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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Biomolecules and Therapeutics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 21, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
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Polyamines and Their Metabolites as Diagnostic Markers of Human Diseases
Park, Myung Hee ; Igarashi, Kazuei ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.097
Polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are ubiquitous in living cells and are essential for eukaryotic cell growth. These polycations interact with negatively charged molecules such as DNA, RNA, acidic proteins and phospholipids and modulate various cellular functions including macromolecular synthesis. Dysregulation of the polyamine pathway leads to pathological conditions including cancer, inflammation, stroke, renal failure and diabetes. Increase in polyamines and polyamine synthesis enzymes is often associated with tumor growth, and urinary and plasma contents of polyamines and their metabolites have been investigated as diagnostic markers for cancers. Of these, diacetylated derivatives of spermidine and spermine are elevated in the urine of cancer patients and present potential markers for early detection. Enhanced catabolism of cellular polyamines by polyamine oxidases (PAO), spermine oxidase (SMO) or acetylpolyamine oxidase (AcPAO), increases cellular oxidative stress and generates hydrogen peroxide and a reactive toxic metabolite, acrolein, which covalently incorporates into lysine residues of cellular proteins. Levels of protein-conjuagated acrolein (PC-Acro) and polyamine oxidizing enzymes were increased in the locus of brain infarction and in plasma in a mouse model of stroke and also in the plasma of stroke patients. When the combined measurements of PC-Acro, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated, even silent brain infarction (SBI) was detected with high sensitivity and specificity. Considering that there are no reliable biochemical markers for early stage of stroke, PC-Acro and PAOs present promising markers. Thus the polyamine metabolites in plasma or urine provide useful tools in early diagnosis of cancer and stroke.
Emerging Roles of Human Prostatic Acid Phosphatase
Kong, Hoon Young ; Byun, Jonghoe ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 10~20
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.095
Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent non-skin related cancers. It is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among males in most Western countries. If prostate cancer is diagnosed in its early stages, there is a higher probability that it will be completely cured. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) is a non-specific phosphomonoesterase synthesized in prostate epithelial cells and its level proportionally increases with prostate cancer progression. PAP was the biochemical diagnostic mainstay for prostate cancer until the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) which improved the detection of early-stage prostate cancer and largely displaced PAP. Recently, however, there is a renewed interest in PAP because of its usefulness in prognosticating intermediate to high-risk prostate cancers and its success in the immunotherapy of prostate cancer. Although PAP is believed to be a key regulator of prostate cell growth, its exact role in normal prostate as well as detailed molecular mechanism of PAP regulation is still unclear. Here, many different aspects of PAP in prostate cancer are revisited and its emerging roles in other environment are discussed.
Activation of Autophagy Pathway Suppresses the Expression of iNOS, IL6 and Cell Death of LPS-Stimulated Microglia Cells
Han, Hye-Eun ; Kim, Tae-Kyung ; Son, Hyung-Jin ; Park, Woo Jin ; Han, Pyung-Lim ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 21~28
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.089
Microglia play a role in maintaining and resolving brain tissue homeostasis. In pathological conditions, microglia release pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic factors, which aggravate the progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Autophagy pathway might be involved in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic factors in microglia, though details of the mechanism remain largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the role of the autophagy pathway in activated BV2 microglia cells. In BV2 cells, rapamycin treatment activated the formation of anti-LC3-labeled autophagosomes, whereas the ATG5 depletion using siRNA-ATG5 prevented the formation of LC3-labeled autophagosomes, indicating that BV2 cells exhibit an active classical autophagy system. When treated with LPS, BV2 cells expressed an increase of anti-LC3-labeled dots. The levels of LC3-labeled dots were not suppressed, instead tended to be enhanced, by the inhibition of the autophagy pathway with siRNA-ATG5 or wortmannin, suggesting that LPS-induced LC3-labeled dots in nature were distinct from the typical autophagosomes. The levels of LPS-induced expression of iNOS and IL6 were suppressed by treatment with rapamycin, and conversely, their expressions were enhanced by siRNA-ATG5 treatment. Moreover, the activation of the autophagy pathway using rapamycin inhibited cell death of LPS-stimulated microglia. These results suggest that although microglia possess a typical autophagy pathway, the glial cells express a non-typical autophagy pathway in response to LPS, and the activation of the autophagy pathway suppresses the expression of iNOS and IL6, and the cell death of LPS-stimulated microglia.
Down-Regulation of Survivin by Nemadipine-A Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis
Park, Seong Ho ; Park, So Jung ; Kim, Joo-Oh ; Shin, Ji Hyun ; Kim, Eun Sung ; Jo, Yoon Kyung ; Kim, Jae-Sung ; Park, So Jung ; Jin, Dong-Hoon ; Hwang, Jung Jin ; Lee, Seung Jin ; Jeong, Seong-Yun ; Lee, Chaeyoung ; Kim, InKi ; Cho, Dong-Hyung ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 29~34
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.088
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family of cytokines. TRAIL selectively induces apoptotic cell death in various tumors and cancer cells, but it has little or no toxicity in normal cells. Agonism of TRAIL receptors has been considered to be a valuable cancer-therapeutic strategy. However, more than 85% of primary tumors are resistant to TRAIL, emphasizing the importance of investigating how to overcome TRAIL resistance. In this report, we have found that nemadipine-A, a cell-permeable L-type calcium channel inhibitor, sensitizes TRAIL-resistant cancer cells to this ligand. Combination treatments using TRAIL with nemadipine-A synergistically induced both the caspase cascade and apoptotic cell death, which were blocked by a pan caspase inhibitor (zVAD) but not by autophagy or a necrosis inhibitor. We further found that nemadipine-A, either alone or in combination with TRAIL, notably reduced the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of the apoptosis protein (IAP) family of proteins. Depletion of survivin by small RNA interference (siRNA) resulted in increased cell death and caspase activation by TRAIL treatment. These results suggest that nemadipine-A potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis by down-regulation of survivin expression in TRAIL resistant cells. Thus, combination of TRAIL with nemadipine-A may serve a new therapeutic scheme for the treatment of TRAIL resistant cancer cells, suggesting that a detailed study of this combination would be useful.
Metformin Suppresses MHC-Restricted Antigen Presentation by Inhibiting Co-Stimulatory Factors and MHC Molecules in APCs
Shin, Seulmee ; Hyun, Bobae ; Lee, Aeri ; Kong, Hyunseok ; Han, Shinha ; Lee, Chong-Kil ; Ha, Nam-Joo ; Kim, Kyungjae ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.094
Metformin is widely used for T2D therapy but its cellular mechanism of action is undefined. Recent studies on the mechanism of metformin in T2D have demonstrated involvement of the immune system. Current immunotherapies focus on the potential of immunomodulatory strategies for the treatment of T2D. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on the antigen-presenting function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Metformin decreased both MHC class I and class II-restricted presentation of OVA and suppressed the expression of both MHC molecules and co-stimulatory factors such as CD54, CD80, and CD86 in DCs, but did not affect the phagocytic activity toward exogenous OVA. The class II-restricted OVA presentation-regulating activity of metformin was also confirmed using mice that had been injected with metformin followed by soluble OVA. These results provide an understanding of the mechanisms of the T cell response-regulating activity of metformin through the inhibition of MHC-restricted antigen presentation in relation to its actions on APCs.
The Cholesterol-Binding Antibiotic Nystatin Induces Expression of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 in Macrophages
Baek, Seungil ; Kim, Sun-Mi ; Lee, Sae-A ; Rhim, Byung-Yong ; Eo, Seong-Kug ; Kim, Koanhoi ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 42~48
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.082
Nystatin, a polyene antifungal antibiotic, is a cholesterol sequestering agent. The antifungal agent alters composition of the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, whereas its effects on cells are poorly investigated. In the current study, we investigated the question of whether nystatin was able to induce expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1). THP-1 cells rarely express MIP-
, however, upon exposure to nystatin, significantly elevated expression of MIP-
was observed in a dose-dependent fashion at the messenger and protein levels. Cellular factors activated by nystatin as well as involved in nystatin-induced expression of MIP-1 proteins were identified in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of action of the anti-fungal agent. Treatment with nystatin resulted in enhanced phosphorylation of Akt, ERK, p38 MAPK, and JNK. Abrogation or significant attenuation of nystatin-induced expression of MIP-
was observed by treatment with Akt inhibitor IV, LY294002, and SP6001250. Inhibition of ERK or p38MAPK using U0126 and SB202190 did not lead to attenuation of MIP-1 expression. In addition, inhibitors of protein kinase C, such as GF109203X and Ro-318220, also attenuated expression of MIP-1. These results indicate that nystatin is able to activate multiple cellular kinases and, among them, Akt and JNK play primary roles in nystatin-induced expression of MIP-1 proteins.
Finasteride Increases the Expression of Hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NF-E2-Related Factor-2 (Nrf2) Proteins in PC-3 Cells: Implication of Finasteride-Mediated High-Grade Prostate Tumor Occurrence
Yun, Do-Kyung ; Lee, June ; Keum, Young-Sam ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 49~53
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.080
A number of naturally-occurring or synthetic chemicals have been reported to exhibit prostate chemopreventive effects. Synthetic
-reductase (5-AR) inhibitors, e.g. finasteride and durasteride, gained special interests as possible prostate chemopreventive agents. Indeed, two large-scale epidemiological studies have demonstrated that finasteride or durasteride significantly reduced the incidence of prostate cancer formation in men. However, these studies have raised an unexpected concern; finasteride and durasteride increased the occurrence of aggressive prostate tumor formation. In the present study, we have observed that treatment of finasteride did not affect the growth of androgen-refractory PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Finasteride also failed to induce apoptosis or affect the expression of proto-oncogenes in PC-3 cells. Interestingly, we found that treatment of finasteride induced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins in PC-3 cells. In particular, basal level of Nrf2 protein was higher in androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells, e.g. DU-145 and PC-3 cells, compared with androgen-responsive prostate cancer cells, e.g. LNCaP cells. Also, treatment of finasteride resulted in a selective induction of Nrf2 protein in DU-145 and PC-3 cells, but not in LNCaP cells. In view of the fact that upregulation of Nrf2-mediated phase II cytoprotective enzymes contribute to attenuating tumor promotion in normal cells, but, on the other hand, confers a selective advantage for cancer cells to proliferate and survive against chemical carcinogenesis and other forms of toxicity, we propose that finasteride-mediated induction of Nrf2 protein might be responsible, at least in part, for an increased risk of high-grade prostate tumor formation in men.
Inhibitory Effects of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate on Microsomal Cyclooxygenase-1 Activity in Platelets
Lee, Dong-Ha ; Kim, Yun-Jung ; Kim, Hyun-Hong ; Cho, Hyun-Jeong ; Ryu, Jin-Hyeob ; Rhee, Man Hee ; Park, Hwa-Jin ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 54~59
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.075
In this study, we investigated the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins from green tea leaves, on activities of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and thromboxane synthase (TXAS), thromboxane
) production associated microsomal enzymes. EGCG inhibited COX-1 activity to 96.9%, and TXAS activity to 20% in platelet microsomal fraction having cytochrome c reductase (an endoplasmic reticulum marker enzyme) activity and expressing COX-1 (70 kDa) and TXAS (58 kDa) proteins. The inhibitory ratio of COX-1 to TXAS by EGCG was 4.8. These results mean that EGCG has a stronger selectivity in COX-1 inhibition than TXAS inhibition. In special, a nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug aspirin, a COX-1 inhibitor, inhibited COX-1 activity by 11.3% at the same concentration (
) as EGCG that inhibited COX-1 activity to 96.9% as compared with that of control. This suggests that EGCG has a stronger effect than that of aspirin on inhibition of COX-1 activity. Accordingly, we demonstrate that EGCG might be used as a crucial tool for a strong negative regulator of COX-1/
signaling pathway to inhibit thrombotic disease-associated platelet aggregation.
3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic Acid Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response through the Activation of Nrf2 Pathway in BV2 Microglial Cells
Lee, Jae-Won ; Choi, Yong-Jun ; Park, Jun-Ho ; Sim, Jae-Young ; Kwon, Yong-Soo ; Lee, Hee Jae ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Chun, Wanjoo ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 60~65
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.091
3,4,5-Trihydroxycinnamic acid (THC) is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acids, which have been reported to possess a variety of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and neuroprotective activities. However, biological activity of THC has not been extensively examined. Recently, we reported that THC possesses anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. However, its precise mechanism by which THC exerts anti-inflammatory action has not been clearly identified. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the anti-inflammatory mechanism of THC in BV2 microglial cells. THC effectively suppressed the LPS-induced induction of pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO, TNF-
, and IL-
. THC also suppressed expression of MCP-1, which plays a key role in the migration of activated microglia. To understand the underlying mechanism by which THC exerts these anti-inflammatory properties, involvement of Nrf2, which is a cytoprotective transcription factor, was examined. THC resulted in increased phosphorylation of Nrf2 with consequent expression of HO-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. THC-induced phosphorylation of Nrf2 was blocked with SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, indicating that p38 MAPK is the responsible kinase for the phosphorylation of Nrf2. Taken together, the present study for the first time demonstrates that THC exerts anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of Nrf2 in BV2 microglial cells, suggesting that THC might be a valuable therapeutic adjuvant for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders in the CNS.
Inhibition of Experimental Systemic Inflammation (Septic Inflammation) and Chronic Bronchitis by New Phytoformula BL Containing Broussonetia papyrifera and Lonicera japonica
Ko, Hyun Jeong ; Kwon, Oh Song ; Jin, Jeong Ho ; Son, Kun Ho ; Kim, Hyun Pyo ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 66~71
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.081
Broussonetia papyrifera and Lonicera japonica have long been used in the treatment of inflammatory disorders in Chinese medicine, especially respiratory inflammation. Previously, a new phytoformula (BL) containing B. papyrifera and L. japonica was found to exert strong anti-inflammatory activity against several animal models of inflammation, especially against an animal model of acute bronchitis. In the present investigation, the effects of BL on animal models of septic inflammation and chronic bronchitis are examined. Against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic inflammation in mice, BL (200-400 mg/kg) reduced the induction of some important proinflammatory cytokines. At 1 h after LPS treatment, BL was found to considerably inhibit TNF-
production when measured by cytokine array. At 3 h after LPS treatment, BL inhibited the induction of several proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-
, although dexamethasone, which was used as a reference, showed a higher inhibitory action on these biomarkers. Against chronic bronchitis induced by LPS/elastase instillation in rats for 4 weeks, BL (200-400 mg/kg/day) significantly inhibited cell recruitment in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, BL considerably reduced lung injury, as revealed by histological observation. Taken together, these results indicate that BL may have a potential to treat systemic septic inflammation as well as chronic bronchitis.
Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract
Jung, Hyun-Joo ; Cho, Young-Wook ; Lim, Hye-Won ; Choi, Hojin ; Ji, Dam-Jung ; Lim, Chang-Jin ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 72~78
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.059
This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine.
Antidepressant-Like Effects of Lycii Radicis Cortex and Betaine in the Forced Swimming Test in Rats
Kim, Soo Jeong ; Lee, Mi-Sook ; Kim, Ji Hyun ; Lee, Tae Hee ; Shim, Insop ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 79~83
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.072
The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) and betaine (BT) on immobility and neurochemical change in the forced swimming test (FST) in the rat. LRC, BT or fluoxentine was administered intraperitoneally to Sprague-Dawley rats three times (1, 5 and 23.5 h) before the FST. To investigate antidepressant-like effect, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) were examined in the hippocampus and hypothalamus of rats. LRC (100 mg/kg) and BT (30, 100 mg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time in the FST. LRC (100 mg/kg) significantly increased both 5-HT and NE levels in the hypothalamus of rats exposed to FST. BT (100 mg/kg) significantly increased 5-HT levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that improvement in the behavioral changes after LRC and BT administration may be mediated by elevation of 5-HT level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus, indicating a possible antidepressant-like activity. The present results suggest that the efficacy of LRC and BT in an animal model of depression may provide anti-depressant effects in human, which remains to be determined.
Histopathological Evaluation of Heart Toxicity of a Novel Selective PPAR-γ Agonists CKD-501 in db/db Mice
Yang, Hyun-Il ; Kim, Woo Sik ; Kim, Dal-Hyun ; Kang, Jin Seok ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 1, 2013, Pages 84~88
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2012.101
High risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by existing PPAR-
agonists such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone has been recently reported. CKD-501 is a novel selective PPAR-
agonist as a potential target to reduce cardiovascular risk in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In this study, We investigated potential cardiotoxicity of CKD-501 and compared its toxicity with that of rosiglitazone or pioglitazone using db/db mice. After 12-week repeated administration of CKD-501 at doses of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day or rosiglitazone at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg/day or pioglitazone at doses of 200 and 540 mg/kg/day, animals were sacrificed for investigation of potential toxicities. Diameters of left ventricles and areas of cardiomyocytes were measured. And lipid accumulation and apoptosis in heart muscle were examined by oil red O staining and TUNEL staining, respectively. Diameters of left ventricles were significantly increased in high dose treatment group of pioglitazone compared to control (p<0.05), while other groups showed a tendency for an increase. All test articles induced significantly the increase of area of cardiomyocytes in heart compared to control (p<0.01), in regular order as pioglitazone > CKD-501
rosiglitazone. However, lipid accumulation and apoptotic changes in heart were not observed in all dosing groups. Taken together, the myocardial cell hypertrophy of CKD-501 are relatively lower than that of pioglitazone and similar to rosiglitazone. And it is suggested that the myocardial cell hypertrophy of CKD-501 are less adverse in clinical use for the management of the NIDDM.