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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Horticultural Science
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Isolation and Selection of Antagonistic Microbes for Biological Control of Zoysiagrass Large Patch Disease
Ma, Ki-Yoon ; Kwark, Soo Nyeon ; Lee, Geung-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 657~665
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13020
A large patch disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 (IV) is a serious problem in Korean lawngrass (Zoysia japonica) sites including golf courses and sports fields in Korea. Antagonistic microorganisms against R. solani AG2-2 (IV) were isolated from various forest and crop soil sources in Southern Korea. Among the 61 isolates, I-009, FRIN-001-1, and YPIN-022 strains showing dramatic inhibition of the mycelial growth of R. solani AG2-2 (IV) in the pairing culture were selected as the most potential antagonistic microorganisms for this study. Based on the 16s RNA sequence comparison, I-009 and FRIN-001-1 isolates were identified as Bacillus spp., while YPIN-022 isolate belongs to the genus Pseudomonas. The greater inhibition (clear) zone between two edges of the selected and pathogenic microbes ranged from 11 to 15 mm in three selections, but the others averaged to 7 mm out of 30 mm distance. In another antifungal test using culture filtrate, those three isolates represented a range of 51.7 to 63.5% suppression potential. The selected isolates also inhibited significantly the stem-segment colonization by R. solani AG2-2 (IV) in vivo test by 28.1%, 43.0%, and 23.7% when inoculated with I-009, FRIN-001-1, and YPIN-022, respectively. The highest antagonistic activity for the large patch disease was demonstrated by the isolate FRIN-001-1, which will be useful for developing a bio-pesticide against Rhizoctonia.
Chilling Requirement for Breaking of Internal Dormancy of Main Apple Cultivars in Korea
Kweon, Hun-Joong ; Sagong, Dong-Hoon ; Song, Yang-Yik ; Park, Moo-Yong ; Kwon, Soon-Il ; Kim, Mok-Jong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 666~676
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.12206
The study was carried out to examine the initial point of dormancy, breaking time of internal dormancy, and to find out the accumulated hours of low temperature (under
) for bud-breaking. Over-all, the chilling requirement for breaking of internal dormancy in the commercial apple cultivars ('Fuji' and 'Tsugaru') and apple cultivars bred in Korea ('Hongro', 'Sunhong', 'Honggeum', 'Hongan', 'Hongso', 'Gamhong', 'Summer dream') at the Gunwi region for 4 years (from 2009 to 2012) was investigated. Also, the breaking time of internal dormancy in the field at the Gunwi region and the breaking time of dormancy if air temperature of Gunwi region rises
higher than the current one were investigated using the same data. The initial point of dormancy was set at the time when the lateral bud breaking did not occurred (when heading back cutting was done in the middle of terminal shoots). The occurrence of the breaking of internal dormancy was decided if the breaking of the terminal bud of bourse shoot occurred within 15 days or not in growth chamber. About 100 bourse shoots were collected by cultivar classification in early December every year and were stored at
, and they were placed in growth chamber at one week interval. The chilling requirement of cultivars was expressed in accumulated hours in the field and in the growth chamber under
from the initial point of dormancy to the breaking time of internal dormancy. The results showed that the initial point of dormancy in selected cultivars could occur at the end of September. The breaking time of internal dormancy could occur from the end of January to the early of February. The accumulated hours under
for breaking of internal dormancy were 1,600-2,000 hours, while those of
were 1,300-1,800 hours. In comparing the different apple cultivars, the chilling requirement of the early flowering cultivars seemed lower than that of the late-flowering cultivars. Based on these results, if the air temperature of Gunwi region rises about
higher than the current one, the breaking time of internal dormancy will be delayed by 2-4 weeks.
Antioxidant Enzymes and Photosynthetic Responses to Drought Stress of Three Canna edulis Cultivars
Zhang, Wen-E ; Wang, Fei ; Pan, Xue-Jun ; Tian, Zhi-Guo ; Zhao, Xiu-Ming ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 677~686
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13031
Edible canna is a productive starch source in some tropical and semitropical regions. In these regions, water deficit stress is one of factors that limit the crop yield. In the present study, we investigated seven physiological indexes and photosynthetic responses of three edible canna (Canna edulis Ker.) cultivars ('PLRF', 'Xingyu-1', and 'Xingyu-2') under 35 days drought stress. Our results indicated that drought treatment caused visible wilting symptoms in all cultivars, especially in 'Xingyu-1'. Coupled with the increase of wilting symptoms, relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content decreased progressively, malondialdehyde (MDA) content gradually increased, and key antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) activities increased first and then decreased in all three cultivars. The effect of water stress was more pronounced in 'Xingyu-1' than in 'PLRF' and 'Xingyu-2', and in lower leaves than in upper leaves. In addition, 35 days drought stress also significantly reduced the photosynthetic capacity. Consistent with antioxidant parameters, photosynthetic changes of 'Xingyu-2' were less than those of the other cultivars under water deficit stress. Drought stress caused a significant increase of water use efficiency (WUE) in 'Xingyu-2', but little in 'PLRF', and obvious decrease in 'Xingyu-1'. These results indicated that 'Xingyu-2' was more tolerant to drought stress than 'PLRF' and 'Xingyu-1' by maintaining lower lipid peroxidation and higher antioxidant enzyme activities.
Effects of Different Rootstocks on Fruit Quality of Grafted Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Jang, Yoonah ; Moon, Ji-Hye ; Lee, Ji-Weon ; Lee, Sang Gyu ; Kim, Seung Yu ; Chun, Changhoo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 687~699
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13047
This study was conducted to examine the effect of grafted peppers (Capsicum annuum) on different rootstocks on fruit quality. Three pepper cultivars, 'Nokkwang', 'Saengsaeng Matkkwari', and 'Shinhong' were grafted onto five commercial rootstocks that are known to be resistant to Phytophtora blight. Non-grafted or auto-grafted peppers were used as controls. Grafted plants were grown during two consecutive harvest periods by semi-forcing culture (April to August) and retarding culture (September to March the subsequent year). Full size green fruits were harvested and weighed weekly from June to August (Semi-forcing culture) and from December to March of the subsequent year (Retarding culture). The fruit size, weight, flesh thickness, and firmness were measured every month. Total marketable yield was not significantly influenced by either auto-graft of 'Nokkwang', 'Saengsaeng Matkkwari', and 'Shinhong' of pepper or grafted with the five commercial rootsctocks. By contrast, grafting influenced the apparent fruit quality of peppers. Fruit characteristics differed depending on the rootstock cultivars. However, the fruit characteristics of rootstock did not affect the fruit characteristics of scion grafted onto that rootstock. Fruit characteristics in each treatment differed among harvest time (first, second, and third harvest). Fruit quality parameters were also different as affected by the harvest period. In conclusion, apparent quality and textural property of pepper fruits were influenced by not only grafting with different rootstocks but also by the harvest period and harvest time. Accordingly, rootstock/scion combination, the scion variety and the harvest period must be carefully chosen to get the desired optimal fruit quality.
Solid Matrix Priming with Hydrogels on Heteropappus arenarius Seeds
Lee, Chang Hee ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 700~705
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13104
This study was initiated to evaluate hydrophilic polymers (hydrogels) as a new solid matrix medium for seed-priming of Heteropappus arenarius Kitam. Solid matrix priming (SMP)-media were prepared with the combination of Na- and K-based hydrogels and hydrogels with three different dry levels (DC; 70%, 80%, and 90%). Priming was performed in the dark at 15 or
for 24 hours, and all primed seeds were incubated at
in the dark for the germination test. Non-primed seeds and seeds primed with distilled water (DW) were also included. To reach the germination rate of 50% (
), it took 4.0 days for non-primed seeds, and 3.6 and 3.9 days for DW-primed seeds at 15 and
, respectively. Na-based hydrogel-primed seeds with 70% DC (Na 70%) showed the fastest germination, which respectively took and 1.9 and 1.8 days at 15 and
. K-based hydrogel-primed seeds with 70% DC showed the fastest germination among K-based hydrogels with various DC levels, but it took 0.6 days more to
compared to Na 70%. The hydration rate (HR) of DW-primed seeds was 37% lower than that of Na 70%-primed seeds at
priming temperature, which indicates that Na 70% priming is the best solid matrix priming condition for promoting the germination of H. arenarius seeds.
Tree Growth and Nutritional Changes in Senescing Leaves of 'Fuyu' Persimmon as Affected by Different Nitrogen Rates during Summer
Choi, Seong-Tae ; Park, Doo-Sang ; Ahn, Gwang-Hwan ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Choi, Tae-Min ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 706~713
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13082
With pot-grown 4-year-old 'Fuyu' persimmon trees, this study evaluated the effect of different nitrogen (N) rates during summer on fruit characteristics, changes of leaf nutrients after harvest, reserve accumulation, and early growth the following year. A total of 0, 36 g N in June, and 72 g N in June and July was fertigated to each tree using urea solution. All the fruits were harvested on Nov. 3. Although not significant, fruits were larger for the 36 g and 72 g N than the 0 g N. Fruits for the 0 g N, having lower N concentration, were softer and had a better coloration and higher soluble solids, indicating that they matured earlier. SPAD value on Nov. 3 was 19.2 for the 0 g N and 54.9 for the 72 g N, and then the values linearly decreased in all the treatments by Nov. 14, exhibiting rapid leaf senescence. Specific leaf weight, being the lowest for the 0 g N, also gradually decreased during this period. Increasing N level significantly increased cross-sectional area of the trunk. Leaf N concentration on Nov. 3 was 0.87% for the 0 g N, whereas it was 1.18 and 1.52% for the 36 g and 72 g N, respectively. The N fertigation tended to increase leaf concentrations of soluble sugars, starch, and amino acids. Contents of N, P, K, soluble sugars, starch, and amino acids per unit leaf area gradually decreased in all the treatments during the 11 days after harvest, and the extent of the decrease was the lowest for the 0 g N. On the other hand, those of Ca, Mg, and protein did not consistently change during this period. The N fertigation resulted in higher concentrations of N in dormant shoots on Nov. 14, and although not great, it also increased soluble sugars, starch, amino acids, and protein. Clear differences were found in number of flower buds per one-year-old branch and total shoot length per tree the following year. The 72 g N trees had 5.6-fold more flower buds and 1.9-fold more shoot length, compared with those of 0 g N trees. However, it was noted that tree growth the following year was not significantly different between the 36 g and 72 g N the previous year. It was concluded that N rate during summer should be adjusted with considering the changes of fruit maturation, mobilization of leaf nutrients, and reserve accumulation.
Growth, Floral Morphology, and Phytohormone Levels of Flowering Shoots with Bent Peduncle in Greenhouse-grown Cut Rose 'Beast'
Seo, Ji Hyeon ; Kim, Wan Soon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 714~719
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13076
The bent peduncle phenomenon (BPP) is known as a kind of physiological disorders found in cut rose plants, which causes the reduction of cut flower yields. As yet unknown mechanisms, however, it has not been easy to find solutions for BPP. To address this challenge, this study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of floral morphology, growth, and endogenous phytohormone level of BPP shoots in cut rose plants (Rosa hybrida L. 'Beast'). Morphological observation confirmed the fact that BPP was accompanied by the early formation and being phyllody of a specific sepal among five sepals, which gave rise to peduncle bending in the upper part of the phyllody with fasciation. Year-round BPP frequency in 'Beast' cultivar was in the range of 5 to 20% with seasonal change, increasing rapidly with an average temperature rise in summer. Except bent peduncle, the BPP shoots appeared to grow normally in terms of speed and size of floral development in comparison with normal. However, carbohydrate distribution to the floral part in BPP shoots was significantly reduced. The level of endogenous IAA (3-Indoleacetic acid) within the floral part in BPP shoots was highly maintained during floral development, in contrast to normal shoots.
contents were not significantly different between normal and BPP shoots. This study indicates that BPP would be induced by a series of courses: abnormally early formation of a specific sepal relative to high temperature, being phyllody of the sepal with fasciation, and continuous supply of endogenous IAA by phyllody.
Changes in Soil Physical Properties in Various Sizes of Container as Influenced by Packing Amount of Coir Dust Containing Root Media
Park, Eun Young ; Choi, Jong Myung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 720~725
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13040
When highly shrinkable materials such as coir dust are major component of root media, the degrees of compaction during container filling of root media severely influences the physical properties of root media. It results in the changes in total porosity (TP), container capacity (CC) and air-filled porosity (AFP). This research was conducted to secure the fundamental information in changes of soil physical properties as influenced by the compaction of root media during container filling. To achieve this, three root media were formulated by blending coir dust (CD) with expanded rice hull (CD + ERH, 8:2, v/v), carbonized rice hull (CD + CRH, 6:4) and ground and raw pine bark (CD + GRPB, 8:2). Based on the optimum bulk density, the amount of root media filled into 6.0, 7.5, 8.5, 10.5 and 12.5 cm were adjusted to 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130% based on the weight of root media. Then the changes in TP, CC, and AFP were measured. Elevation of the packing amount of root media in all sizes of pot resulted in the decrease of TP. But the decrease was more severe in CD + ERH and CD + CRH than those in CD + GRPB. The CC also decreased gradually as the packing amounts were elevated in three root media, but the decreases were severe as the container sizes became larger. The AFP decreased drastically by the elevation of the packing amount of root media in all sizes of pot. The AFP was the highest in CD + CRH medium when pot sizes were smaller than 7 cm, but that was the highest in CD + ERH when the pot sizes were larger than 8.5 cm among the 3 root media tested. In this research, the elevation of packing amount of three root media influenced more severely the AFP rather than CC. This result indicates that the packing amount should be controlled to maintain appropriate level of AFP because AFP rather than CC influence severely crop growth. The results obtained through this study can be used to predict the changes in physical properties of root media as influenced by packing amount in various sizes of pots.
Effect of Low Temperature-Darkness Treatment on Floral Initiation and Flowering Response of Korean Strawberry Cultivars
Jun, Ha Joon ; Liu, Shi Sheng ; Jeon, Eui Hwan ; Bae, Geun Hye ; Kang, Su In ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 726~731
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13058
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of low temperature-darkness treatment on floral initiation in four kinds of Korean strawberry cultivars. Mother plants were planted on March 29 and daughter plants were raised for the experiment. Temperature treatment was done for 7, 14, and 21 days keeping
in cooling storage from August 29, September 5 and September 14 to September 21. After the treatment, flower bud initiation was examined by a microscope, and the seedlings were transplanted on hydroponic system with Yamazaki's strawberry solution of EC
to check the flowering. 'Ssanta' and 'Maehyang' showed early flower bud initiation in 7 days treatment than 'Seolhyang' by microscope check. 'Ssanta', 'Daewang', and 'Maehyang' showed early flower bud initiation in 14 days treatment than 'Seolhyang'. There were no differences among the treatments in 21 days treatment. Percentage of flowering of 'Seolhyang' and 'Maehyang' by low temperature-darkness treatment didn't show any difference but 'Daewang' and 'Ssanta' showed high percentage of flowering. It suggested that low temperature-darkness treatment technique can be use for improving early flowering and yield of 'Ssanta' and 'Daewang' cultivars.
Quality Maintenance and Suppression of Chilling Injury of 'Akihime' Plum Fruits Stored under Controlled Atmosphere
Lee, Eun Jin ; Choi, Sunyoung ; Cho, MiAe ; Hong, YoonPyo ; Choi, JiWeon ; Chung, DaeSung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 732~739
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13015
'Akihime' plums picked at mature stage (50-70% red coloration of the fruit skin) were stored at
under air or controlled atmosphere (CA) storage regime as following 3%
+ 1, 3, 5, and 7%
for 50 days for the purpose of assessing the effect of CA storage on the maintenance of fruit quality and the reduction of chilling injury. Fruits stored under CA storage regime showed reduced respiration as well as ethylene production rates compared to the fruits stored in air. Quality attributes including weight loss, Hunter 'a' values, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, and firmness showed smallest changes in fruits stored under CA conditions except for 3%
. High incidence of physiological disorders including chilling injury, flesh browning, and decay were found in fruits stored under both air and CA of 3%
. In our study, the CA storage regime of 3%
was found the most effective for maintaining overall fruit qualities of 'Akihime' plums produced in Korea, also delayed the development of chilling injury including lack of juiciness and flesh browning. From the results, storage at 3%
was selected as an optimal condition of 'Akihime' plum for extending storage life up to 50 days at
Occurrence of Leaf Mold Pathogen Fulvia fulva Isolates Infecting Tomato Cf-9 Cultivars in Korea
Lee, Ji Hyun ; Park, Myung Soo ; Kim, Jin-Cheol ; Jang, Kyoung Soo ; Choi, Yong Ho ; Kim, Heung Tae ; Choi, Gyung Ja ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 740~747
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13017
Leaf mold symptoms were found on commercial tomato cultivars carrying the Cf-9, a resistance gene to leaf mold pathogen Fulvia fulva in 2012 at Buyeo, Chungnam in Korea. Fifteen-fungal isolates were obtained from four Cf-9 cultivars of tomato including 'Cutie', 'otaerangdia', 'Unicorn' and 'Rapito'. Due to their same morphological appearances and colony color, nine isolates were selected and identified as F. fulva based on molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence. Pathogenicity of the 15 isolates on five commercial cultivars carrying Cf-4, Cf-5, and Cf-9 were tested. All the isolates showed strong pathogenicity on Cf-9 cultivars, 'Cutie' and 'Dotaerangdia', and Cf-5 cultivar, 'Yoyocaptain'. In contrast, on Cf-4 cultivar, 'Superdotaerang', five isolates were virulent and the other isolates were not. In addition, two fungal isolates, infecting Cf-9 cultivar and non-infecting Cf-4 cultivar, were selected and their pathogenicity was tested on 17 commercial cultivars reported as tomato having Cf-9 resistance gene. Among them, 15 cultivars were susceptible and 2 cultivars were resistant. It is likely that the two cultivars include other resistance gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of Cf-9 infecting F. fulfva strains in Korea.
Isolation and Identification of a New Gene Related to Salt Tolerance in Chinese Cabbage
Yu, Jae-Gyeong ; Park, Young-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 748~755
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13086
This study was conducted to find a salt tolerance gene in Brassica rapa. In order to meet this objective, we analyzed data from a KBGP-24K oligo chip [BrEMD (Brassica rapa EST and microarray database)] of the B. rapa ssp. pekinensis 'Chiifu' under salt stress (250 mM NaCl). From the B. rapa KBGP-24K microarray chip analysis, 202 salt-responsive unigenes were primarily selected under salt stress. Of these, a gene with unknown function but known full-length sequence was chosen to closely investigate the gene function. The selected gene was named BrSSR (B. rapa salt stress resistance). BrSSR contains a 285 bp open reading frame encoding a putative 94-amino acid protein, and a DUF581 domain. The pSL94 vector was designed to over-express BrSSR, and was used to transform tobacco plants for salt tolerance analysis. T1 transgenic tobacco plants that over-expressed BrSSR were selected by PCR and DNA blot analyses. Quantitative real-time RT PCR revealed that the expression of BrSSR in transgenic tobacco plants increased by approximately 3.8-fold. Similar results were obtained by RNA blot analysis. Phenotypic characteristics analysis showed that transgenic tobacco plants with over-expressed BrSSR were more salt-tolerant than the wild type control under 250 mM NaCl for 5 days. Based on these results, we hypothesized that the over-expression of BrSSR may be closely related to the enhancement of salt tolerance.
Development of RAPD-SCAR Molecular Marker Related to Seed-hair Characteristic in Carrot
Shim, Eun-Jo ; Park, Sung-Kwan ; Oh, Gyu-Dong ; Jun, Sang-Jin ; Park, Young-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 756~763
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13106
Mechanical hair removal of carrot seed causes seed injuries and suppresses the germination in carrot cultivation. This study was performed to develop molecular markers for breeding high quality cultivars with short-hair seed. To meet this objective, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers specifically linked to seed-hair characteristic were identified using CT-SMR 616 OP 389-1 line with short-haired seed and CT-SMR 616 OP 616-33 line with long-haired seed, bred by self-pollination for 6 years from 2008 to 2013, as parents. After seed hair lengths of these lines were analyzed using microscope, next generations were advanced and compared with the molecular markers polymorphism. From RAPD analysis using fixed lines in 2011, twelve RAPD primers showing polymorphic bands specific between the two lines were identified from 80 random primers. To develop RAPD-SACR marker, SCAR primers were designed based on sequence analysis of these specific RAPD bands and more than three combinations of primers were tested. As a result, it was found that the
amplified single polymorphic band from short-haired seed line. To confirm this result,
marker was retested by applying to the 2012 and 2013 progenies. Finally, it was concluded that the developed
marker distinguished short-haired line from long-haired seed line. Therefore, SCAR marker,
is expected to be utilized for breeding of the short-haired seed cultivars.
CMV-P1 Resistance Evaluation Using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay of Pepper Genetic Sources (Capsicum spp.)
Shin, JiEun ; Xu, Sheng Jun ; Kim, Jun Young ; Woo, JeHyeon ; Kim, Han Gil ; Park, Yong Ju ; Hong, Sae Jin ; Kim, Byung Sup ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 764~771
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13021
Recently, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)-P1 infection in pepper cultivation is very serious problem, which causes low marketability and yield. In this research, 56 domestic pepper cultivars including 20 PR (Phytophthora resistance) cultivars, 31 foreign pepper lines collected from USA and 112 genetic pepper resources form RDA Genebank were used for CMV-P1 resistance evaluation. Resistance evaluation was performed at 24 days and 51 days after artificial inoculation of peppers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 36 domestic cultivars 'Muhanjilju' were resistant to CMV-P1. All 20 PR cultivars and 29 foreign peppers except 'NuMex Twilight' and 'Chainese Giant' were susceptible. Among 112 pepper lines from RDA Genebank, nine pepper lines were resistant, and 17 pepper lines were moderately resistant, and 86 pepper lines were susceptible. Almost all domestic peppers on the market were highly susceptible to CMV-P1, whereas 17.2% of foreign pepper cultivars and genetic pepper lines from RDA Genebank were resistant or moderately resistant. Resistant pepper lines selected in this study can be used as genetic sources for breeding CMV-P1 resistant pepper.
Identification of Lettuce Germplasms and Commercial Cultivars Using SSR Markers Developed from EST
Hong, Jee-Hwa ; Kwon, Yong-Sham ; Choi, Keun-Jin ; Mishra, Raghvendra Kumar ; Kim, Doo Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 772~781
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13055
The objective of this study was to develop simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from expressed sequence tags (EST) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and identify 9 germplasms from 3 wild species of lettuce and 61 commercial cultivars using the developed EST-SSR markers. A total of 81,330 lettuce ESTs from NCBI databases were used to search for SSR and 4,229 SSR loci were identified. The highest proportion (59.12%, 2500) was represented by trinucleotide, followed by dinucleotide (29.70%, 1256) and hexanucleotide (6.62%, 280) among SSR repeat motifs. Totally 474 EST-SSR primers were developed from EST and a random set of 267 primers was used to assess the genetic diversity among 9 germplasms and 61 cultivars. Out of 267 primers, 47 EST-SSR markers showed polymorphism between 7 cultivars. Twenty-six EST-SSR markers among 47 EST-SSR markers showed high polymorphism, reproducibility, and band clearance. The relationship between 26 markers genotypes and 70 accessions was analyzed. Totally 127 polymorphic amplified fragments were obtained by 26 EST-SSR markers and two to nine SSR alleles were detected for each locus with an average of 4.88 alleles per locus. Average polymorphism information content was 0.542, ranging from 0.269 to 0.768. Genetic distance of clusters ranged from 0.05 to 0.94 between 70 accessions and dendrogram at a similarity of 0.34 gave 7 main clusters. Analysis of genetic diversity revealed by these 26 EST-SSR markers showed that the 9 germplasms and 61 commercial cultivars were discriminated by marker genotypes. These newly developed EST-SSR markers will be useful for cultivar identification and distinctness, uniformity and stability test of lettuce.
Construction of cDNA Library and EST Analysis Related to Seed-hair Characteristics in Carrot
Oh, Gyu-Dong ; Shim, Eun-Jo ; Jun, Sang-Jin ; Park, Young-Doo ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 782~789
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13108
Carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) is one of the most widely used crops in the world and is nutritionally important crop. However, seed-hair which is generated in epidermal cell of seeds causes the difficulty of the seedling process, because of the seed germination and absorption inhibitions. For these reasons, carrot seeds are commercialized after mechanical hair removal process. However, in this process, various damage and seed loss occur and breeding of hairless-seed carrot cultivar is needed to overcome these various weaknesses and additional seed production costs. In this study, cDNA libraries using 2 combinations, which were composed of short-hair seed CT-ATR 615 OP 666-13 & long-hair seed CT-ATR 615 OP 671-9, and short-hair seed CT-SMR 616 OP 659-1 & long-hair seed CT-SMR 616 OP 677-14, were constructed and EST sequences of each individuals were analyzed to reveal carrot seed-hair characteristics. Firstly, analyzed EST sequences were classified into FunCat functional categories. As a result, significant differences have been identified in metabolism category, protein folding and stabilization, protein binding, C-compound binding category from both of two combinations. Secondly, several candidate EST sequences related to seed trichome differentiation and cellulose biosynthetic process were selected based on GO data of EST sequences. These differences based on FunCat categories and candidate EST obtained by GO data analysis are thought to be involved in the formation of carrot seed hair. Finally, 741 SSR sites and 33 SNP sites were identified from analyzed EST sequences of two combinations. Then we designed SNP and SSR primer sets to develop molecular markers. These molecular markers will be used for classification of carrot cultivars and study seed-hair characteristic.
Calyx Abscission in Pear (Pyrus spp.) Cultivars and Its Inheritance
Kang, Sam-Seok ; Kim, Yoon-Kyeong ; Choi, Jang-Jeon ; Cho, Kwang-Sik ; Won, Kyeong-Ho ; Lee, Han Chan ; Yu, Duk Jun ; Lee, Hee Jae ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 790~797
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.12224
During pear fruit development, calyx can abscise from fruitlet following petal fall. The calyx abscission varies with pear cultivars. The presence of calyx on pear fruit makes the fruit shape calyx end protruded. In the present study, the degrees of the calyx abscission were examined in 120 Southern-type Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia), 52 Nothern-type Asian pear (P. ussuriensis), and 34 European pear (P. communis) cultivars, and its inheritance was investigated using cross combinations between the Southern-type Asian pear cultivars showing different degrees of calyx abscission. Majority of the cultivars produced < 10% or > 90% calyx-perpetual fruit, but the cultivars producing both calyx-perpetual and -deciduous fruit were in minor frequency. The cultivars producing < 10% calyx-perpetual fruit were in higher frequency in Southern-type Asian, Nothern-type Asian, and European pears in that order, while those producing calyx-perpetual fruit were in higher frequency in European, Nothern-type Asian, and Southern-type Asian pears in that order. In the cross between the parents producing < 10% calyx-perpetual fruit, most of the
seedlings also produced < 10% calyx-perpetual fruit. In the cross between the parents producing > 90% calyx-perpetual fruit, on the contrary, most of the
seedlings also produced > 90% calyx-perpetual fruit. When the paternal parent produced < 10% calyx-perpetual fruit, most of the
seedlings also produced < 10% calyx-perpetual fruit regardless of the degree of calyx abscission in the maternal parent. When the cross was between the maternal parent producing < 10% calyx-perpetual fruit and the paternal parent showing different degrees of calyx abscission, the
seedlings showed similar degrees of the calyx abscission to those in the paternal parent. These results suggest that the characteristics of the calyx abscission is influenced more greatly by the paternal parent than by the maternal parent, and the calyx abscission in Southern-type Asian pears is a qualitative trait which is governed by dominant gene(s).
Development of Sequence Characterized Amplified Region Markers for Cultivar Identification in Persimmon
Cho, Kang Hee ; Cho, Kwang-Sik ; Han, Jeom Hwa ; Kim, Hyun Ran ; Shin, Il Sheob ; Kim, Se Hee ; Chun, Jae An ; Hwang, Hae-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 798~806
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13057
Precise, fast, and cost-effective identification of crop cultivars is essential for plant breeder's rights. Traditional methods for identification of persimmon cultivars are based on the evaluation of sets of morphological characteristics. However, it is difficult to distinguish closely related cultivars using only morphological traits. This study was conducted to develop DNA markers for identification of the 32 persimmon cultivars in Korea and Japan. A total of 309 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were identified using 40 different random primers. Various number of polymorphic bands ranged from 4 (OPP-08) to 14 (UBC159) were detected with an average of 7.7. Resulting 57 RAPD fragments were selected, and their sequences were determined for developing sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. As a result, 15 of 57 RAPD fragments were successfully converted to SCAR markers. Single polymorphic bands of the same size as or smaller than the RAPD fragments were amplified depending on SCAR markers. Among these markers, a combination of eight SCAR markers (PS225_200, PSN05_420, PSF13_523, PSN11_540, PS372_567, PS485_569, PSP08_635, and PS631_735) provided sufficient polymorphisms to identify 32 persimmon cultivars. These newly developed markers will be a fast and reliable tool to identify persimmon cultivars.
A Simple and Fast Microplate Method for Analysis of Carotenoids Content in Chili Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)
Hong, Sun Chul ; Han, Jung-Heon ; Lee, Jundae ; Ahn, Yul Kyun ; Yang, Eun-Young ; Chae, Soo Young ; Kim, Su ; Yoon, Jae Bok ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 807~812
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.12166
In this study, we aimed to develop a simple analysis method for measuring the carotenoids content of pepper powder. A 96-wells polystyrene microplate and an ELISA reader were used for analysis. Although ELISA reader with 450 nm filter was applicable to measure carotenoid contents, the surface of microplates were degenerated by acetone used for carotenoids extraction. However, ten-folded dilute of the color extract with methanol did not affect the surface of polystyrene microplate and components of the color extract could be successfully measured by a ELISA reader, showing a high corelation with ASTA-20.1 method. In addition, this method uses 10 fold less acetone than ASTA-20.1 method resulting less acetone waste. The microplate method using ELISA reader has potential power for analyzing a large number of samples which may be very useful to the practical breeding program for high-colored peppers.
Potent Whitening Activity of Aruncus dioicus Extract in B16F10 Melanoma Cell by Suppression of Melanin Biosynthesis
Kim, Dong-Hee ; Moon, Yong-Sun ; Park, Tae-Soon ; Hwang, Ju-Young ; Son, Jun-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 813~820
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13067
Monoterpenoids were recently found as main biologically active compounds which is responsible for various physiological effect in goat's beard (Aruncus dioicus). Ethyl acetate extract of A. dioicus (ADE) was treated to B16F10 melanoma cells for the examination of whitening activity. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell toxicity and the result showed that slight cell toxicity (> 10%) by over
. Thus, 0, 5, 10, or
ADE was used for further experiments. We found that tyrosinase activity was decreased according to ADE concentration, and the total melanin content was also dramatically reduced. Especially with
ADE treatment tyrosinase activity was reduced to 35.6%, and 58.8% of melanin content was lowered. In addition, whitening related proteins including tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein 1 (TRP1), TRP2, microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) and cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) were reduced by ADE treatment. It caused decreased phosphorylation of cAMP response binding protein (CREB) but increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal related kinase (ERK). Therefore, in this paper we would like to suggest the potent usage of A. dioicus natively grown in Ulleungdo, Korea as materials of functional cosmetics by confirming whitening activity related with melanin content.
Effects of Indoor Horticultural Activities on Improvement of Attention and Concentration in Elementary School Students
Lee, Min Jung ; Kim, Jiseon ; Oh, Wook ; Jang, Ja Soon ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 821~827
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13077
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three kinds of horticultural activities (HAs) on attention concentration of elementary students. We selected 20 students using a Wee Class counseling office at J elementary school in Yeongcheon, and divided them into experimental and control groups composed of ten students each. The experimental group participated in three HAs including flower arrangement, planting, and pressed flower. Each HA was composed of three sessions and a session proceeded for a week. For the examinations of attention concentration, two groups responded the questionnaires before a week of the first session and at the end of the 9th session, only the experimental group participated in the measurement using grid by Harris before a week of the first session and at the end of each HA every week. The results of questionnaire survey showed that the scores of problem in emotion and problem in controlling, and the total score decreased 9.2, 7.8, and 19.0 points, respectively (P < 0.05), indicating that the attention concentration of the experimental group improved compared with the control. In the measurements using grid by Harris, the flower arrangement, planting, and pressed flower activities increased the scores by 2.22, 2.49, and 2.41 points compared with the pre-HA of 6.00, respectively (P < 0.05), that means the improvements of attention concentration. At the post-HAs, the flower arrangement, planting, and pressed flower activities increased the scores by 1.12, 1.39 and 1.31 points compared with the control group of 7.10, respectively (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the indoor HAs improved the attention and concentration of elementary students irrespective of kind of activities.
Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Trees and Soils in a 'Niitaka' Pear Orchard
Lee, Tae-Kyu ; Choi, Jang-Jeon ; Kim, Jong-Sung ; Lee, Han-Chan ; Ro, Hee-Myong ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 828~832
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13105
To report country-specific carbon and nitrogen stocks data in a pear orchard by Tier 3 approach of 2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories, an experimental pear orchard field of the Pear Research Station, National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Naju, Korea (
, 6 m altitude), where 15-year-old 'Niitaka' pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai cv. Niitaka) trees were planted at a
spacing on a Tatura trellis system, was chosen to assess the total amount of carbon and nitrogen stocks stored in the trees and orchard soil profiles. At the sampling time (August 2012), three trees were uprooted, and separated into six fractions: trunk, main branches, lateral branches (including shoots), leaves, fruits, and roots. Soil samples were collected from 0 to 0.6 m depth at 0.1 m intervals at 0.5 m from the trunk. Dry mass per tree was 4.7 kg for trunk, 13.3 kg for main branches, 13.9 kg for lateral branches, 3.7 kg for leaves, 6.7 kg for fruits, and 14.1 kg for roots. Amounts of C and N per tree were respectively 2.3 and 0.02 kg for trunk, 6.4 and 0.07 kg for main branches, 6.4 and 0.09 kg for lateral branches, 6.5 and 0.07 kg for roots, 1.7 and 0.07 kg for leaves, and 3.2 and 0.03 kg for fruits. Carbon and nitrogen stocks stored between the soil surface and a depth of 60 cm were 138.29 and
, respectively, while those contained in pear trees were 17.66 and
based on a tree density of 667
. Overall, carbon and nitrogen stocks per hectare stored in a pear orchard were 155.95 and 13.54 Mg, respectively.
Breeding of Black Tomato 'Hei' for Protected Cultivation
Seo, Jong-Bun ; Shin, Gil-Ho ; Jang, Mi-Hyang ; Lee, Ya-Seong ; Jung, Hyo-Jin ; Yoon, Bong-Ki ; Choi, Kyong-Ju ;
Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2013, Pages 833~836
DOI : 10.7235/hort.2013.13053
'Hei' is a new cultivar of red with black flesh; originated from the cross of two inbred lines, mother plant, TKUI separated from 'Kame' in 2007 and father plant, TLB separated from tomato collected in Europe by pedigree breeding method. 'Hei' was tested for specific character and productivity of lines of tomatoes in spring for 2 years, 2008 to 2009. This variety had resistance to powdery mildew. 'Hei' is an indeterminate type. The fruit shape is round and the skin color is blackish red. The average fruit weight of 'Hei' is about 127.9 g and marketable yield is
. Lycopene contents of 'Hei' are about
, high compared with other tomato (
). 'Hei' is suitable for environment-friendly protected cultivation because of resistance to powdery mildew.