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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
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Morphological Characteristics and Germination as Affected by Low Temperature and GA in Orostachys 'Jirisan' and 'Jejuyeonhwa' Seeds, Korea Native Plant
Kang, Jeong-Hee ; Jeong, Kyeong-Jin ; Choi, Kyoung-Ok ; Chon, Young-Shin ; Yun, Jae-Gill ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 913~920
This study was conducted to improve the seed germination by low temperature and
A. Berger (Jirisan) and
(Mak.) Hara (Jejuyeonhwa), Korean native plants. Observation of the seeds using a stereo microscope showed that all seeds of the two species have wrinkled surface and oblong shape. Seed size ranged 0.77-1.00/0.25-0.37 mm (length/width), indicating that the seeds are minute seeds. When the seeds of two
species were sown into petri-dish and placed in a plant growth chamber of 10, 15, 20, or
, 'Jirisan' showed seed germination below 20% at all temperatures and 'Jejuyeonhwa' 80% at only
. Seed germination of 'Jirisan' increased up to 44% at
by low temperature (
) storage for 10 days, but decreased again at storage for more than 20 days. The seeds of 'Jejuyeonhwa' showed a large increase in seed germination by low temperature for 20-30 days, which was 95% at
, but low temperature for more than 40 days significantly decreased seed germination. Dipping treatment in GA3 solution of
for different periods (3, 6, 12, and 24 hrs) remarkably improved germination rate and speed in both species, 80-100% in 'Jirisan' and 90-100% in 'Jejuyeonhwa' at all concentrations and dipping times used in this study.
Chemical Component of Red Onion (Allium cepa L.) according to Cultivars and Growing Areas
Moon, Jin-Seong ; Kim, Hee-Dae ; Ha, In-Jong ; Lee, Sun-Young ; Lee, Jong-Tae ; Lee, Sang-Dae ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 921~927
The objective of this study was to improve the breeding efficiency and consumption of red onion by analysis of chemical components. The red cultivar S&P5294 (
F.W.) resulted in the highest sugar content, and sweetness whereas 'Redprime' had the lowest. For the pyruvic acid content the cultivar 'Redsun' showed the highest value, followed by 'Sunpower' (yellow onion) and S&P7270. Breeding lines had higher sugar content and sweetness than 'Redprime' and 'Sunpower', while they had less pyruvic acid value than 'Redsun' and 'Sunpower'. The the same trend was verified for the total phenol and total flavonoid, of which breeding lines were found to have more content than 'Redprime' or 'Sunpower'. Three major flavonoids, rutin (quercetin glycoside), myricetin, and quercetin, were identified and quantified whereas kaempferol was not detected in all cultivars. Rutin was the major flavonoid present in all cultivars (136.9 to
F.W.), followed by quercetin (62.5 to
F.W.). Relatively smaller amount of myricetin (11.2 to
F.W.) was also detected. Among nine cultivars, 'Redsun' exhibited significantly (
< 0.05) higher content of quercetin and rutin (135.7 and
F.W., respectively), and S&P5296 had the highest content of myricetin(
F.W.). Breeding lines had more quercetin, rutin and myricetin contents than the cultivars 'Redprime' and 'Sunpower'. Hampyeong had the highest content for total phenol and total flavonoid, followed by Andong and Changyeong whereas Changyeong had the highest value for rutin, myricetin and quercetin followed by Hampyeong and Andong. Among red onion cultivars, 'Redsun' showed the highest value for anthocyanin, followed by S&P5295 and S&P5296, which the cultivar 'Redprime' had significantly (p<0.05) lower content(35.5 mg%).
Plant Physiological Responses in Relation to Temperature, Light Intensity, and CO
Concentration for the Selection of Efficient Foliage Plants on the Improvement of Indoor Environment
Park, Sin-Ae ; Kim, Min-Gi ; Yoo, Mung-Hwa ; Oh, Myung-Min ; Son, Ki-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 928~936
This study was conducted to select efficient foliage plants for improving indoor environment conditions through the investigation of physiological responses including photosynthetic rate according to temperature, light intensity, and
level. Eight popular foliage plants used in this study were
Engler. Photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of the plants subjected to various light intensities (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300, and
levels (0, 50, 100, 200, 400, 700, and
), and two different temperatures (16 and
) were measured. In addition, various parameters in relation to photosynthesis were calculated from the measured data. As a result, the patterns of photosynthesis varied among 8 foliage plants according to light intensity,
level, and temperature. Most foliage plants except
had high levels of apparent quantum yield, which represents the photosynthetic rate under low light intensity (PPFD
exposed to high light intensity (PPFD
) showed high levels of photosynthesis.
were low in
fixation efficiency compared to the other 6 foliage indoor plants.
showed high photosynthetic rate under high
level and vigorous photosynthesis was also observed in
. Considering characteristics of indoor environment such as low light, high
level, and low relative humidity, therefore,
were efficient indoor foliage plants to improve indoor environmental conditions.
Estimation of Changes in Full Bloom Date of 'Niitaka' Pear Tree with Global Warming
Han, Jeom-Hwa ; Cho, Kwang-Sik ; Choi, Jang-Jun ; Hwang, Hae-Sung ; Kim, Chang-Gook ; Kim, Tae-Choon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 937~941
This study investigated the effect of global warming on full bloom date (FBD) of 'Niitaka' pear (
Nakai) tree by calculating the development stage index by hourly temperatures recorded at Pear Research Station, estimating the distribution of average FBD and the change of FBD according to temperature rising by integrating development rate at 67 locations in Korea Meteorological Administration site. Development stage index of 'Niitaka' pear tree was 0.9593 at Naju location. Differences between full bloom dates observed at Cheonan region and predictions by development stage index were 0-7 days, and matched year was 35.3%. FBDs of 67 locations were distributed from April 4 to May 28. When yearly temperature was raised 1, 2, 3, 4, and
at 67 locations, predicted FBD was accelerated at most of the locations. However, FBD decelerated at south coast locations from
rise and did not bloom at 'Gosan', 'Seogwipo', and 'Jeju' locations from
rise. When monthly temperature was raised 1, 3, and
at 67 locations, predicted FBD was the most accelerated at March temperature rise, and followed by April, February, January and December. Therefore, global warming will cause acceleration of the full bloom date at pear production areas in Korea.
Pollen Tube Elongation and Fruit Set of Asian Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) upon Mechanical Damage on the Style
Kang, Sam-Seok ; Kim, Yoon-Kyeong ; Choi, Jang-Jeon ; Cho, Kwang-Sik ; Hwang, Hae-Sung ; Jeong, Sang-Bouk ; Lee, Hee-Jae ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 942~947
In the present study, pollen tube growth and fruit set in Asian pear (
) were examined upon the mechanical damage on the stigma and style following the artificial pollination. When the upper middle part of style was cut off at 48 h after the artificial pollination, pollen tube grew to the middle of the style and the subsequent pollen tube elongation and fruit set normally occurred. When the style was cut off before the pollen tube reached the middle of the style, however, no pollen tube elongation and fruit set occurred. With the pollen tube elongation through the style, callose plugs at the basal part of the pollen tube were formed to the direction of the elongation at regular intervals. When the upper part of pollen tube attached pollen grain was cut off, however, callose plugs were formed defectively in the pollen tube, and the pollen tube opened and lost their turgor pressure. These facts might be the reason for the ceased or delayed pollen tube elongation and ultimately the failure of the fertilization.
Comparison of Bioactive Compounds Contents in Different Fruit Tissues of June-bearing Strawberry Cultivars
Kim, Sung-Kyeom ; Bae, Ro-Na ; Hwang, Hyun-Seung ; Kim, Moo-Jung ; Sung, Hye-Ryeong ; Chun, Chang-Hoo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 948~953
We evaluated the bioactive compounds including carbohydrates (CH), organic acids (OA), ascorbic acid (AA), anthocyanin (AC), and ellagic acid (EA) in the achenes, epidermis, and flesh of fully ripe strawberry fruits of the 'Maehyang', 'Seolhyang', 'Keumhyang', 'Akiheme', and 'Red pearl' cultivars. The total contents of CH, OA, AA, and AC were significantly greater in the epidermis than in other tissues, while the EA content was significantly greater in the achenes than in other tissues. The AA content of the epidermis ranged from
FW and was significantly greater than the content of the flesh, while AA was not detected in the achenes of any of the tested strawberry cultivars. The AA contents of the epidermis and flesh of the 'Maehyang' were 69.2 and
FW, respectively, and were greater than those of the other cultivars. The AC contents in the epidermis and achenes of the 'Keumhyang' were
DW, respectively, greater than those of the other cultivars. The EA content of the achenes of the 'Seolhyang' was
DW, significantly greater than those of the other cultivars. Results indicate that the antioxidant levels and other chemical compounds of strawberry fruits vary significantly among different fruit tissues. Our results also suggest that the recently introduced Korean 'Maehyang', 'Seolhyang', and 'Keumhyang' contain higher levels of antioxidants than other major June-bearing strawberry cultivars. These cultivars are feasible selections for both growers and consumers.
Relationship between Berry Set Density and Fruit Quality in 'Kyoho' Grape
Park, Seo-Jun ; Kim, Jin-Gook ; Jung, Sung-Min ; Noh, Jung-Ho ; Hur, Youn-Young ; Ryou, Myung-Sang ; Lee, Han-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 954~958
The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between berry set density per bearing shoot and fruit quality in 'Kyoho' grape. Fruit quality was evaluated by soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), skin color, and total anthocyanin content (TAC). There was a sharp increase in SSC of fruit juice from veraison initiation to 30 days after veraison. The SSC level increased with the lower berry set per bearing shoot. The rapid accumulation of SSC 4 weeks after veraison in the cluster of low berry set (10-20) was observed, while that of high berry set (40-50) showed delayed and low SSC accumulation which reached only
at harvest. TA of fruit juice in all treatments reduced rapidly from veraison initiation to 30 days after veraison, and then reduced gradually. TA in all treatments except 50 berries set reached to 0.4-0.6% which was optimal TA in 'Kyoho' at fruit harvest. During fruit maturing after veraison, fruit skin color changed from green to purple-black, L and b value decreased, and a value increased. TAC in 10 and 20 berries set was gradually increased to 2 weeks after veraison, sharply increased until 6 weeks after veraison, and then finally decreased, while TAC in content in 30, 40, and 50 berries set per annual shoot remained at low level. The results indicated that the number of berry set for good quality seemed to be 20 per bearing shoot in 'Kyoho' grape.
Productivity of Seed Garlic Using Garlic Bulbils as Affected by Planting Dates and Storage Temperatures
Ahn, Yul-Kyun ; Choi, Gyeong-Lee ; Choi, Hak-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 959~963
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of planting dates using garlic bulbils for production of seed garlic. The planting dates were examined using 0.2 g bulbils of 'Namdo' or 'Danyang'. For the planting dates study conducted in the middle regions, the bulbils of 'Danyang' planted in autumn produced bulb weight ranging from 3.1 to 3.5 g and percentage of harvest ranged from 61 to 71. The bulbils of 'Danyang' planted in spring produced bulb weight ranging from 1.8 to 2.8 g and percentage of harvest ranged from 53 to 60. The most desirable planting date was in the early October for the middle regions. For the planting dates study conducted in the southern regions, the bulbils of 'Namdo' planted in autumn produced bulb weight ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 g and percentage of harvest ranged from 74 to 89. The bulbils of 'Danyang' planted in spring produced bulb weight ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 g and percentage of harvest ranged from 47 to 56. The most desirable planting date was in the mid and late September for the southern regions.
Impact of Physico·chemical Properties of Root Substrates on Growth of 'Seolhyang' Strawberry Daughter Plants Occurred through Bag Culture of Mother Plants
Choi, Jong-Myung ; Park, Ji-Young ; Yoon, Moo-Kyung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 964~972
Objective of this research was to determine the influence of physico.chemical properties of root substrates on growth of daughter plants that were developed through plastic bag cultivation of mother plants in 'Seolhyang' strawberry propagation. Six different formulations of root substrates for daughter plant cultivation were peatmoss + vermiculite (5:5, A), peatmoss + perlite (7:3, B), coir dust + perlite (7:3, C), coir dust + peatmoss + perlite (3.5:3.5:3.0, D), rice-hull + coir dust + perlite (2:7:1, E), and rice hull + coir dust (3:7, F). The 10 cm plastic pots filled with formulated substrates were located near the plastic bag where mother plants were growing. Then the runners and daughter plants originated from mother plants were fixed on each root substrate filled into 10 cm plastic pot and daughter plants were grown in the plastic pots. The container capacity and air space showed big differences among substrates tested. The substrates E and F had the less container capacity and the higher air space than other substrates tested. This indicates that the two substrates would have difficulties in water managements during the raising of daughter plants. The substrates of A, B, and D which contained peatmoss in formulation had higher nitrogen concentrations than those containing coir dust or rice hull. The substrates of E and F which contained rice hull had lower nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations than those that contained coir. The crown diameters of daughter plants grown in substrate A were around 13 mm which is thicker than those grown in other substrates. The fresh weights of daughter plants grown in A substrate were the heaviest followed by C, F, D, E, and B. The dry weight of daughter plants showed similar tendency to those of fresh weight. The daughter plants which had heavy fresh and dry weights and thick crown diameter are considered good seedlings. Based on this justification, the substrates of A, C and F are acceptable for daughter plant growth of 'Seolhyang' strawberry.
Plant Growth and Nutrient Uptake of Kalanchoe Plants (Kalanchoe blossfeldiana 'New Alter') and Nutrient Accumulation of Growing Media with Growth Stage at Different Nutrient Strengths in Ebb and Flow Subirrigation Systems
Noh, Eun-Hee ; Son, Jung-Eek ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 973~979
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of electrical conductivity (EC) of nutrient solution on the growth, nutrient uptake of potted kalanchoe plants (
'New Alter') and the nutrient accumulation at the growing media with growth stage in ebb and flow subirrigation systems. Significant differences in leaf area, plant height, and dry weight of the plants were found among the different ECs of nutrient solution of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, and
. Particularly the difference in plant growth became significantly greater from 5 weeks after treatment. The overall growth was the highest at EC
. Leaf area, plant height, and dry weight were maintained higher when EC increased to
, but rapidly decreased after EC
. The uptake of NO3-N was the greatest while that of
was the lowest at EC
, even though small differences were found among macro elements. The EC at the top layer of the growing media was 1 to 3 times higher than that at the bottom layer. Nutrient accumulation was accelerated in both the top and bottom layers with growth stage. At EC
, the growth of the plants was suppressed due to higher nutrient accumulation at the growing media. From the results, the strength and composition of nutrient solution should be determined by considering nutrient accumulation at the growing media in addition to EC of nutrient solution in ebb and flow subirrigation systems.
Effects of Active MA Mini-packaging on Shelf-life Maintenance during Marketing of Perilla Leaves
Jeong, Cheon-Soon ; Um, Gi-Jeung ; Park, Jong-Nam ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 980~984
Research regarding respiration rate, off-flavor related material and freshness maintenance effect of active MA mini-packaging on perilla leaves has been carried in this study. Respiration rate was highly maintained at high oxygen treatments (
=0:30:70 and 0:50:50), higher than non-treatment and low oxygen treatments (6:2:92, 0:10:90) during the storage period, and ethylene production was relatively higher. However, off-flavor related materials, acetaldehyde and ethanol production was noticeably low. Weight losses of non-treatment and low-oxygen treatment were about 1.8 and 1.4%, respectively. At the fifth day of storage there was no weight loss. Ascorbic acid content was 13.3 mg/100 g F.W. at the first day of storage. At the third day of storage non-treatment showed the lowest value of ascorbic acid, 8.8 mg/100 g F.W. Ascorbic acid content of active MA treatment gradually decreased without a striking difference as the storage day extended. Chlorophyll content was the lowest at the fifth day of storage with non-treatment, 47.5 (SPAD-502 unit) while the active MA treatment maintained high level of chlorophyll content, 53.0. Sensory evaluation (vision) showed that marketability gradually decreased but was maintained in high oxygen treatments (0:30:70 and 0:50:50), even at the fifth day of storage. Occurrence of off-flavor in non-treatment at the fifth day of storage was extremely low, 2.6; whereas high in high oxygen treatment, 3.4. Active MA packaging maintained freshness two more days at room temperature (about
Extending the Vase Life of Cut Iris 'Blue Magic' Flowers by 1-Methylcyclopropene
Kim, Young-A ; Lee, Jong-Suk ; Park, Jong-Su ; Lee, Poong-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 985~989
This experiment was conducted to clarify the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on vase life of cut 'Blue Magic' iris. Pretreatment for 4 h with concentrations of 500 nL and 1000 nL 1-MCP, an inhibitor of ethylene action, inhibited the wilting and inrolling response of cut iris. The vase life of iris flowers of 500 nL or 1000 nL 1-MCP treatment was prolonged to 0.5 day compared to those held in distilled water (control). Vase life of iris showed no significant difference between
ethylene exposure after 1-MCP treatment and control. 1-MCP treatment inhibited inrolling and increased fresh weight, water uptake, and water balance. The increase of fresh weight was high in 500 nL 1-MCP treatment and water uptake was increased by 1000 nL 1-MCP. Especially, iris flower without 1-MCP treatment dramatically decreased the water uptake as compared to the control for four or five days. Water balance of iris flowers held in water was changed to minus value faster than those with pretreatment of 1-MCP.
Influence of Harvest Time after Freezing Damage on Fruit Quality during Storage of 'Fuji' Apples
Kweon, Hun-Joong ; Lee, Sang-Gyu ; Park, Moo-Yong ; Song, Yang-Yik ; Nam, Jong-Chul ; SaGong, Dong-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 990~995
This study was conducted to compare differences in fruit quality by harvest time of 'Fuji' apple fruit that was frozen on tree by unusual low temperature in that air temperature was under
for 7 hours. Fruits were harvested at 1 day before, and 2 days and 6 days after freezing damage, respectively. Harvest's soluble solid contents in all treatments was over
. Firmness and titratable acidity of fruit harvested after freezing damage was lower than those of fruit harvested before freezing damage. During cold storage, ethylene production of fruit harvested after freezing damage was higher than that of fruit harvested before freezing damage. The reduction in the level of fruit quality during cold storage of fruit harvested after freezing damage was more serious than that of fruit harvested before freezing damage. The reduction of fruit quality during subsequent ambient temperature for 1 week after cold storage of fruit harvested after freezing damage was higher than that of fruit harvested before freezing damage. In comparison of treatments that were harvested at different times after freezing damage, ethylene production and reduction in the level of fruit quality until 8 weeks of cold storage of fruit harvested at 6 days after freezing damage was lower than that of fruit harvested at 2 days after freezing damage. However, this difference by harvest time after freezing damage disappeared after 8 weeks of cold storage. Incidence of flesh browning was not affected by freezing at air temperature under
for 7 hours.
Determination of Chimera Types and Ploidy Level of Sports from 'Campbell Early' Grape (Vitis labruscana)
Noh, Jung-Ho ; Park, Kyo-Sun ; Yun, Hae-Keun ; Do, Gyung-Ran ; Hur, Youn-Young ; Kim, Seung-Hui ; Lee, Han-Chan ; Ryou, Myung-Sang ; Park, Seo-Jun ; Jung, Sung-Min ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 996~1002
Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to measure the ploidy level of three different sports from 'Campbell Early' (
) grape. Results of the study showed different ploidy levels. FCM analysis for 'Campbell Early' grape which contains 2C DNA diploid cells showed single peak around 35-40 while 'Kyoho' grape with 4C DNA tetraploid cells had a different level of 70-80. However, analysis of the sports displayed a histogram with 2 peaks containing both 2C and 4C nuclei. There was no difference in histograms of 2C DNA flesh and pericarp; on the other hand, 4C DNA flesh type of sports had a different histogram from that of the 2C DNA pericarp. Chromosome numbers of diploid ('Campbell Early'), tetraploid ('Kyoho'), and three sports were counted under the microscope. 'Campbell Early' and 'Kyoho' have 38 and 76 chromosomes, respectively. Three different sports are mixoploids with mixtures of diploid and tetraploid cells. Microscopic observations of shoot apical meristems in sports from 'Campbell Early' grape were carried out to determine the type of plant chimera. 'Campbell Early' grape (diploid) and 'Kyoho' grape (tetraploid) showed that both had 2 tunica layers covering corpus cells, while the three different sports had tunica layers showing mostly oblique division. Most cells from 'Kyoho' grape were larger than 'Campbell Early' grape. Cells from L-2 and L-3 layers of the three sports were similar to 'Kyoho' grape in size, although all cells in L-1 surface layer were uniform in size like 'Campbell Early' grape. Results of FCM analysis indicated that both normal and polyploid cells could be intermixed in sports and could become mixoploidy consisting of diploid and tetraploid. All sports used in the tests were periclinal chimera plants with two distinct L-1 and L-2 cell layers. The result of this study suggests that all three sports which originated from 'Campbell Early' grape might be 2-4-4 type chimera formation.
Genetic Relationship of Genus Rosa Germplasm and Genetic Diversity of Rosa rugosa in Korea
Joung, Youn-Hwa ; Kim, Seung-Tae ; Kim, Gi-Jun ; Lee, Ja-Hyun ; Gi, Gwang-Yeon ; Han, Tae-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1003~1013
Fifty-nine accessions of 23 species in genus Rosa were collected, and 15 accessions of Rosa rugosa were collected throughout 10 regions of Korea. Their genetic relationship was investigated by using morphological analysis and RAPD marker. The morphological analysis was measured for 7 quantitative and quantified for 4 qualitative traits. RAPD analysis obtained a total of 959 polymorphic bands by using twenty primers. Morphological analysis classified most according to the rose section system except for several species. The cluster analysis of genus Rosa based on RAPD data could identify the subgenus
. The subgenus
separated five sections;
. Correlation analysis between morphological and RAPD analysis showed low significance (
= 0.35). The accessions of R. rugosa belonged to the section
clustered into three groups at genetic distance ranging from 0.28 on the base of RAPD analysis. In conclusion, the genetic relationship of the genus Rosa was consistent to the previously reported rose section system, and domestic collections of
were separated from 3 groups on the base of RAPD marker.
Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Anthracnose Resistance in Chili Pepper (Capsicum spp.)
Kim, Su ; Kim, Ki-Taek ; Kim, Dong-Hwi ; Yang, Eun-Young ; Cho, Myeong-Cheoul ; Jamal, Arshad ; Chae, Young ; Pae, Do-Ham ; Oh, Dae-Geun ; Hwang, Ju-Kwang ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1014~1024
spp.) anthracnose caused by
is a destructive disease susceptible to areas where chili peppers are grown.
(Cbp) is resistant to anthracnose and has actively been used for interspecific hybridization for the introgression of resistance gene(s) into cultivated chili peppers. The goals of this study were to determine the inheritance of resistance to anthracnose within
and to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the anthracnose resistance. A genetic mapping population consisting of 126
plants derived from a cross between
'Golden-aji' (susceptible) was used for linkage mapping. The linkage map was constructed with 52 SSRs, 175 AFLPs, and 100 SRAPs covering 1,896cM, with an average interval marker distance of 4.0cM. Based on this map, the number, location, and effect of QTLs for anthracnose resistance were studied using plants inoculated in the laboratory and field. A total of 19 quantitative trait loci (2 major QTLs and 16 minor QTLs) were detected. Two QTLs (
) showed 16.4% phenotypic variations for anthracnose resistance after wounding inoculation. In addition, five minor QTL loci (
) showed a total of 60.73% phenotypic variations of anthracnose resistance in the field test. Several significant QTLs were also detected and their reproducibility was confirmed under different inoculation conditions. These QTLs are now being confirmed with different breeding populations. Markers tightly linked to the QTLs that are reliable under different environmental conditions will help to determine the success of marker-assisted selection for anthracnose -resistant breeding programs in chili pepper.
EST Profiling for Seed-hair Characteristic and Development of EST-SSR and SNP Markers in Carrot
Oh, Gyu-Dong ; Hwang, Eun-Mi ; Shim, Eun-Jo ; Jeon, Sang-Jin ; Park, Young-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1025~1038
) is one of the most widely used crops in the world. Moreover it is an important crop because of its high content of
-carotene, well-known as the precursor of vitamin A carotenoid. However, seed-hair which is generated in epidermal cell of seeds inhibits absorption and germination. For that reason, carrot seeds are commercialized after mechanical hair removal process. To overcome such cumbersome weaknesses, new breeding program for developing hairless-seed carrot cultivar has been needed. Therefore, in this study, cDNA libraries from seeds of short-hair seed phenotype CT-ATR615 OP 666-13line and hairy seed CT-ATR615 OP-CK1-9 line were constructed and expression patterns related to generation of seed-hair were analyzed by comparison of EST sequences. Differential EST sequence results between two lines were classified into FunCat functional categories based on the results of BlastX search. Higher expression quantities belonging to metabolic category were shown on short-hair seed line than hairy-seed one. Differential expression quantities between those two lines in the protein folding and stabilization, subcellular localization categories were supposed to contribute variously on the generation of seed-hair. We confirmed 50 and 59 SSR sites, and 2 SNP sites by analyzing EST sequences in two lines; thereafter, we designed SNP and SSR primer sets from these EST sequence information as a molecular marker. These markers are thought to be used in research of molecular markers for classification of carrot family and related to various traits, as well as seed-hair characteristic.
Analysis of Seed Hair Formation Related Genes by EST Profiling in Carrot (Daucus carota var. sativa)
Hwang, Eun-Mi ; Oh, Gyu-Dong ; Shim, Eun-Jo ; Jeon, Sang-Jin ; Park, Young-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1039~1050
Carrot is one of the useful crops used abundantly in cooking in Western as well as Asia regions such as China and Korea. However, seed coats have hairs which should be removed to increase germination rate. Furthermore, because of seed hairs, farmers face several additional losses, such as time consumption, manpower, capital and so on, for seed handling. To prevent these problems, study of gene related hair formation using short-hair seed lines is required. We analyzed genes related to hair formation from seed through expressed sequenced tag (EST) profiling, based on the fact that the development of carrot seed hair is related to cellulose synthesis pathway in secondary cell wall synthesis stage. To study the gene expression related to hair formation of the carrot seed, a cDNA library was constructed by using the early maturation stage of the short-hair line (659-1) and hairy seed line (677-14). In short-hair (659-1) and hairy seed (677-14) lines, results from of EST profiling through BLASTX search analysis using the NCBI database showed that 172 and 224 unigenes had significant homology with known protein sequences, whereas 233 and 192 unigenes were not, respectively. All ESTs were grouped into 16 categories according to their putative functions. Twenty nine unigenes among all ESTs were considered to be genes regulating seed hair development from cellulose synthesis pathway during secondary cell wall synthesis stage; in results, 14 unigenes related to seed hair development were found only in hairy seed line.
Appropriate in Vitro Culture Conditions of Growing Medium for New Ever-bearing Strawberry 'Goha'
Lee, Jong-Nam ; Kim, Hye-Jin ; Kim, Ki-Deog ; Kwon, Young-Seok ; Im, Ju-Sung ; Yeoung, Young-Rok ; Lim, Hak-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1051~1056
This study was carried out to determine suitable in vitro culture conditions of new ever-bearing strawberry (
Duch.), 'Goha'. Four-week old plantlets which were derived from the meristem culture were used in this study. Three different culture media including MS, Gamborg B5 and White medium were used for the plant culture and the medium concentrations were at the 5 levels of
. Sucrose content ranged at four levels of 1, 3, 5 and 8% (w/v). Crown diameter on the MS medium was thicker (2.1 mm) than in other media. Fresh weight on the MS medium was 482 mg, which was heavier than 88 mg or 260 mg of Gamborg B5 or White medium, respectively. Particularly, 1/2MS medium was found to have higher growth rate than these in other treatments (fresh weight, dry weight and D/F rate). Shoot length in the treatment of 1% sucrose concentration was 3.6 cm which was the longest. Shoot length was in inverse proportion to the increasing concentration of sucrose. Fresh weight was increased up to 3% sucrose concentration, but decreased above 5% sucrose concentration. From the results, we found that the best condition for in vitro culture of new ever-bearing strawberry 'Goha' was 1/2MS medium supplemented with 1% sucrose concentration.
Assessment of Plant Growth and Soil Properties of Extensive Green Roof System for Rhododendron indicum Sweet
Kim, In-Hea ; Huh, Keun-Young ; Shin, Hyeon-Cheol ; Park, Nam-Chang ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1057~1065
Recent urban concerns over environmental problems have furthered interest in green roof system. Plant growth and load bearing capacity of an underlying roof are key factors to determine an optimal system. This study was carried out to develop an optimal extensive green roof system for shrubs assessing the effects of substrate type and soil depth on the growth of
Sweet. in the experimental systems with different soil types and depths from 2001 to 2008. Substrate types of perlite alone and blended with sandy loam (v/v, 1:1) were used on the experimental systems with depths of 30 cm, 45 cm, and 60 cm. The survival rate of the plants on the perlite alone + 45 cm soil depth system (RS-A-45) was 100% during the experimental period, while those on the perlite alone + 30 cm soil depth system (RS-A-30) and perlite blended + 60 cm soil depth system (RS-B-60) showed 33% and 67%, respectively, in 2008. The overall plant growth and soil properties of RS-A-45 were superior to the others. At 8 years after installation, the total weight of RS-A-45 including plant fresh weight was about
in field capacity indicating RS-A-45 can be optimal extensive and light weight green roof system.
Evaluation of Horticultural Therapy on the Emotional Improvement of Depressed Patients by Using Heart Rate Variability
Song, Mi-Jin ; Kim, Mi-Young ; Sim, Iee-Sung ; Kim, Wan-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1066~1071
To evaluate the effect of horticultural therapy (HT) on the emotional improvement of depressed patients, computer-based heart rate variability (HRV) was compared with self-report scale (SRS) known as existing subjective evaluation method. SRS included four test areas: mental stress scale (MSS), physical stress scale (PSS), Beck anxiety inventory (BAI), and Beck depression inventory (BDI). HRV was itemized into four parameters: standard deviation of the N-N intervals (SDNN), square root of mean squared difference of successive N-N intervals (RMSSD), total power (TP), and low-frequency/high-frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio). Thirty patients with depression at the same mental hospital participated in this study. 15 patients of the treatment group received HT once a week for three months, but the control group did not during the same period. As a result, the emotional improvement in treatment group was clearly identified through HRV as well as SRS. The significant difference was shown at three test areas (MSS, BAI, and BDI,
< 0.001) in SRS and at one parameter (total power,
< 0.05) in HRV. There was noticeable increase in SDNN, RMSSD, and LF/HF ratio in treatment group after HT activity, but no significant difference. Although all parameters of HRV did not show significance, the possibility of HRV as an objective evaluation method to HT was recognized in this study. These results also implied that HT was efficient in the mental and physical regeneration of the depressed patients in both subjective and objective evaluation methods.
The Suppressive Effects of Calcium Compounds against Botrytis cinerea in Paprika
Yoon, Cheol-Soo ; Yeoung, Young-Rog ; Kim, Byung-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 28, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1072~1077
Plant diseases including gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea are often reduced when calcium compounds are used as alternative materials in paprika. However, much less information is available about the effects of calcium compounds on controlling of
. Seven calcium compounds such as calcium sulfate dihydrate, calcium chloride, calcium nitrate, calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and calcium hydride were evaluated for their effectiveness against
on potato dextrose agar medium. The pH of selected calcium compounds was higher (pH 8.2-10) than that of the control (pH 6.6). Calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, calcium hydride, and calcium hydroxide among seven calcium compounds were more effectively inhibited the growth of
than other calcium compounds. In the case of spraying the spore suspension on paprika applied with the selected four calcium compounds and supplied with the selected calcium supplements in a hydroponic culture system, the paprika treated with calcium compounds showed less severity of disease than those untreated plants. On the basis of our results, we propose that the suppressive effects of calcium compounds on
in paprika resulted from the supply of calcium and a certain degree of salt stress.