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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Biomolecules and Therapeutics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 21, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 21, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Intercellular Lipid Mediators and GPCR Drug Discovery
Im, Dong-Soon ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 411~422
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.080
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are the largest superfamily of receptors responsible for signaling between cells and tissues, and because they play important physiological roles in homeostasis, they are major drug targets. New technologies have been developed for the identification of new ligands, new GPCR functions, and for drug discovery purposes. In particular, intercellular lipid mediators, such as, lysophosphatidic acid and sphingosine 1-phosphate have attracted much attention for drug discovery and this has resulted in the development of fingolimod (FTY-720) and AM095. The discovery of new intercellular lipid mediators and their GPCRs are discussed from the perspective of drug development. Lipid GPCRs for lysophospholipids, including lysophosphatidylserine, lysophosphatidylinositol, lysophosphatidylcholine, free fatty acids, fatty acid derivatives, and other lipid mediators are reviewed.
Nucleic Acid Aptamers: New Methods for Selection, Stabilization, and Application in Biomedical Science
Kong, Hoon Young ; Byun, Jonghoe ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 423~434
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.085
The adoption of oligonucleotide aptamer is well on the rise, serving an ever increasing demand for versatility in biomedical field. Through the SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment), aptamer that can bind to specific target with high affinity and specificity can be obtained. Aptamers are single-stranded nucleic acid molecules that can fold into complex three-dimensional structures, forming binding pockets and clefts for the specific recognition and tight binding of any given molecular target. Recently, aptamers have attracted much attention because they not only have all of the advantages of antibodies, but also have unique merits such as thermal stability, ease of synthesis, reversibility, and little immunogenicity. The advent of novel technologies is revolutionizing aptamer applications. Aptamers can be easily modified by various chemical reactions to introduce functional groups and/or nucleotide extensions. They can also be conjugated to therapeutic molecules such as drugs, drug containing carriers, toxins, or photosensitizers. Here, we discuss new SELEX strategies and stabilization methods as well as applications in drug delivery and molecular imaging.
Emodin Isolated from Polygoni cuspidati Radix Inhibits TNF-α and IL-6 Release by Blockading NF-κB and MAP Kinase Pathways in Mast Cells Stimulated with PMA Plus A23187
Lu, Yue ; Jeong, Yong-Tae ; Li, Xian ; Kim, Mi Jin ; Park, Pil-Hoon ; Hwang, Seung-Lark ; Son, Jong Keun ; Chang, Hyeun Wook ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 435~441
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.068
Emodin, a naturally occurring anthraquinone derivative isolated from Polygoni cuspidati radix, has several beneficial pharmacologic effects, which include anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, the authors examined the effect of emodin on the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
and interleukin (IL)-6, in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus the calcium ionophore A23187. To investigate the mechanism responsible for the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production by emodin, the authors assessed its effects on the activations of transcriptional factor nuclear factor-
) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Emodin attenuated the nuclear translocation of (NF)-
p65 and its DNA-binding activity by reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of
and the phosphorylation of
kinase B (IKK). Furthermore, emodin dose-dependently attenuated the phosphorylations of MAPKs, such as, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 MAP kinase, and the stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK)/c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of emodin on PMA plus A23187-stimulated BMMCs are mediated via the inhibition of NF-
activation and of the MAPK pathway.
The Longevity Properties of 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-Galloyl-β-D-Glucose from Curcuma longa in Caenorhabditis elegans
Ahn, Dalrae ; Cha, Dong Seok ; Lee, Eun Byeol ; Kim, Ban Ji ; Lee, So Yeon ; Jeon, Hoon ; Ahn, Min-Sil ; Lim, Hye Won ; Lee, Heon Yong ; Kim, Dae Keun ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 442~446
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.073
Here in this study, we isolated 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-
-D-glucose (PGG) from Curcuma longa L. and elucidated the lifespan-extending effect of PGG using Caenorhabditis elegans model system. In the present study, PGG demonstrated potent lifespan extension of worms under normal culture condition. Then, we determined the protective effects of PGG on the stress conditions such as thermal and oxidative stress. In the case of heat stress, PGG-treated worms exhibited enhanced survival rate, compared to control worms. In addition, PGG-fed worms lived longer than control worms under oxidative stress induced by paraquat. To verify the possible mechanism of PGG-mediated increased lifespan and stress resistance of worms, we investigated whether PGG might alter superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and intracellular ROS levels. Our results showed that PGG was able to elevate SOD activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner.
A ROCK Inhibitor Blocks the Inhibitory Effect of Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan on Morphological Changes of Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cells into Neuron-Like Cells
Lim, Hee-Suk ; Joe, Young Ae ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 447~453
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.041
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) inhibits neurite outgrowth of various neuronal cell types, and CSPG-associated inhibition of neurite outgrowth is mediated by the Rho/ROCK pathway. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into neuron-like cells under specific conditions and have been shown to differentiate into neuron-like cells by co-treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and the hypoxia condition mimicking agent
. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that a ROCK inhibitor might be beneficial to regenerate neurons during stem cell therapy by preventing transplanted MSCs from inhibition by CSPG in damaged tissues. Indeed, dose-dependent inhibition by CSPG pretreatment was observed during morphological changes of Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) induced by Y27632 alone. The formation of neurite-like structures was significantly inhibited when WJ-MSCs were pre-treated with CSPG before induction under Y27632 plus
conditions, and pretreatment with a protein kinase C inhibitor reversed such inhibition. However, CSPG treatment resulted in no significant inhibition of the WJ-MSC morphological changes into neuron-like cells after initiating induction by Y27632 plus
. No marked changes were detected in expression levels of neuronal markers induced by Y27632 plus
upon CSPG treatment. CSPG also blocked the morphological changes of human bone marrow-derived MSCs into neuron-like cells under other neuronal induction condition without the ROCK inhibitor, and Y27632 pre-treatment blocked the inhibitory effect of CSPG. These results suggest that a ROCK inhibitor can be efficiently used in stem cell therapy for neuronal induction by avoiding hindrance from CSPG.
Neuroprotective Effects of a Butanol Fraction of Rosa hybrida Petals in a Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model
Yang, Goeun ; Park, Dongsun ; Lee, Sun Hee ; Bae, Dae-Kwon ; Yang, Yun-Hui ; Kyung, Jangbeen ; Kim, Dajeong ; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung ; Hong, Jin Tae ; Jeong, Heon-Sang ; Kim, Hee Jung ; Jang, Su Kil ; Joo, Seong Soo ; Kim, Yun-Bae ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 454~461
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.067
The neuroprotective effects of a butanol fraction of white rose petal extract (WRPE-BF) were investigated in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model. Seven week-old male rats were orally administered WRPE-BF for 2 weeks and subjected to MCAO for 2 h, followed by reperfusion. Twenty-four h later, MCAO-induced behavioral dysfunctions were markedly improved in a dose-dependent manner by pretreatment with WRPE-BF. Moreover, higher dose of WRPE-BF not only decreased infarction area but also effectively reduced astrogliosis. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in MCAO model were markedly inhibited by WRPE-BF treatment. Notably, WRPE-BF decreased nitricoxide and malondialdehyde levels in the striatum and subventricular zone of stroke-challenged brains. These data suggested that WRPE-BF may exert its neuroprotective effects via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury and could be a good candidate as a therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.
Inhibitory Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark on Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Deficits in Mice
Kwon, Seung-Hwan ; Ma, Shi-Xun ; Joo, Hyun-Joong ; Lee, Seok-Yong ; Jang, Choon-Gon ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 462~469
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.074
Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark (EUE) is commonly used for the treatment of hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis, lumbago, and ischialgia as well as to promote longevity. In this study, we tested the effects of EUE aqueous extract in graded doses to protect and enhance cognition in scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice. EUE significantly improved the impairment of short-term or working memory induced by scopolamine in the Y-maze and significantly reversed learning and memory deficits in mice as measured by the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests. One day after the last trial session of the Morris water maze test (probe trial session), EUE dramatically increased the latency time in the target quadrant in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, EUE significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex in a dose-dependent manner. EUE also markedly increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylation of cAMP element binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus of scopolamine-induced mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that EUE may be useful for the treatment of cognitive deficits, and that the beneficial effects of EUE are mediated, in part, by cholinergic signaling enhancement and/or protection.
Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS) Analysis of Skin Metabolome Changes in the Ultraviolet B-Induced Mice
Park, Hye Min ; Kim, Hye Jin ; Jang, Young Pyo ; Kim, Sun Yeou ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 470~475
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.071
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a major environmental factor that leads to acute and chronic reactions in the human skin. UV exposure induces wrinkle formation, DNA damage, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Most mechanistic studies of skin physiology and pharmacology related with UV-irradiated skin have focused on proteins and their related gene expression or single-targeted small molecules. The present study identified and analyzed the alteration of skin metabolites following UVB irradiation and topical retinyl palmitate (RP, 5%) treatment in hairless mice using direct analysis in real time (DART) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis. Under the negative ion mode, the DART ion source successfully ionized various fatty acids including palmitoleic and linolenic acid. From DART-TOF-MS fingerprints measured in positive mode, the prominent dehydrated ion peak (m/z: 369, M+H-
) of cholesterol was characterized in all three groups. In positive mode, the discrimination among three groups was much clearer than that in negative mode by using multivariate analysis of orthogonal partial-least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). DART-TOF-MS can ionize various small organic molecules in living tissues and is an efficient alternative analytical tool for acquiring full chemical fingerprints from living tissues without requiring sample preparation. DART-MS measurement of skin tissue with multivariate analysis proved to be a powerful method to discriminate between experimental groups and to find biomarkers for various experiment models in skin dermatological research.
Impact of High Fat Diet-induced Obesity on the Plasma Levels of Monoamine Neurotransmitters in C57BL/6 Mice
Kim, Minjeong ; Bae, SeungJin ; Lim, Kyung-Min ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 476~480
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.063
Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in developed countries. It negatively affects diverse aspects of human wellbeing. Of these, a relationship between obesity and depression is widely recognized but biomarkers for assessment of obesity-associated mood changes in animal obesity models are rarely known. Here we explored the link between obesity and the plasma levels of monoamine neurotransmitters involved in mood control using a sensitive UPLC/MSMS technique in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity model in male C57BL/6 mice to explore the potential utility of plasma tests for obesity-associated mood change. HFD (60% of total calories, 8 weeks) induced significantly higher weight gains in body (+37.8%) and fat tissue (+306%) in male C57BL/6 mice. Bioanalysis of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in plasma at 8 weeks of HFD revealed that serotonin decreased significantly in the obese mice when compared to normal diet-fed mice (
, N=8). Notably, a negative correlation was found between the levels of serotonin and body weight gains. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) with the individual levels of neurotransmitters revealed that plasma levels of dopamine and serotonin could apparently differentiate the obese mice from lean ones. Our study demonstrated that blood plasma levels of neurotransmitters can be employed to evaluate the mood changes associated with obesity and more importantly, provided an important clue for understanding of the relationship between obesity and mood disorders.
Cell Motility Is Decreased in Macrophages Activated by Cancer Cell-Conditioned Medium
Go, Ahreum ; Ryu, Yun-Kyoung ; Lee, Jae-Wook ; Moon, Eun-Yi ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 481~486
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.076
Macrophages play a role in innate immune responses to various foreign antigens. Many products from primary tumors influence the activation and transmigration of macrophages. Here, we investigated a migration of macrophages stimulated with cancer cell culture-conditioned medium (CM). Macrophage activation by treatment with CM of B16F10 cells were judged by the increase in protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). The location where macrophages were at 4 h-incubation with control medium or CM was different from where they were at 5 h-incubation in culture dish. Percentage of superimposed macrophages at every 1 h interval was gradually increased by CM treatment as compared to control. Total coverage of migrated track expressed in coordinates was smaller and total distance of migration was shorter in CM-treated macrophages than that in control. Rac1 activity in CM-treated macrophages was also decreased as compared to that in control. When macrophages were treated with CM in the presence of dexamethasone (Dex), an increase in COX2 protein levels, and a decrease in Rac1 activity and total coverage of migration were reversed. In the meanwhile, biphasic changes were detected by Dex treatment in section distance of migration at each time interval, which was more decreased at early time and then increased at later time. Taken together, data demonstrate that macrophage motility could be reduced in accordance with activation in response to cancer cell products. It suggests that macrophage motility could be a novel marker to monitor cancer-associated inflammatory diseases and the efficacy of anti-inflammatory agents.
Evaluation of Luminescent P450 Analysis for Directed Evolution of Human CYP4A11
Choi, Seunghye ; Han, Songhee ; Lee, Hwayoun ; Chun, Young-Jin ; Kim, Donghak ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 21, issue 6, 2013, Pages 487~492
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2013.086
Cytochrome P450 4A11 (CYP4A11) is a fatty acid hydroxylase enzyme expressed in human liver. It catalyzes not only the hydroxylation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, but the conversion of arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a regulator of blood pressure. In this study, we performed a directed evolution analysis of CYP4A11 using the luminogenic assay system. A random mutant library of CYP4A11, in which mutations were made throughout the entire coding region, was screened with luciferase activity to detect the demethylation of luciferin-4A (2-[6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl]-4,5-dihydrothiazole-4-carboxylic acid) of CYP4A11 mutants in Escherichia coli. Consecutive rounds of random mutagenesis and screening yielded three improved CYP4A11 mutants, CP2600 (A24T/T263A), CP2601 (T263A), and CP2616 (A24T/T263A/V430E) with ~3-fold increase in whole cells and >10-fold increase in purified proteins on the luminescence assay. However, the steady state kinetic analysis for lauric acid hydroxylation showed the significant reductions in enzymatic activities in all three mutants. A mutant, CP2600, showed a 51% decrease in catalytic efficiency (
) for lauric acid hydroxylation mainly due to an increase in
. CP2601 and CP2616 showed much greater reductions (>75%) in the catalytic efficiency due to both a decrease in
and an increase in Km. These decreased catalytic activities of CP2601 and CP2616 can be partially attributed to the changes in substrate affinities. These results suggest that the enzymatic activities of CYP4A11 mutants selected from directed evolution using a luminogenic P450 substrate may not demonstrate a direct correlation with the hydroxylation activities of lauric acid.