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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Biomolecules and Therapeutics
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 22, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
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Caenorhabditis elegans: A Model System for Anti-Cancer Drug Discovery and Therapeutic Target Identification
Kobet, Robert A. ; Pan, Xiaoping ; Zhang, Baohong ; Pak, Stephen C. ; Asch, Adam S. ; Lee, Myon-Hee ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 371~383
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.084
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) offers a unique opportunity for biological and basic medical researches due to its genetic tractability and well-defined developmental lineage. It also provides an exceptional model for genetic, molecular, and cellular analysis of human disease-related genes. Recently, C. elegans has been used as an ideal model for the identification and functional analysis of drugs (or small-molecules) in vivo. In this review, we describe conserved oncogenic signaling pathways (Wnt, Notch, and Ras) and their potential roles in the development of cancer stem cells. During C. elegans germline development, these signaling pathways regulate multiple cellular processes such as germline stem cell niche specification, germline stem cell maintenance, and germ cell fate specification. Therefore, the aberrant regulations of these signaling pathways can cause either loss of germline stem cells or overproliferation of a specific cell type, resulting in sterility. This sterility phenotype allows us to identify drugs that can modulate the oncogenic signaling pathways directly or indirectly through a high-throughput screening. Current in vivo or in vitro screening methods are largely focused on the specific core signaling components. However, this phenotype-based screening will identify drugs that possibly target upstream or downstream of core signaling pathways as well as exclude toxic effects. Although phenotype-based drug screening is ideal, the identification of drug targets is a major challenge. We here introduce a new technique, called Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability (DARTS). This innovative method is able to identify the target of the identified drug. Importantly, signaling pathways and their regulators in C. elegans are highly conserved in most vertebrates, including humans. Therefore, C. elegans will provide a great opportunity to identify therapeutic drugs and their targets, as well as to understand mechanisms underlying the formation of cancer.
Regulatory Role of Autophagy in Globular Adiponectin-Induced Apoptosis in Cancer Cells
Nepal, Saroj ; Park, Pil-Hoon ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 384~389
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.021
Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipose tissue, exhibits diverse biological responses, including metabolism of glucose and lipid, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Recently, adiponectin has been shown to modulate autophagy as well. While emerging evidence has demonstrated that autophagy plays a role in the modulation of proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells, the role of autophagy in apoptosis of cancer cell caused by adiponectin has not been explored. In the present study, we demonstrated that globular adiponectin (gAcrp) induces both apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatoma cell line (HepG2 cells) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7), as evidenced by increase in caspase-3 activity, Bax, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3 II) protein levels, and autophagosome formation. Interestingly, gene silencing of LC3B, an autophagy marker, significantly enhanced gAcrp-induced apoptosis in both HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, whereas induction of autophagy by rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, significantly prevented gAcrp-induced apoptosis in hepatoma cells HepG2. Furthermore, modulation of autophagy produced similar effects on gAcrp-induced Bax expression in HepG2 cells. These results implicate that induction of autophagy plays a regulatory role in adiponectin-induced apoptosis of cancer cells, and thus inhibition of autophagy would be a novel promising target to enhance the efficiency of cancer cell apoptosis by adiponectin.
TI-I-174, a Synthetic Chalcone Derivative, Suppresses Nitric Oxide Production in Murine Macrophages via Heme Oxygenase-1 Induction and Inhibition of AP-1
Kim, Mi Jin ; Kadayat, Taraman ; Kim, Da Eun ; Lee, Eung-Seok ; Park, Pil-Hoon ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 390~399
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.062
Chalcones (1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones), a flavonoid subfamily, are widely known for their anti-inflammatory properties. Propenone moiety in chalcones is known to play an important role in generating biological responses by chalcones. In the present study, we synthesized chalcone derivatives structurally modified in propenone moiety and examined inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production and its potential mechanisms. Among the chalcone derivatives used for this study, TI-I-174 (3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-1-(thiophen-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one) most potently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitrite production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. TI-I-174 treatment also markedly inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. However, TI-I-174 did not significantly affect production of IL-6, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and tumor necrosis factor-
), implying that TI-I-174 inhibits production of inflammatory mediators in a selective manner. Treatment of macrophages with TI-I-174 significantly inhibited transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) as determined by luciferase reporter gene assay, whereas nuclear factor-
) activity was not affected by TI-I-1744. In addition, TI-I-174 significantly inhibited activation of c-Jun-N-Terminal kinase (JNK) without affecting ERK1/2 and p38MAPK, indicating that down-regulation of iNOS gene expression by TI-I-174 is mainly attributed by blockade of JNK/AP-1 activation. We also demonstrated that TI-I-174 treatment led to an increase in heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression both at mRNA and protein level. Transfection of siRNA targeting HO-1 reversed TI-I-174-mediated inhibition of nitrite production. Taken together, these results indicate that TI-I-174 suppresses NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages via induction of HO-1 and blockade of AP-1 activation.
HD047703, a New Promising Anti-Diabetic Drug Candidate: In Vivo Preclinical Studies
Kim, SoRa ; Kim, Dae Hoon ; Kim, Young-Seok ; Ha, Tae-Young ; Yang, Jin ; Park, Soo Hyun ; Jeong, Kwang Won ; Rhee, Jae-Keol ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 400~405
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.035
G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has emerged as a novel target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. GPR119 is involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the pancreatic b-cells and intestinal cells. In this study, we identified a novel small-molecule GPR119 agonist, HD047703, which raises intracellular cAMP concentrations in pancreatic
-cells and can be expected to potentiate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from human GPR119 receptor stably expressing cells (CHO cells). We evaluated the acute efficacy of HD047703 by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in normal C57BL/6J mice. Then, chronic administrations of HD047703 were performed to determine its efficacy in various diabetic rodent models. Single administration of HD047703 caused improved glycemic control during OGTT in a dose-dependent manner in normal mice, and the plasma GLP-1 level was also increased. With respect to chronic efficacy, we observed a decline in blood glucose levels in db/db, ob/ob and DIO mice. These results suggest that HD047703 may be a potentially promising anti-diabetic agent.
Effects of Atomoxetine on Hyper-Locomotive Activity of the Prenatally Valproate-Exposed Rat Offspring
Choi, Chang Soon ; Hong, Minha ; Kim, Ki Chan ; Kim, Ji-Woon ; Yang, Sung Min ; Seung, Hana ; Ko, Mee Jung ; Choi, Dong-Hee ; You, Jueng Soo ; Shin, Chan Young ; Bahn, Geon Ho ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 406~413
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.027
to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy produces ASD-like core behavioral phenotypes as well as hyperactivity in offspring both in human and experimental animals, which makes it a plausible model to study ASD-related neurobiological processes. In this study, we examined the effects of two of currently available attention defecit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications, methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) targeting dopamine and norepinephrine transporters (DAT and NET), respectively, on hyperactive behavior of prenatally VPA-exposed rat offspring. In the prefrontal cortex of VPA exposed rat offspring, both mRNA and protein expression of DAT was increased as compared with control. VPA function as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that the acetylation of histone bound to DAT gene promoter was increased in VPA-exposed rat offspring suggesting epigenetic mechanism of DAT regulation. Similarly, the expression of NET was increased, possibly via increased histone acetylation in prefrontal cortex of VPA-exposed rat offspring. When we treated the VPA-exposed rat offspring with ATX, a NET selective inhibitor, hyperactivity was reversed to control level. In contrast, MPH that inhibits both DAT and NET, did not produce inhibitory effects against hyperactivity. The results suggest that NET abnormalities may underlie the hyperactive phenotype in VPA animal model of ASD. Profiling the pharmacological responsiveness as well as investigating underlying mechanism in multiple models of ASD and ADHD may provide more insights into the neurobiological correlates regulating the behavioral abnormalities.
Comparison of the Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors on TNF-α Release from Activated Microglia and TNF-α Converting Enzyme Activity
Lee, Eun-Jung ; Moon, Pyong-Gon ; Baek, Moon-Chang ; Kim, Hee-Sun ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 414~419
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.099
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that regulate cell-matrix composition and are also involved in processing various bioactive molecules such as cell-surface receptors, chemokines, and cytokines. Our group recently reported that MMP-3, -8, and -9 are upregulated during microglial activation and play a role as proinflammatory mediators (Lee et al., 2010, 2014). In particular, we demonstrated that MMP-8 has tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-
)-converting enzyme (TACE) activity by cleaving the prodomain of TNF-
and that inhibition of MMP-8 inhibits TACE activity. The present study was undertaken to compare the effect of MMP-8 inhibitor (M8I) with those of inhibitors of other MMPs, such as MMP-3 (NNGH) or MMP-9 (M9I), in their regulation of TNF-
activity. We found that the MMP inhibitors suppressed TNF-
secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells in an order of efficacy: M8I>NNGH>M9I. In addition, MMP inhibitors suppressed the activity of recombinant TACE protein in the same efficacy order as that of TNF-
inhibition (M8I>NNGH>M9I), proving a direct correlation between TACE activity and TNF-
secretion. A subsequent pro-TNF-
cleavage assay revealed that both MMP-3 and MMP-9 cleave a prodomain of TNF-
, suggesting that MMP-3 and MMP-9 also have TACE activity. However, the number and position of cleavage sites varied between MMP-3, -8, and -9. Collectively, the concurrent inhibition of MMP and TACE by NNGH, M8I, or M9I may contribute to their strong anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects.
Protective Effects of Chlorogenic Acid against Experimental Reflux Esophagitis in Rats
Kang, Jung-Woo ; Lee, Sun-Mee ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 420~425
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.066
Esophageal reflux of gastric contents causes esophageal mucosal damage and inflammation. Recent studies show that oxygen-derived free radicals mediate mucosal damage in reflux esophagitis (RE). Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and possesses anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities. In this context, we investigated the effects of CGA against experimental RE in rats. RE was produced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and covering the duodenum near the pylorus ring with a small piece of catheter. CGA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) and omeprazole (positive control, 10 mg/kg) were administered orally 48 h after the RE operation for 12 days. CGA reduced the severity of esophageal lesions, and this beneficial effect was confirmed by histopathological observations. CGA reduced esophageal lipid peroxidation and increased the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio. CGA attenuated increases in the serum level of tumor necrosis factor-
, and expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein. CGA alleviates RE-induced mucosal injury, and this protection is associated with reduced oxidative stress and the anti-inflammatory properties of CGA.
Resveratrol Inhibits IL-6-Induced Transcriptional Activity of AR and STAT3 in Human Prostate Cancer LNCaP-FGC Cells
Lee, Mee-Hyun ; Kundu, Joydeb Kumar ; Keum, Young-Sam ; Cho, Yong-Yeon ; Surh, Young-Joon ; Choi, Bu Young ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 426~430
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.061
Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer. Although prostate tumors respond to androgen ablation therapy at an early stage, they often acquire the potential of androgen-independent growth. Elevated transcriptional activity of androgen receptor (AR) and/or signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) contributes to the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes, on the reporter gene activity of AR and STAT3 in human prostate cancer (LNCaP-FGC) cells stimulated with interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Our study revealed that resveratrol suppressed the growth of LNCaP-FGC cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Whereas the AR transcriptional activity was induced by treatment with either IL-6 or DHT, the STAT3 transcriptional activity was induced only by treatment with IL-6 but not with DHT. Resveratrol significantly attenuated IL-6-induced STAT3 transcriptional activity, and DHT- or IL-6-induced AR transcriptional activity. Treatment of cells with DHT plus IL-6 significantly increased the AR transcriptional activity as compared to DHT or IL-6 treatment alone and resveratrol markedly diminished DHT plus IL-6-induced AR transcriptional activity. Furthermore, the production of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was decreased by resveratrol in the DHT-, IL-6- or DHT plus IL-6-treated LNCaP-FGC cells. Taken together, the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on IL-6- and/or DHT-induced AR transcriptional activity in LNCaP prostate cancer cells are partly mediated through the suppression of STAT3 reporter gene activity, suggesting that resveratrol may be a promising therapeutic choice for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Resveratrol-Enriched Rice Down-Regulates Melanin Synthesis in UVB-Induced Guinea Pigs Epidermal Skin Tissue
Lee, Taek Hwan ; Seo, Jae Ok ; Do, Moon Ho ; Ji, Eunhee ; Baek, So-Hyeon ; Kim, Sun Yeou ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 431~437
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.098
Synthetic compounds that are used in the clinic to regulate skin hyperpigmentation, such as arbutin, hydroquinone, and kojic acid, are only moderately effective. But, their use is limited by side effects. As part of an effort to overcome the limitations, we developed resveratrol-enriched rice (RR) using genetic engineering technique. Each of resveratrol and rice has been reported to produce anti-melanogenic effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that RR would show more anti-melanogenic effects than those of resveratrol or rice alone. Anti-melanogenic effect of RR was done by using melan-a mouse melanocytes. The depigmenting efficacy was then observed following topical application of the RR to UVB-stimulated hyperpigmented dorsal skin of guinea pigs. Treatment with RR extract resulted a
decrease in tyrosinase expression at melan-a cells. Colorimetric analysis showed a significantly lower depigmenting value by day 9 following treatment with RR in UVB-irradiated guinea pigs the dorsal skin (p<0.01), indicating that RR produced a depigmentation effect. By staining with Fontana-Masson stain, we found that the RR-treated group had more effect histopathologically in epidermal melanin production than resveratrol or rice alone-treated group. RR was associated with reduction in the levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and downregulation of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein (TRP-2) expression, leading to inhibit epidermal melanin production by western blot analysis. This study suggests that the resveratrol-enriched rice may be a promising candidate in regulating skin pigmentation with UVB exposure.
The Leaves of Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold Inhibit Atopic Dermatitis-Like Response on Mite Allergen-Treated Nc/Nga Mice
Lee, Hoyoung ; Ha, Hyekyung ; Lee, Jun Kyoung ; Park, Sang-Joon ; Jeong, Seung-Il ; Shin, Hyeun Kyoo ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 438~444
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.023
Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold. (B. kazinoki) has long been used in the manufacture of paper in Asian countries. Although B. kazinoki leaves (BK) have been employed in dermatological therapy, use of BK has not been tested in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). Using Nc/Nga mice, which are genetically predisposed to develop AD-like skin lesions, we confirmed the efficacy of BK in AD treatment. BK extract was applied topically to Dermatophagoides farinae-induced AD-like lesions in Nc/Nga mice, and the effects were assessed both clinically and by measuring skin thickness on the back and ears. We measured the effects of BK extract on plasma levels of IgE and IL-4. We also measured the ability of BK extract to inhibit the secretion of hTARC in HaCaT cells after stimulation by TNF-
. We found that BK extract significantly reduced ear and dorsal skin thickness and the clinical signs of AD, as well as significantly down-regulating the plasma levels of IgE and IL-4 (p<0.01 for each comparison). Moreover,
of BK extract inhibited hTARC secretion in HaCaT cells by activated TNF-
by about 87%. These findings suggest that topical application of BK extract has excellent potential in the treatment of AD.
Dioscorea Extract (DA-9801) Modulates Markers of Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice
Moon, Eunjung ; Lee, Sung Ok ; Kang, Tong Ho ; Kim, Hye Ju ; Choi, Sang Zin ; Son, Mi-Won ; Kim, Sun Yeou ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 445~452
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.051
The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of DA-9801, an optimized extract of Dioscorea species, on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a type 2 diabetic animal model. In this study, db/db mice were treated with DA-9801 (30 and 100 mg/kg, daily, p.o.) for 12 weeks. DA-9801 reduced the blood glucose levels and increased the withdrawal latencies in hot plate tests. Moreover, it prevented nerve damage based on increased nerve conduction velocity and ultrastructural changes. Decrease of nerve growth factor (NGF) may have a detrimental effect on diabetic neuropathy. We previously reported NGF regulatory properties of the Dioscorea genus. In this study, DA-9801 induced NGF production in rat primary astrocytes. In addition, it increased NGF levels in the sciatic nerve and the plasma of type 2 diabetic animals. DA-9801 also increased neurite outgrowth and mRNA expression of Tieg1/Klf10, an NGF target gene, in PC12 cells. These results demonstrated the attenuation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy by oral treatment with DA-9801 via NGF regulation. DA-9801 is currently being evaluated in a phase II clinical study.
Strain Differences in the Chronic Mild Stress Animal Model of Depression and Anxiety in Mice
Jung, Yang-Hee ; Hong, Sa-Ik ; Ma, Shi-Xun ; Hwang, Ji-Young ; Kim, Jun-Sup ; Lee, Ju-Hyun ; Seo, Jee-Yeon ; Lee, Seok-Yong ; Jang, Choon-Gon ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 453~459
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.058
Chronic mild stress (CMS) has been reported to induce an anhedonic-like state in mice that resembles some of the symptoms of human depression. In the present study, we used a chronic mild stress animal model of depression and anxiety to examine the responses of two strains of mice that have different behavioral responsiveness. An outbred ICR and an inbred C57BL/6 strain of mice were selected because they are widely used strains in behavioral tests. The results showed that the inbred C57BL/6 and outbred ICR mice were similarly responsive to CMS treatment in sucrose intake test (SIT) and open field test (OFT). However, the two strains showed quite different responses in forced swimming test (FST) and novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF) test after 3 weeks of CMS treatment. Only C57BL/6 mice displayed the depression- and anxiety-like behavioral effects in response to CMS treatment in FST and NSF test. Our results suggest that there are differences in responsiveness to CMS according to the different types of strain of mice and behavioral tests. Therefore, these results provide useful information for the selection of appropriate behavioral methods to test depression- and anxiety-like behaviors using CMS in ICR and C57BL/6 mice.
Conditioned Place Preference and Self-Administration Induced by Nicotine in Adolescent and Adult Rats
Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad ; de la Pena, June Bryan I. ; Botanas, Chrislean Jun ; Kim, Hee Jin ; Yu, Gu Yong ; Cheong, Jae Hoon ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 460~466
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.056
Nicotine addiction is a worldwide problem. However, previous studies characterizing the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine in animal models have reported inconsistent findings. It was observed that the addictive effects are variable on different factors (e.g. route, dose, and age). Here, we evaluated the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine in different routes of administration, across a wide dose range, and in different age groups. Two of the most widely used animal models of drug addiction were employed: the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests. Nicotine CPP was evaluated in different routes [intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.)], doses (0.05 to 1.0 mg/kg) and age [adolescent and adult rats]. Similarly, intravenous nicotine SA was assessed in different doses (0.01 to 0.06 mg/kg/infusion) and age (adolescent and adult rats). In the CPP test, s.c. nicotine produced greater response than i.p. The 0.2 mg/kg dose produced highest CPP response in adolescent, while 0.6 mg/kg in adult rats; which were also confirmed in 7 days pretreated rats. In the SA test, adolescent rats readily self-administer 0.03 mg/kg/infusion of nicotine. Doses that produced nicotine CPP and SA induced blood nicotine levels that corresponded well with human smokers. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that nicotine produces reliable CPP [0.2 mg/kg dose (s.c.)] in adolescents and [0.6 mg/kg dose (s.c.)] in adults, and SA [0.03 mg/kg/infusion] in adolescent rats. Both tests indicate that adolescent rats are more sensitive to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine.
Protective Effect of Arabinoxylan against Scopolamine-Induced Learning and Memory Impairment
Kim, Chang-Yul ; Lee, Gil-Yong ; Park, Gyu Hwan ; Lee, Jongwon ; Jang, Jung-Hee ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 467~473
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.063
The purpose of this study is to investigate the memory enhancing effect and underlying molecular mechanism of arabinoxylan (AX), a major component of dietary fiber in wheat against scopolamine (SCO)-induced amnesia in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Diverse behavior tests including Y-maze, Morris water maze, and passive avoidance tests were performed to measure cognitive functions. SCO significantly decreased the spontaneous alterations in Y-maze test and step-through latency in passive avoidance test, whereas increased time spent to find the hidden platform in Morris water maze test compared with the sham control group. In contrast, oral administration of AX (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) effectively reversed the SCO-induced cognitive impairments in SD rats. Furthermore, AX treatment up-regulated the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the cortex and hippocampus via promoting activation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Therefore, our findings suggest that AX can improve SCO-induced learning and memory impairment possibly through activation of CREB and up-regulation of BDNF levels, thereby exhibiting a cognition-enhancing potential.
Erratum to "L-Tetrahydropalmatine Ameliorates Development of Anxiety and Depression-Related Symptoms Induced by Single Prolonged Stress in Rats" [Biomol. Ther. 22 (2014) 213-222]
Lee, Bombi ; Sur, Bongjun ; Yeom, Mijung ; Shim, Insop ; Lee, Hyejung ; Hahm, Dae-Hyun ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 474~474
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.474
Erratum to "Microfluidic System Based High Throughput Drug Screening System for Curcumin/TRAIL Combinational Chemotherapy in Human Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells" [Biomol. Ther. 22 (2014) 355-362]
An, Dami ; Kim, Kwangmi ; Kim, Jeongyun ;
Biomolecules and Therapeutics, volume 22, issue 5, 2014, Pages 475~475
DOI : 10.4062/biomolther.2014.475