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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Horticultural Science
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Changes in Gibberellin, Abscisic Acid, Jasmonic Acid and Sugar Contents during Bulb Development and Secondary Growth Period in the Southern Type of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)
Sohn, Eun-Young ; Kim, Yoon-Ha ; Jang, Soo-Won ; Kim, Jung-Tae ; Lee, Hyun-Suk ; Seo, Dong-Hwan ; Lee, In-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 279~287
This research surveyed the effect of endogenous gibberellins (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and sugar contents on bulb development and secondary growth in the southern type of garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Sangdongmaneul and cv. Namdomaneul of Korea. Sangdongmaneul and Namdomaneul showed endogenouse GA, ABA, JA and sugar contents were significantly different in patterns with different cultivar. GA and JA contents of southern type of garlic reached maximum before bulb differentiation and then their contents were decreased. On the other hand, ABA contents gradually increased from bulbing (leaf sheath: 6.58-18.59
DW) start. GA contents in Sangdongmaneul and Namdomaneul were not significantly different from each other. These results revealed that GA contents were not affected by secondary growth of garlic. While JA contents (33.0-76.16
DW) of Namdomaneul were higher than Sandongmaneul so our results suggest that JA suppressed development of secondary growth of garlic. Total sugar contents of Sandongmaneul and Namdomaneul were not significantly different but total sugar contents were gradually increased after bulb differentiation in Sandongmaneul and Namdomaneul.
Petiole Burst Occurrence and Yield by Controlled Number of Crowns and Flower Clusters of Ever-bearing Strawberry in Highlands
Lee, Jong-Nam ; Im, Ju-Sung ; Ryu, Seung-Yeol ; Lee, Eung-Ho ; Nam, Chun-Woo ; Yeoung, Young-Rok ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 288~292
This study was undertaken to evaluate the yield and petiole burst occurrence rate of ever-bearing strawberry by controlling crown numbers per plant and the first flower cluster for summer production at highland. The cultivar 'Flamenco' was planted on April 20 and split-plots were designed by managing the number of crown per plant in the main plot and the removed and non-removed first flower cluster in the sub-plot. Uptaken mineral amount of the plants showing petiole burst were higher than normal plants. Plants with one crown per plant showed 62-65% petiole burst rate in contrast to plants with three crowns per plant which showed 57-58% petiole burst. Date of initiation of the second flower cluster with less crown and removed first flower cluster was delayed. The flower clusters number of the plants managed with one crown per plant was 5.6, compared with 9.2 flower clusters of plants with three crowns per plant. The first harvesting with removed first flower cluster was delayed around 42-44 days. Aa a result, the yield performance of plants with two or three crowns per plant was 11,183-11,733
and the amount 65-75% higher than that of plants with one crown and removed first cluster.
Mulching Methods and Removing Dates of Mulch Affects Growth and Post Harvest Quality of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cv. Uiseong
Kwon, Kwon-Seok ; Azad, Md. Obyedul Kalam ; Hwang, Jae-Moon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 293~297
This experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of mulching materials and removing time of the transparent polyethylene (PE) film on the growth of garlic at Uiseong experimental field, Korea. The experimental mulching materials comprised of transparent polyethylene film (0.025 mm) and net polyethylene (NPE). Plant height and leaf number of garlic were highest at PE treatment when the PE removing date was March 18 and this treatment also promoted the no. of cloves. Length of leaf sheath and bolting rate were highest and bulb weight loss rate was lowest at PE + NPE treatment when the PE removing date was March 18. But clove number was the lowest in this treatment compared to conventional PE film treatment. Conventional mulching method accelerated secondary growth rate but bulb weight loss was vice versa. There were statistically no differences in bulb diameter among treatments but conventional treatment positively focused on bulb diameter. Whenever PE film remove can suppress weeds compared to no mulching treatment but the dry weight of weeds were increasing trends as the removal dates of PE film were delayed. Transparent PE or PE + NPE treatments can be recommended to grow best quality garlic when PE film removing date is March 18.
Enhancement of Stem Firmness in Standard Chrysanthemum 'Baekma' by Foliar Spray of Liquid Calcium Compounds
Lee, Chang-Hee ; Nam, Mi-Kyong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 298~305
This study was conducted to enhance the stem firmness of standard chrysanthemum 'Baekma' bred in Korea for commercial quality improvement and inhibition of stem breaking during transportation through foliar spray with calcium agents. Calcium agent screening 'Baekma' was examined using
, and OS-Ca (natural liquid calcium compounds extracted from oyster shell) depending on each concentration (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0%, respectively). All calcium agents sprayed with 1.0% caused chemical injury such as stem bending or leaf burn. OS-Ca also showed more sensitive response to chemical injury than the other calcium agents because OS-Ca was absorbed very well by 'Baekma' leaves. Maximum stem firmness measured during the final harvest was greater in OS-Ca than in the other calcium agents. Especially, maximum stem firmness was greatest in 0.01% OS-Ca. However, elastic strength and maximum bending stress were greater in 0.001% OS-Ca than in the others. Thus, OS-Ca ranged from 0.005 to 0.05%, which did not show any chemical injury, was finally selected as the first candidate for hardening the stem of 'Baekma'. The next experiment using OS-Ca was conducted with the concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.05%, respectively. From the results, 0.05% OS-Ca showed better plant growth and parameters such as plant height, stem diameter (upper and middle part), the number of leaves, and dry weights of each part than the other concentrations of OS-Ca and control. As for stem firmness depending on OS-Ca concentration, the Ca content within stem, maximum firmness, elastic strength, and maximum bending stress of stem in 'Baekma' sprayed with 0.05% OS-Ca showed the highest values among all the treatments and it turned out to be very high level of significance between control and OS-Ca treatments. However, the area and percentage of the inside cavity within horizontal stem section in 'Baekma' did not show any significance between any treatments including control. Thus, stem firmness of 'Baekma' did not show any correlation with the inside cavity area of stem. In conclusion, we recommend foliar sprays with 0.05% OS-Ca at vegetative growth stage to enhance stem firmness of 'Baekma' during transportation.
Effect of Defruiting on Nitrogen Partitioning, Accumulation, and Remobilization of Young Trees in 'Fuyu' Persimmon
Park, Soo-Jeong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 306~310
This study examined the changes in the distribution of nitrogenous compounds in various parts of 3- and 4-year-old persimmon (Diospyros kaki cv. Fuyu) with fruits (fruited) and without fruits (defruited). The effect of the changes was then related to the storage and their reutilization for new growth in the following year. From June 15 to November 1, the partitioning of amino acids among perennial parts of fruited trees was inconsistent, whereas that of defruited trees was characterized by a significant increase. Compared with the fruited trees, amino acids accumulated in the perennial parts of defruited trees were 1.66 g and 3.48 g more in 3- and 4-year-old trees, respectively. Of the total proteins increased during this period, the proportions distributed to the perennial parts of the tree were less than 50% for fruited trees, but they were more than 90% for defruited trees. Roots were the strongest sink for proteins; percent proteins in the roots amounted to 94 in defruited 3-year-old trees and 76 in 4-year-old trees. Compared with the proteins accumulated in perennial parts of fruited trees, those of defruited trees were 1.64 g more in 3-year-old and 2.58 g more in 4-year-old trees. During this period, the nitrogenous compounds decreased by 0.50-0.56 g in the leaves of fruited trees, while they increased by 0.66-0.78 g in their fruits. During the new growth from April 10 to June 10 of the following year, amino acids decreased both in the fruited and defruited trees. Proteins, especially in the root, decreased in the trees that had been previously defruited. More amino acids and proteins were found in the newly grown parts of the defruited trees. Compared with the fruited trees, the defruited trees accumulated nitrogenous compounds more in roots than in the other parts of the perennial parts. The reserve nitrogenous compounds contributed to the new shoot growth and fruit set in the following year.
Allyl-isothiocyanate Content and Physiological Responses of Wasabia japonica Matusum as Affected by Different EC Levels in Hydroponics
Choi, Ki-Young ; Lee, Yong-Beom ; Cho, Young-Yeol ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 311~316
This study aimed to determine the effect of EC (electrical conductivity) levels of nutrient solution in hydroponic culture on allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) content within plant tissues, Vitamin C content and physiological responses in wasabi plant (Wasabia japonica M. 'Darma'). The 'Darma' was grown for 5 weeks with a deep flow technique (DFT) system controlled at 5 different EC levels, including 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and
. In result, the highest total content of AITC showed at EC level 5 and
for 1 or 5- week, respectively. The total content of AITC increased about 1.2-1.4 times when the plants were grown in the EC levels between 0.5 and
, whereas the content decreased about 6 and 56 % in the EC level 3 and
, respectively. The content of AITC was relatively higher in petiole tissue, about 53 %, taken from 1 week-grown plants when the EC was controlled between 0.5 and
. Root tissue also had relatively higher content of AITC, about 45.1 %, when the EC was controlled at 3 and
. However, a 5-fold decrease in the AITC content was found in blade tissue and a 6.8-fold decrease in root when the EC was controlled at
for 5 weeks. There was no significant difference in the vitamin C content in 1-week grown leaf tissues under the different EC level treatments; but, the content increased about 27% in 5-week grown plants at the EC level between 0.5 and
, compared to the 1 week-grown leaf tissue. Electrolyte leakage of leaf tissue taken from 3-week grown plant was 3-fold higher at the EC level
, compared to the EC level between 0.5 and
. Chlorophyll content, photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate were decreased when the EC was controlled at higher than
. Leaf water content, specific leaf area and growth were decreased when the EC was controlled at
for 5 weeks. All the integrated results in this study suggest that the EC level of nutrient solution should be maintained at lower than
in order to improve nutritional value and quantity required for hydroponically grown wasabi as functional vegetable.
Effects of Supplemental Lighting on Growth and Yield of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in Hydroponic Culture under Low Levels of Natural Light in Winter
Kim, Yong-Bum ; Bae, Jong-Hyang ; Park, Me-Hea ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 317~325
This study was conducted to examine the effect of supplemental lighting on the growth and yield of hydroponically grown sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. sprit) under low levels of natural light in winter. The plants were treated with natural light only (control), 3-hour supplemental lighting before sunrise, after sunrise and after sunset with high pressure sodium (HPS, 400W). As the result of these three treatments, the supplemental lighting promoted photosynthesis in the low light intensity condition and particularly photosynthesis was more active right after sun rise in the morning, 1.5-
comparing to those of supplemental lighting after sunset, 0.5-
. Transpiration rate and stomatal conductance sharply increased with supplemental lighting after sunrise then they decreased again after turning the lights off. Stomatal size was observed
after supplemental lighting, whereas the size of the natural light was almost closed at
. The average plant height of sweet papper cv. spirit was 185 cm before sunrise, 188 cm after sunrise and 208 cm after sunset with supplemental lighting for 3hours while the control was 171 cm. With supplemental lighting a better number of fruit set per plant was measured 4.3 before and after sunrise, 3.7 after sunset but 2.6 in the control. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the sugar content (
) degree between treatment of supplemental lighting, whereas slight differences between seasons were seen. The marketable fruit yield of sweet pepper (cv. spirit) was
with supplemental lighting, whereas the control (natural light only) was
. Despite of spending electricity and depreciation cost, the economic analysis showed net income with supplemental lighting after sunrise was 51% higher than control treatment in cv. spirit.
Growth Regulators Prolong Bract Longevity of Potted Bougainvillea
Liu, Fang-Yin ; Chang, Yu-Sen ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 326~335
When bougainvilleas are subjected to indoor low-light conditions, flower bracts regularly abscise. This study elucidates the effects of plant growth regulators on bract longevity of potted bougainvillea. Potted 'Taipei Red' bougainvillea in four different bract development stages were treated with 1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropene), NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid), SNA (sodium salt of naphthaleneacetic acid), IBA (indolebutyric acid), BA (6-benzylaminopurine),
(potassium dihydrogen phosphate), Put (diamine putrescine), SA (salicylic acid), or STS (silver thiosulfate) and were moved to indoor low-light conditions after treatments. Experimental results indicate that 1-MCP, NAA, SNA, BA, Put, and SA prolonged bract longevity, and this effect increased as bract stage increased. The effect of STS was significant in early bract stages and decreased as bract stages increased. Additionally, 1-MCP, NAA, SNA, BA, Put, SA, and STS treatment significantly reduced endogenous ACC (1-aminocyclopropene-1-carboxylate) content and ACC oxidase activity, suggesting that the inhibition of ethylene production was achieved via physiological metabolism. However, treatment with IBA or
had no effect on the bract longevity at any stage. In the combined chemical treatments, NAA + STS or NAA + SA were effectively for prolonging bract longevity and contained less protein or chlorophyll degradation, decrease ACC oxidase or ethylene production than the control. In conclusion, we propose that combined chemical treatment significantly prolonged the bract longevity and more effectively than single chemical treatment at any stage.
Application of Disease Resistance Markers for Developing Elite Tomato Varieties and Lines
Kim, Hyoun-Joung ; Lee, Heung-Ryul ; Hyun, Ji-Young ; Won, Dong-Chan ; Hong, Dong-Oh ; Cho, Hwa-Jin ; Lee, Kyung-Ah ; Her, Nam-Han ; Lee, Jang-Ha ; Harn, Chee-Hark ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 336~344
Using the abundant available information about the tomato genome, we developed DNA markers that are linked to disease resistant loci and performed marker-assisted selection (MAS) to construct multi-disease resistant lines and varieties. Resistance markers of Ty-1, T2, and I2, which are linked to disease resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and Fusarium wilt, respectively, were developed in a co-dominant fashion. DNA sequences near the resistance loci of TYLCV, ToMV, and Fusarium wilt were used for primer design. Reported candidate markers for powdery mildew-resistance were screened and the 32.5Cla marker was selected. All four markers (Ty-1, T2, I2, and 32.5Cla) were converted to cleavage amplification polymorphisms (CAPS) markers. Then, the CAPS markers were applied to 96 tomato lines to determine the phenetic relationships among the lines. This information yielded clusters of breeding lines illustrating the distribution of resistant and susceptible characters among lines. These data were utilized further in a MAS program for several generations, and a total of ten varieties and ten inbred lines were constructed. Among four traits, three were introduced to develop varieties and breeding lines through the MAS program; several cultivars possessed up to seven disease resistant traits. These resistant trait-related markers that were developed for the tomato MAS program could be used to select early stage seedlings, saving time and cost, and to construct multi-disease resistant lines and varieties.
Progeny Analysis and Selection of Tomato Transformants with patII Gene linked to Inherent Disease Resistance Gene
Ahn, Soon-Young ; Kang, Kwon-Kyoo ; Yun, Hae-Keun ; Park, Hyo-Guen ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 345~351
This study was carried out to develop a model system using selection method for disease resistant plant breeding programs using a herbicide bialaphos-resistant patII gene as a gene-based marker. Spraying bialaphos could eliminate the susceptible plants from the segregating populations such as
and thereafter. Tomato cv. Momotaro-yoke was transformed with patII gene 60 independent transformants were acquired. Total 42 transformants were analyzed in transgene copy numbers by Southern blotting and the segregation ratios for the bialaphos resistance. Statistical analysis revealed that the transgene copy numbers and the segregation ratios were not always coincided, especially having the tendency of underestimating the real numbers of the transgenes in the multicopy lines. A two-stepwise screening method was applied to select
tomato plants which linked the transgenic patII to a disease resistance gene (I2 and Ve). Based on the resistant to susceptible ratios, T-20 plant was finally selected due to the estimated linkage 12-13 cM between the patII gene to the I2 gene on chromosome 11. This newly developed system could be applied to any economical crop in breeding programs.
Improvement of Seed Germination in Rosa rugosa
Lee, Ji-Yeon ; Lee, Ja-Hyun ; Ki, Gwang-Yeon ; Kim, Seung-Tae ; Han, Tae-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 352~357
Rose seed shows low germination percentages (about 20%) because it has a high amount of substances that inhibit germination in the pericarp. We investigated the effect of orientation of achene, the day after pollination (DAP), and cold storage with or without half-cut in achene for the germination percentage in R. rugosa. Germination percentages of intact or half-cut achenes were investigated in a 16-hour photoperiod at
room on basal MS medium for two weeks. In germination percentage, maximum 100% was measured within one week when half-cut achenes were cultured on an orientation that the embryos facing to the light. Half-cut achenes at 90 DAP were germinated 100% regardless of cold storage. Various LED lights (red, blue, yellow, green, and white) were illuminated over the half-cut achenes to gain the effect of light color. Germination percentage of R. rugosa seeds under blue LED reached the greatest with 90% within one week of culture and these seedlings were the best with a steady growth rate. It is concluded that half-cut achenes would be an effective method to improve seed germination in R. rugosa without stratification or scarification. This system could be applied to breeding studies in rose cultivars.
Effect of Phenolic Extract of Dry Leaves of Lespedeza cuneata G. Don on Antioxidant Capacity and Tyrosinase Inhibition
Cho, Eun-Jung ; Ju, Hyun-Mi ; Jeong, Chang-Ho ; Eom, Seok-Hyun ; Heo, Ho-Jin ; Kim, Dae-Ok ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 358~365
Lespedeza cuneata G. Don is a plant commonly grown in Asian countries, which has been widely used as an oriental medicinal herb to treat diabetes, diarrhea and various other inflammatory diseases. The phenolics of dry leaves of L. cuneata G. Don were extracted by using 80% (v/v) aqueous methanol in assistance with homogenization and sonification. The phenolic extract and its five different fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water) were used to evaluate the levels of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity as well as the inhibitory effect of tyrosinase activity. Ethyl acetate fraction (1 g) had the highest levels of total phenolics at 240.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), total flavonoids as 90.4 mg catechin equivalents (CE) as well as antioxidant capacity at 523.4 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE) on ABTS assay and 329.5 mg VCE on DPPH assay among fractions. One g of water fraction contained total phenolics at 133.1 mg GAE, total flavonoids at 34.5 mg CE, and antioxidant capacity at 333.4 mg VCE for ABTS assay and 313.2 mg VCE for DPPH assay. Inhibition of tyrosinase activity of water fraction at 300
was at 47.2% and 21.1% for L-tyrosine and L-DOPA as its substrate, respectively. On the other hand, ethyl acetate fraction at 300
showed tyrosinase inhibition of 10.2% for L-tyrosine and 11.9% for L-DOPA. These results suggested that the phenolics from dry leaves of L. cuneata G. Don may be utilized as a potent source of antioxidants and skin whitening agents.
Development of Multiplex Microsatellite Marker Set for Identification of Korean Potato Cultivars
Cho, Kwang-Soo ; Won, Hong-Sik ; Jeong, Hee-Jin ; Cho, Ji-Hong ; Park, Young-Eun ; Hong, Su-Young ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 366~373
To analyze the genetic relationships among Korean potato cultivars and to develop cultivar identification method using DNA markers, we carried out genotyping using simple sequence repeats (SSR) analysis and developed multiplex-SSR set. Initially, we designed 92 SSR primer combinations reported previously and applied them to twenty four Korean potato cultivars. Among the 92 SSR markers, we selected 14 SSR markers based on polymorphism information contents (PIC) values. PIC values of the selected 14 markers ranged from 0.48 to 0.89 with an average of 0.76. PIC value of PSSR-29 was the lowest with 0.48 and PSSR-191 was the highest with 0.89. UPGMA clustering analysis based on genetic distances using 14 SSR markers classified 21 potato cultivars into 2 clusters. Cluster I and II included 16 and 5 cultivars, respectively. And 3 cultivars were not classified into major cluster group I and II. These 14 SSR markers generated a total of 121 alleles and the average number of alleles per SSR marker was 10.8 with a range from 3 to 34. Among the selected markers, we combined three SSR markers, PSSR-17, PSSR-24 and PSSR-24, as a multiplex-SSR set. This multiplex-SSR set used in the study can distinguish all the cultivars with one time PCR and PAGE (Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) analysis and PIC value of multiplex-SSR set was 0.95.
The Identification of Stilbene Compounds and the Change of Their Contents in UV-irradiated Grapevine Leaves
Choi, Seong-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 374~381
Stilbenes are polyphenolic natural products, which have antioxidative and antifungal activities. In some plants, including grapevine, the stilbene compounds, as resveratrol derivatives, exist in very diverse forms. Experiments to identify the individual stilbene compounds were carried out first to quantify them in UV-irradiated grapevine leaves. For this, stilbene glycosides were extracted from grapevine leaves which irradiated intensively with UV light. The glycoside samples were hydrolyzed by
-glucosidase, before analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometer at each m/z corresponding to the mass of specific stilbenes. As results, in chromatograms, the enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in decrease and increase of the peaks expected for glycosides and aglycones, respectively. The samples were also exposed to sunlight in order to photo-isomerize the stilbene compounds. The light exposure resulted in disappearance and appearance of peaks expected for trans- and cis-isomers of stilbenes, respectively. Such a change of the peaks in chromatograms provided information needed for the inference to peak components. In this way, it was possible to identify 16 kinds of stilbene compounds from grapevine leaves. The identified stilbenes were quantified from grapevine leaves irradiated mildly by UV light. The UV-irradiation increased markedly in the content of stilbene compounds, especially trans-resveratrol by several hundredfold. In addition, piceatannol, which is a mere minor component of stilbenes in control leaves and a more active radical scavenger than resveratrol, was also increased by several tenfold by the treatment. The increase in stilbene contents as influenced by UV irradiation seems to be one of the stress coping responses of grapevine as a hormesis phenomenon.
A Multivariate Statistical Approach to Comparison of Essential Oil Composition from Three Mentha Species
Park, Kuen-Woo ; Kim, Dong-Yi ; Lee, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Jun-Hong ; Yang, Dong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2011, Pages 382~387
The chemical composition of essential oils obtained from aerial parts in spearmint, apple mint and chocolate mint, was investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses. (-)-Carvone (33.0%) was quantitatively major compound in spearmint, followed by R-(+)-limonene (11.7%) and
-phellandrene (9.7%); (-)-carvone (37.4%) and germacrene D (11.9%) in apple mint; and (-)-menthol (34.3%), p-menthone (18.4%) and menthofuran (9.8%) in chocolate mint. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principle components analysis showed the clear difference in chemical composition of the three mint oils.