard fescue (
Thuill., HF) and sheep fescue (
L., SF) were evaluated in the study. An alternative environmental condition requiring a FF germination test by International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) was applied in the experiment, consisting of 8-hr light at
and 16-hr dark at
(ISTA conditions). Daily and cumulative germination patterns were measured and analyzed on a daily basis. Significant differences were observed in germination pattern, days to the first germination, days to 50% germination, days to 60% germination, and germination rate. The final germination percentage was variable with species and varieties, being 40.25 to 82.00% at the end of study. There were considerable variations in early germination characteristics and germination pattern among FF species. The first germination in all entries except HF was initiated between 5 and 6 DAS (days after seeding) under ISTA conditions, while HF between 6 and 7 DAS, being 1 day later. It was 8 to 10 DAS in days to the 50% germination, which was 2 to 4 days after the first germination date. Days to the 60% germination were 9.10 to 14.80 DAS under ISTA conditions, being 5.70 days in differences among the entries. CF 'Jamestown II' and 'Shadow II' and HF 'Aurora Gold' were the fast varieties. The slowest one was HF 'Rescue 911'. Among FF species, turf establishment speed was becoming faster in CRF, SF, HF and CF in this order. Information on differences in germination characteristics and pattern from this study would be usefully applied for golf course design and construction, when established with FF.
Effect of Waste Nutrient Solution and Fertigation Nutrient Solution on the Growth and Qualities of Tomato Grown by Fertigation
Zhang, Cheng Hao ; Xu, Zhihao ; Kang, Ho-Min ; Kim, Il-Seop ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 574~579
Waste nutrient solution (WNS) that was the drained nutrient solution of Horticultural Research Institute of Japan for culture tomato in perlite hydroponics showed
of EC and 5.7-7.1 pH from April to July. Although
concentration of WNS decreased remarkably, the other nutrients did not change significantly, as compared with supplied solution. There were no significant differences in plant height, stem diameter, and the other growth characteristics of tomato plants grown by 2 fertigation nutrient solutions; BHF (Bountiful Harvest Fertilizer, 10% of N, 13% of
, 13% of K, 0.05% of B, 0.05% of Zn, and 0.0023% of Cu that made in Korea) and Megasol (11% of N, 8% of
, 34% of K, 0.032% of Mn, 0.002% of B, 0.048% of Fe, 0.0122% of Zn, and 0.0023% of Cu that made in Belgium.); however, the chlorophyll content of tomato leaf was highest in WNS. The fresh and dry weight of tomato plants were higher in 3 fertigation treatments than irrigation of tap water, while there were no significant differences in fresh and dry weight among the 3 fertigation treatments. The mineral content of tomato leaf also did not show any differences among the 3 fertigation treatments and any regular tendency in all minerals. Total yield, fruit weight and fruit numbers of tomato were higher in WNS, followed by Megasol, BHF and control, although there were not any difference among the 3 fertigation nutrient solution treatments. BER(blossom-end rot)of tomato fruits decreased in fertigation treatments, especially, fruits grown in WNS and BHF showed lower BER. However, the transpiration rate of leaf was higher in control, followed by BHF, WNS and Megasol, The fruit size and soluble solids content was higher in 3 fertigation nutrient treatments than control. These results suggest that WNS can be used for fertigation solution in tomato because yield and quality of tomato fruit grown in WNS fertigation treatment were similar to those in 2 fertigation nutrient solutions treatments(BHF, Megasol).
Effect of Planting Density on Growth and Quality in Hydroponics of Sedum sarmentosum
Lee, Seung-Yeob ; Kim, Hyo-Jin ; Bae, Jong-Hyang ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 580~584
The effect of planting densities on the growth of
(4 collections) was investigated using nutrient film technique (NFT) with Yamazaki' lettuce nutrient solution (1982) from September 5th to October 24th in non-heating plastic film house. At 40 days, the plant height of 4 collections showed the range of 15.0-18.9 cm, and mean plant height was high the order of
. The growth of 'Pohang' and 'Wando' collections was better compared to that of 'Gunsan' and 'Wanju' collections. Number of node, stem diameter, and fresh and dry weight per plant were decreased in higher planting density. Despite the lower fresh weight per plant obtained, the fresh yield per
was significantly increased in higher planting density. The mean fresh yield was
, and 'Pohang' collection showed the highest fresh yield (
). The first optimized harvesting time base on plant height was 30-40 days after NFT culture during autumn season. In eating quality, compression force of stem and bitterness of shoot were decreased in higher planting density. However, the heavy labor demanding high density cutting needs to be improved for hydroponic culture of
Effects of 1-MCP and Storage Condition on Shelf Life and Quality of 'Janghowon Hwangdo' Peach (Prunus persica Batsch)
Chun, Jong-Pil ; Seo, Jeong-Seok ; Kim, Myung-Surn ; Lim, Byung-Sun ; Ahn, Young-Jik ; Hwang, Yong-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 585~592
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 1-MCP, an ethylene action inhibitor, and several postharvest treatments including ethylene scrubbing on fruit quality and respiration for keeping marketability in 'Janhowon Hwangdo' peach (
Batsch). 1-MCP at the rate of
showed best results in maintenance of fruit firmness and external appearance such as skin color. The ethylene production was strongly reduced by 1-MCP treatment at 0.5 or
but respiration rate was only suppressed at
during 6 days of shelf life at
. Mature fruits (harvested 1 week before full commercial maturity) were much highly responsive to
of 1-MCP compared to those of commercial maturity. At the concentration of
of 1-MCP did not affect fruit marketability compared to untreated control. Beneficial effects of carbon ceramic as an ethylene scrubber were also found such as delay of firmness loss and deterioration of external appearance at
, but these positive effects on fruit quality remained for only 5 days. The application of ethylene scrubber on the shipping carton boxes was effective on keeping firmness of immature fruit pretreated with 1-MCP when compared with mature fruit.
Change of Total Glucosinolates Level according to Processing Treatments in Chinese Cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. Pekinensis) from Different Harvest Seasons
Kim, Mee-Kyung ; Hong, Eun-Young ; Kim, Gun-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 593~599
This study was carried out to investigate the level of total glucosinolates in different parts (outer and inner part) of fresh, salted Chinese cabbage (
) and Kimchi at different harvesting periods (June-July, August-September, October-November, December-April, and May). For determination of total glucosinolates, Chinese cabbage was used for analytical sample preparation, provided with an anion exchanges column and measured by UV-visible Spectrophotometer. The fresh Chinese cabbage (FCC) that was harvested in June-July contained the highest level of total glucosinolates and was higher in outer part than inner part in all harvesting periods. The salted Chinese cabbage (SCC) that was harvested in May contained the lowest level of total glucosinolates. Total glucosinolates level of SCC in outer part was higher in June-July and August-September. The manufactured Kimchi (K) using harvested Chinese cabbage in June-July and August-September contained the highest level of total glucosinolates while that harvested in May contained the lowest level. The level of total glucosinolates in different parts was higher in inner part than outer part in all harvesting periods except for May. In all harvesting times, the level of total glucosinolates of FCC was higher than processed Chinese cabbage (SCC and K). Based on these results, levels of total glucosinolates are influenced by harvesting periods, parts and processing conditions of Chinese cabbage.
Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) Treatment on the Quality Characteristics and Pigmentation of Tomato Fruit (Lycopersicon Esculentum Mill.)
Lee, Youn-Suk ; Chung, Dae-Sung ; Harte, Bruce R. ; Shin, Joong-Min ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 600~608
The quality attributes of tomato fruit (
Mill.) to treatments with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) were studied. Harvested tomato fruit was treated one time at the initiation of storage or once-a-day during storage with
1-MCP at different storage temperatures, 12, 17, and
. The results showed that both lower temperature and duration of 1-MCP treatment played an important role in ripening of tomato fruit. The once-a-day 1-MCP treatment was presented to be very effective in delaying quality changes of tomato fruit. The amount of chlorophyll and lycopene were measured to assess the impact of 1-MCP and temperature treatments on ripening, using a specific extinction coefficient absorbance technique. Storing tomato fruit at
resulted in a longer ripening period (color change) than tomato fruit stored at
. 1-MCP treatment was very effective in retarding chlorophyll degradation and lycopene formation in the pericarp tissue of the tomato fruit at the different storage temperatures. The 1-MCP treatments affected the total chlorophyll content in different fruit tissues of the pericarp and placenta. Exposure of tomato fruit to 1-MCP gas at
, using the once-a-day treatment, was highly effective in delaying pigment and color change.
Effect of Vase Water Temperature and Leaf Number on Water Relations and Senescence of Cut Roses
In, Byung-Chun ; Chang, Myoung-Kap ; Byoun, Hye-Jin ; Son, Ki-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 609~617
The effect of vase water temperature and leaf number on water relations and senescence responses was determined in cut roses. Freshly harvested 'Red Sandra' roses were re-trimmed to 50 cm leaving two or four upper leaves and held in one of three solutions: ambient temperature distilled water (
; AT-DW), low temperature distilled water (
; LT-DW) and low temperature preservative solution (LT-PW). Flowers were kept in an environmental controlled room. Treatment effects evaluated were vase life, flower diameter, and changes in fresh weight and water uptake. Differences in water relations were determined by measuring
assimilation, stomatal conductance, and stem water flux rate (SFR). The water uptake rate was significantly increased in roses in LT-DW and decreased in those in LT-PW. While showing lower solution uptake rate during vase period, roses in LT-PW exhibited greatest fresh weight, longest positive water balance duration and largest flower diameter. Flowers with two leaves attached exhibited a higher fresh weight and improved water balance, thereby extending vase life.
assimilation rate and stomatal conductance were significantly decreased by placing flowers in LT-PW, yet increased by reducing leaf number to two leaves on the flower stems. Compared to the upper stem, the SFR of the basal stem of roses in AT-DW was lower, whereas SFR in basal stems of roses in LT-DW was much higher, suggesting that low-temperature water improved the hydraulic conductance in the stems. In contrast, roses in LT-PW had a stable SFR during the experimental period and displayed a similar pattern in SFR between upper and basal portions of the stems. Consequently, the vase life of cut roses in LT-PW and LT-DW was extended by more than eight and four days, respectively, compared to those in AT-DW.
Skewed Inheritance of EST-SSR Alleles in Reciprocal Crosses of Cut Roses
Kim, Jin-Ki ; Ahn, Dong-Chun ; Oh, Hye-Jeong ; Kim, Kwang-Hwan ; Choi, Young-Mi ; Oh, Seung-Yong ; Kang, Nam-Jun ; Jeong, Byoung-Ryong ; Kim, Zhoo-Hyeon ; Park, Young-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 618~626
Matroclinal inheritance of morphological characters in interspecific crosses of Rosa spp. can be influenced by cytoplasmic inheritance, apomixis, and asynaptic heterogamy. In asynaptic heterogamy, which is often observed from interspecific crosses of Rosa sect.
, the polyploidy of the seed parent (especially for 5x=35) is recovered in the progeny through the pollens that include only a set of bivalents (x=7) and egg cells that contain a set of bivalents (x=7) and other univalents (3x=21). In this study, we investigated the causes of matroclinal offsprings observed from reciprocal crosses of tetraploid cut rose cultivars (
L.) by analyzing EST-SSR marker distribution in the progeny populations. From EST-SSR marker analysis of eight offsprings per six reciprocal crosses among six cultivars, cases of cytoplasmic inheritance were not observed. Apomixis was also very rare as compared to the reports on interspecific crosses of sect.
; only one apomitic plant was identified from the cross 'Redtem'
'Red Sandra'. Although a clear-cut pattern of asynaptic heterogamy was not found, cultivar-specific marker transmission skewed to seed parent in four cultivars implied that genetic inheritance can be highly influenced by the seed parent depending on crosses among cut rose cultivars; especially, 10 out of 11 alleles specific to 'Yellow King' distributed in progenies at higher ratios when the cultivars were crossed as the seed parent.
Development of a SNP Marker Set for Tomato Cultivar Identification
Bae, Joong-Hwan ; Han, Yang ; Jeong, Hee-Jin ; Kwon, Jin-Kyung ; Chae, Young ; Choi, Hak-Soon ; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 627~637
The consumption of tomato has greatly increased recently in Korea, and a large number of tomato cultivars are commercially available in the market. However, identification of tomato cultivars by morphological traits is extremely difficult because of the narrow genetic diversity of breeding lines. Therefore, it is necessary to develop molecular markers for cultivar identification in tomato. In this study, we surveyed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and developed SNP marker sets for tomato cultivar identification. SNP markers were developed based on conserved ortholog set II (COSII) and intron-based markers derived from pepper EST sequences, and marker polymorphism was tested using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. A total of 628 primer sets was tested, and 417 primer sets amplifying single bands were selected. Of the 417 primer sets, 70 primer sets showing HRM polymorphism among 4 inbred lines were selected. Eleven markers were selected from the 70 primer sets and subjected to cultivar identification analysis. Thirty two commercial tomato cultivars were successfully identified using the marker set.
Phylogenetic Relationship of Ligularia Species Based on RAPD and ITS Sequences Analyses
Ahn, Soon-Young ; Cho, Kwang-Soo ; Yoo, Ki-Oug ; Suh, Jong-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 638~647
The genetic relationships in 5 species of
were investigated using RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) sequences analyses. In RAPD analysis, sixty three of 196 arbitrary primers showed polymorphism. The amplified fragments ranged from 0.2 to 1.6 kb in size. The dendrogram was constructed by the UPGMA clustering algorithm based on genetic similarity of RAPD markers. A total of 16 accessions were classified into 5 major groups corresponding each species at the similarity coefficient value of 0.77. In the ITS sequence analysis, the size of ITS 1 was varied from 248 to 256 bp, while ITS 2 was varied from 220 to 222 bp. The 5.8S coding region was 164 bp in lengths. Forty nine sites (10.2%) of the 478 nucleotides were variable, and the G+C content of ITS region ranged from 49.4 to 53.5%. In the ITS tree, five species of
were monophyletic, and
was the first branching within the clade.
formed a clade with
were also claded. Two data sets were congruent, except of the position of
Cloning and Characterization of a 5-Enolpyruvyl Shikimate 3-Phosphate Synthase (EPSPS) Gene from Korean Lawn Grass (Zoysia japonica)
Lee, Hye-Jung ; Lee, Geung-Joo ; Kim, Dong-Sub ; Kim, Jin-Beak ; Ku, Ja-Hyeong ; Kang, Si-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 648~655
This study is the first comprehensive report on the molecular cloning, structural characterization, sequence comparison between wild and mutant types, copy number in the genome, expression features and activities of a gene encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in Korean lawn grass (
). The full length cDNA of the EPSPS from Korean lawn grass (
EPSPS) obtained from a 3' and 5' RACE method was 1540 bp, containing a 1176 bp ORF, a 144 bp leader sequence (5' UTR) and a 220 bp 3' UTR, which was eventually decoded 391 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 41.74 kDa. The Southern blot detection of the
EPSPS showed that the gene exists as a single copy in the Korean lawn grass genome. Sequence comparison of the
EPSPS gene demonstrated that the glyphosate-tolerant mutant (GT) having a Pro-53 to Ser substitution in the gene seems to have a preferred binding activity of the enzyme to phosphoenol pyruvate(PEP) over glyphosate, which allows the continuous synthesis of aromatic amino acids in the shikimate pathway. From the Northern blotting analysis, the
EPSPS was found to be highly expressed, with continuous increase until 36 hours after 0.5% glyphosate treatment in both wild and mutant samples, but 1.5-fold higher EPSP synthase activity was observed in the tolerant mutant when exposed to the glyphosate treatment. The molecular information of the
EPSPS gene obtained from this study needs to be further dissected to be more effectively applied to the development of gene-specific DNA markers and zoysiagrass cultivars; nevertheless, the glyphosate-tolerant mutant having the featured
EPSPS gene can be provided to turfgrass managers for weed problems with timely adoptable management options.
Breeding of Fragrant Yellow Phalaenopsis and Scent Pattern Analysis by GC/SAW Electronic Nose System
Been, Chul-Gu ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 656~663
In order to improve the consumer acceptance of fragrant yellow hybrids of
), crosses between yellow hybrid varieties were made and the obtained hybrids were investigated for horticultural characteristics as well as difference in fragrance patterns. Cross combination of
Brother lawrence and
Brother saragold yielded good seedling population of 500 plants. Segregation was noticed in color density, spot and stripe patterns on yellow color base of petal and also in fragrance. Six lines with multi-branch on flower stalk and strong fragrance flower were finally selected. Volatile fragrance components were compared among
Brother saragold and their hybrids by GC/SAW electronic nose. In the derivative pattern of chromatogram and polar derivative pattern of fragrance, similar dominant peaks appeared on retention time 7-9 s and some hybrid lines had two strong peaks on retention time 20-25 s, respectively. Also in polar frequency pattern of fragrance obtained by
image analysis among parent flowers and hybrids, an identical strong peak near 8 s of retention time was shown. This single fragrance component is considered a key element of fragrance in
Brother saragold and their hybrids. This peak could be used as a marker for the breeding of fragrance in
Distribution of DArT Markers in a Genetic Linkage Map of Tomato
Truong, Hai Thi Hong ; Graham, Elaine ; Esch, Elisabeth ; Wang, Jaw-Fen ; Hanson, Peter ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 664~671
A genetic linkage map was constructed using 188
RILs derived from a cross between
H7996 (resistant to bacterial wilt) and
WVa700 (highly susceptible to bacterial wilt). The map consisted of 361 markers including 260 DArTs, 74 AFLPs, 4 RFLPs, 1 SNP, and 22 SSRs. The resulting linkage map was comprised of 13 linkage groups covering 2042.7 cM. The genetic linkage map had an average map distance between markers of 5.7 cM, with an average DArT marker density of 1/7.9 cM. Based on the distribution of anchor SSR markers, 11 linkage groups were assigned to 10 chromosomes of tomato except chromosomes 5 and 12. The DArT markers were distributed across the genome in a similar way as other markers and showed the highest frequency of clustering (38.8%) at
0.5 cM intervals between adjacent markers, which is 3 times higher than AFLPs (13.5%). The present study is the first utilization of DArT markers in tomato linkage map construction.
Detection Method for Unapproved Genetically Modified Rose Plants in Korea Using Duplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Park, Young-Doo ; Kim, Hae-Yeong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 672~677
A duplex PCR method was developed to detect a transformation vector pSPB130 used in the development of a genetically modified (GM) rose plant. To detect a GM rose plant, the anthocyanin synthase (
) was used as an endogenous reference gene of rose in PCR detection. The primer pair RHANS-KF/KR producing 107 bp amplicon was used to amplify the
gene and no amplified product was observed in any of the 9 different plants used as a template. The primer pair GMRH-KF/KR was designed to amplify the junction sequence between 35S promoter and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (
) gene in pSPB130. The detection limit of the duplex PCR method is approximately 0.5%. This result indicates that this duplex PCR method could be useful for monitoring unauthorized GM rose in Korea.
Auxin and Cytokinin Affect Biomass and Bioactive Compound Production from Adventitious Roots of Eleutherococcus koreanum
Lee, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Myong-Ki ; Paek, Kee-Yoeup ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 678~684
In an attempt to improve biomass and bioactive compound production, we cultured adventitious roots of
in 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different concentrations of auxins (IBA, NAA, IAA) and cytokinins (BA, kinetin, TDZ). Root biomass (fresh and dry weight) was enhanced at
indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) after 5 weeks of culture. The content of total phenolics and flavonoids was also increased with
IBA compared to
-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA) or indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) treatments. The combination of
thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3,-thidiazol-5-ylurea) enhanced root fresh and dry weight (1.4- and 1.6-fold, respectively) as well as the content of total phenolics and flavonoids compared to the relative control (without cytokinin). On the contrary,
-benzyladenine (BA) and 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin) did not significantly affect root biomass and bioactive compound production in adventitious roots of
. These results suggested that
IBA combination with
TDZ supplementation was most suitable for both biomass and bioactive compound production from adventitious roots of
Effects of Extraction Condition on Extraction Efficiency of Rubiadin in Adventitious Roots of Noni (Morinda citrifolia)
Kim, Myong-Ki ; Jeong, Cheol-Seung ; Shin, Yong-Kook ; Park, Kyong-Hee ; Lee, Woon-Jang ; Lee, Eun-Jung ; Paek, Kee-Yoeup ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 685~690
Rubiadin, a major compound of noni (
) adventitious root, is highly valued in pharmaceutical industry due to hepatoprotective activity. To dissect rubiadin's effective extraction condition, extraction process of noni adventitious roots was performed with different solvent types, ratio of water to methanol (water, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of methanol), extraction time, and extraction method. In contrast, we also developed a reverse- phase HPLC assay method to determine rubiadin from noni adventitious roots. The HPLC assay of rubiadin was performed by C-18 column using a gradient solvent system of methanol and water with UV detector at 280 nm. The extraction efficiency of different types of solvents were increased in order of methanol (0.08%) > ethanol (0.05%) > acetonitrile (0.03%) > acetone (0.02%) and methylene chloride (0.02%). The results of rubiadin extraction using different solvents showed that 1 hour of ultrasonic extraction was effective in order of 60% methanol (0.21%) > 80% methanol (0.13%) > 100% methanol (0.07%), 40% methanol (0.07%) and 2 hours of reflux extraction was effective in order of 60% methanol (0.21%) > 40% methanol (0.17%) > 80% methanol (0.14%). To compare the extraction efficiency of rubiadin according to the extraction methods and time for high rubiadin content, the extracts of rubiadin in noni adventitious roots were isolated with the methods of ultrasonic extraction, shaking extraction and reflux extraction. Rubiadin extracted from the methods of ultrasonic waves and shaking displayed the highest contents at 8 and 24 hours, respectively.
Correlation between Sensory Quality and Instrumental Quality Attributes in 'Campbell Early' Grape
Cho, Sun-Duk ; Chang, Min-Sun ; Kim, Dong-Man ; Kim, Gun-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 691~695
In order to find correlations between the sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis in 'Campbell Early' grape, grapes were divided into three parts. One-half parts were used for the sensory evaluation and the other half were used as samples for instrumental analysis. Relationship between sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis were studied through correlation study using 48-paired data set obtained during storage. Soluble solid content analysis showed that instrumental quality attributes increased along the passage of storage time with increasing temperature. pH and titratable acidity decreased slightly at lower storage temperatures. Correlations between instrumental quality attributes in grapes were found to be very low. Positive correlation was found between pH and soluble solid content, and negative correlation was found between pH and titratable acidity. The relation of sourness and sweetness to sourness was higher than other sensory evaluation factors, and the shape of the grapes was found to have little relation to their sweetness. Texture (
=0.890) was found to be the most important factor in preference, followed next by sweetness with sourness (
=0.860). The correlations between the sensory evaluation and instrumental quality attributes were found to be very low, with overall acceptability given to a relatively high content of soluble solid content. Correlations between pH and titratable acidity in terms of overall acceptability were found to be very low.
Aroma Components and Antioxidant Activities of Pure Rosemary Essential Oil Goods Produced in Different Countries
Woo, Jin-Ho ; Mok, Min-Gyun ; Han, Koh-Woon ; Lee, Sang-Yong ; Park, Kuen-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 696~700
Thirty-one units of pure rosemary essential oil (EO) in domestic and foreign distribution markets were collected. Aromatic components of these samples were analyzed and antioxidant activity was measured. As the result, major aromatic components were identified such as
-pinene, 1.8-cineole, verbenone and borneol. Major components of rosemary EO were different according to countries. Essential oil from France had good quality. Essential oil cultivated and extracted in South Korea had more content than the collected essential oil in components of
-pinene and camphene. Only 16% of the total 31 unit samples satisfied the content of 9 ingredients presented by ISO. The quality of EDA was shown as 4.8-96.0%, remarkable differences per specimen. A total of 31 units, only 13% of EO showed more than 60% antioxidant activity. Difference of antioxidant activity did not correspond with specific component. Essential oil from Swiss had high antioxidant activity.
Meta-Analysis of Research Papers on Horticultural Therapy Program Effect
Jang, Eu-Jean ; Han, Go-Wun ; Hong, Jong-Won ; Yoon, Sung-Eun ; Pak, Chun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 701~707
To analyze the effectiveness of horticultural therapy reported in research papers, a meta-analysis was carried out with 108 of 377 Korean and overseas research papers on horticultural therapy from 1985 to February 2009 (196 Korean dissertations, 113 Korean journal articles, 5 overseas dissertations, and 63 overseas journal articles). The results revealed a large effect size of 0.71. The effectiveness according to the type, age and number of participants were also analyzed. The therapy was most effective in children, and it was more beneficial for children with special needs and elderly people affected by dementia than for the typical population. The greatest effect was found with group sizes of five people or less, and when carried out by researchers from departments related to horticultural therapy than by researchers from unrelated fields of study. The most effective horticultural therapy programs involved floral decorations; and participants who took part in 21 to 30 sessions or at least 31 sessions benefited the most. Among the main effects of short-term horticultural therapy are cognitive, social, physical and emotional; the greatest effect was observed in the physical domain.
'Skinny Green', a Novel Hairless Green-fleshed Baby Kiwifruit
Kwack, Yong-Bum ; Choi, Hak-Soon ; Chae, Won-Byoung ; Jeong, Myeong-Il ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 708~710
'Skinny Green' is the third hairless-variety release by National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science (NIHHS) of Rural Development Administration (RDA) in Korea. It was bred by field crossing using the KN8903 as the mother plant, which had been selected from the crossbreeding of a Korean wild germplasm of tara vine with a male
cv. Tomuri, and tara vine as the father plant collected from Korean mountains. The principal features of the final release are firstly, the fruit size not bigger than a mouthful bite with the average fruit weight not more than 19.3 g, and secondly, the thin and hairless edible fruit skin. It has green flesh color maintaining soluble solids and acid contents about
and 0.91% respectively. Its harvest season is usually in mid October. As it is not self-fertile it needs artificial pollination. Its tendency to produce maximum numbers of fruit requires thinning out of the fruits in a proper way.
A New Cultivar 'Daemang' with Long Red Eye Spot and Large Flower by Interspecific Cross of Hibiscus Species
Ha, Yoo-Mi ; Kim, Dong-Yeob ; Han, In-Song ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 711~714
A new cultivar 'Daemang' (
hybrid 'Daemang') originated from the interspecific cross between
'Namwon' to improve the flower quality in 2001. 'Daemang' was preliminarily selected as 'R-143' in 2003 for its stable flower quality with long red eye spot and named in 2006. The tree habit shows vigorous growth and is upright, so it can be used as a specimen tree or street tree. Characteristic tests such as leaf shape, leaf size, flower characteristics, flowering, and capsule size were conducted from 2004 to 2006. The characteristics succeed after grafting. 'Daemang' had pink color flower with red eye spot. The width of flower is 15.2 cm. Petal length and width are 8.0 cm and 6.4 cm, respectively. Leaves are 9.49 cm long and 8.72 cm wide. After the plant characteristics evaluation for 3 years (2004~2006), it was registered as a variety 'Daemang' in 2008.
Cymbidium Hybrid 'Purple Princess' with Dark Purple Flower
Kim, Mi-Seon ; Jeong, Myeong-Il ; Lee, Young-Ran ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 4, 2010, Pages 715~718
'Purple Princess' ('Show Girl' x 'Eiko') is a new cultivar having dark purple sepal and petal (RHS, RP59A) with purple lip (RHS, RP59A). A cross was made between pink colored
'Show Girl' as maternal line and dark purple colored
'Eiko' as paternal line in 1994. It was preliminarily selected as Line No. 94019267 in 1999 considering the characters of flower shape and color, leaf growing shape and growth habit in normal culture condition. Multiplication, cultivation, and characteristic trials were conducted from 2000 to 2003. The line was named as Wongyo F1-7 and phenotype was characterized in 2004 as a new 'Purple Princess'. 'Purple Princess' has about 13.2 flowers per flower stalk and flower size of 5.2 cm. General appearance of petals and sepals is slightly incurved shape. The plant size is intermediate having erect peduncle. Blooming starts from early December under optimal culture condition. Leaf attitude and twisting is erect and very weak respectively. Erect leaf will be suitable for growing and handling in the nursery as pot orchid flowers.