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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Dec 2003
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Aug 2003
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Apr 2003
Selecting the target year
Isokinetic Evaluation of Knee Muscles in Female Youth Group
Han, Ki-Hoon ; Kim, Hwan-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.001
This study was performed to provide normative isokinetic strength of knee muscles of middle school non-athletic and athletic populations for rehabilitation and pre-season screening for injury prevention. Seven non-athletic subjects and 8 hockey players participated in this investigation. Each subject was tested at speeds of
. The free weight of lower leg was measured at speed of
to take gravity effect Into consideration when peak torque of knee muscles occurred. The results showed that the relative peak torque production of knee flexors did not change but the relative peak torque of knee extensors decreased significantly. Mamstring/quadriceps ratios increased mainly due to significant decreases in knee extensors torque production. No significant differences were found between groups. The hamstring/quadriceps ratios for both groups were significantly lower when the gravity effect was not eliminated.
Kinematic analysis of Ire hockey slap shot
Moon, Gon-Sung ; Park, Chong-Rul ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 13~28
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.013
The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematic characteristics of Ice hockey slap shot. The subjects of this study were four professional ice hockey players. The reflective markers were attached on the anatomical boundary line of body and the subjects were asked to perform the shot. Ariel Performance Analysis System was used to capture and digitize the shooting image, the data were analyzed by LabView 6i. The results were as fellows. 1. The period of the back swing phase was
, the down swing phase was
and the total swing time was
2. The maximum linear velocity of the stick blade for x direction was shown after 7% of impact, for y, z direction were shown before 2%, 8% of Impact. 3. The maximum velocity of each segment for the left arm was
in the upper arm,
in the forearm,
in the hand. 4. The maximum velocity of each segment for the right arm was
in the upper arm,
in the forearm,
in the hand. 5. The angle of left elbow was generally flexed from the ready stance to the impact and was
the moment of Impact. 6. The angle of the left shoulder was increased ut the down swing phase and was
on the moment of impact. 7. The angle of the right shoulder was decreased in the down swing phase and increased before the impact. and the angle was
on the moment of impact.
The kinematics analysis of Discus throwing
Kim, Jong-In ; Sun, Jae-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 29~47
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.029
This study is to analyze the kinematic variables in release motion of discuss throwing. For the matter, 5 people from the national team and collegiate discuss throwing in the year 2001 were chosen as the subjects and two S-VHS video cameras set in 60frames/sec were used for recording their motions. Coordinated raw positions data through digitizing are smoothing by butter-worth 's low-pass filtering method at a cut off frequency 6.0Hz. and the direct linear transformation(DLT) method was employed to obtain 3-D position coordinates. The conclusions were as follows; 1. The better record players showed the shorter approach time in the last support phase. 2. In the displacement CG, the better record players showed the shorter displacement in medial-lateral direction, and the longer displacement in horizontal direction. In the motion, the COG showed longer displacement vertical direction. 3. The better record players showed the faster horizontal velocity than vertical velocity in the release. 4. The better record players showed to take the posture of vertical axis in the release.
A Kinematical Analysis of Side Kick Motion in Taekwondo
Park, Kwang-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 49~63
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.049
For this study, four male university Taekwondo players were randomly chosen, between the weight categories of 60Kg and 80Kg. Their side kicks (yeop chagi), which are part of foot techniques, were kinematically analyzed in terms of the time, angle, and angular velocity factors involved with the kicks through the three-dimensional imaging. The results of the analysis are as fellows. 1. Time factor The first phase(preparation) was 0.48sec on average, accounting for 60% of the entire time spent; the second phase(the minimum angle of the knee joint) was 0.21sec on average, taking up 26% of the whole time spent; and the third phase(hitting) was 0.11sec on average, representing 14% of the entire time spent. 2. Angle factor In the first phase(preparation), rotating their bodies along the long axis, the players bended their hip and knee joints a lot, by moving fast in the vertical and horizontal directions, in the second phase(the minimum angle of the knee joint), the players continued to extend their bodies along the vertical axis, while pronating their lower legs and bending their hip and knee joints a lot to reduce the radius of gyration, and in the third phase(hitting), they extended their knee joints greatly so that the angle movements of their lower bodies shifted to circle movements. 3. Angular velocity factor In the first phase(preparation), the angular velocity of the hip and knee joints increased. while moving horizontally and rotating the body along the long axis; in the second phase(the minimum angle of the knee joint), the angular velocity increased by bending the hip and knee joints fast to reduce the rotation radios; and in the third phase(hitting), the angular velocity was found to have increased, by rotating the body along the long axis to increase the angular velocity and shifting the angular momentum of the pronated knee joint to the circular momentum.
Comparison of the Kinematic Variables in the Badminton Smash Motion
So, Jae-Moo ; Han, Sang-Min ; Seo, Jin-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 65~74
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.065
The purpose of this study was to analyze kinematic variables in the badminton smash motion through 3-dimensional image analysis. The kinematic variables were velocity of joints in upper limbs, the angle of wrist in the impact, and the angular velocity of the top of racket head. The smash motions of four male badminton players in H University and four male students at department of the physical education in K University who were not majoring in badminton were analyzed kinematically and the attained conclusions were as follow. 1. The velocity of segments in upper limbs of the unskilled group was faster than that of the skilled group. The movement pattern was fast back swing-slow impact moment-fast fellow through in the unskilled group, but slow back swing-fast impact moment-slow follow through in the sullied group. 2. As the BS phases, the velocity of segment in right shoulder was different significantly between groups. Right elbow and right wrist segments, velocity of racket head was different significantly between groups(p<.05) by IP phases. As the FT phases, there was no significant difference. 3. The angle of right wrist at the impact, the angle of palm flexion and the angle of palm flexion in aspect were shown that the skilled group was higher than unskilled group. There was no significant difference. 4. The velocity of racket head was shown that the unskilled group has fast velocity, but the angle velocity was shown the unskilled group has slow. 5. The angle velocity of racket head in aspect were no significant difference between groups, but maximal angle velocity was different significantly between groups(p<.05).
Analysis of Successful Landing of the Salto Backward Dismount on the Parallel Bars
Han, Yoon-Soo ; Lee, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 75~87
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.075
The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanical factors that are crucial to the successful double salto backward piked dismount on the parallel bars. The subjects were 5 national gymnasts(G1: sucessed landing, G2: failed landing), two video cameras were used to record the dismount of the subjects. It summarizes that (a) It is important to make small slope angle(X axis, Y axis) at release, whereas it makes large shoulder angle and trunk rotation angle. (b) It is important to prepare landing in advance, reducing vertical velocity and making large hip angle at BTO(body take off). (c) It is also important to make small knee angle and hip angle, and reduce the angle of trunk rotation.
A Kinematical Analysis of Forward Handspring Motion
Bae, Nam-Eun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 89~100
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.089
In this research was to analyze 3-D kinematics variables for handspring of basic motion in the heavy gymnastics in order to investigate kinematical difference between expert and novice. Therefore, the purpose of this research was provide quantitative information, systematic provision, rules, establishment of basic skill for improving skill and teaching athletes. And in the research, results were as followings. 1. In the time variables, total time was that expert took 0.745sec and novice took 0.829sec, and as duration time of each event, expert was faster than novice in the all motion event except till second event of the preparation motion. 2. In the center of body variables, vertical direction variables, the displacement of body center hight was that expert showed 61.26% and novice showed 54.48% in the third event of all motion, also all event were showed expert was higher displacement than novice except first of event in preparatory stage. 3. In the angle displacement of main joint, the right direction was that expert showed 154.12degree and novice showed 174.85degree and the left direction was that expert showed 159.29degree and novice showed 171.46degree In the second event of main joint curved point at the same time hand was reached floor. In the angle displacement of knee joint in the third event of all motion, expert showed 155.25degree and novice showed 154.00degree In right, and expert showed 155.24degree and novice showed 154.55degree in left. In this result, both were same motion type. In the angle displacement of hip joint in the third event of the all motion, expert showed 142.80degree and novice showed 134.17degree in right, and expert showed 140.28degree and novice showed 144.94degree in left. In this result, motion pattern of expert was same both sides, but novice was different. According to the results, to increase efficiency of motion and aesthetic effect in the all motion, it should stretch displacement and height of body center and make similarly angle of right and left joint.
A Kinematic analysis of Golf Swing Motion
Shin, Sung-Hyu ; Ko, Seok-Kon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 101~114
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.101
The purpose of this study was to examine the major kinematicak variance to Increase the club head velocity during the driver swing two PGA prp-golfers utilizing 3-dimensional Image analyzing linear velocity of the club-head during the impact quantiatively. To achive these purpose, two high speed camera in 120 field/s and one high-speed camera in 500 field/s were used in this study. The program made by Younghoo Kwon(1944) was used to analysis the digitalization of reference point, digitalization of joint venter, synchronization, calculation of 3-Dimensional coordinate by DLT method, and smoothing. Through this study, the conclusions are as follow. 1. During the drivel swing, in the percentile of the total time, two pro-golfer showed 0.925, 0.929 second from adress to top-swing, 0.236, 0.929 second from top-swing to impact. 2. During the driver swing, in the displacement of the center of the body, two pro-golfer showed 45.3, 45.23% from adress, 44.3, 44.24% front impact. 3. In the velocity variance, The maximum club-head velocity two pro-golfer showed 43.36, 43.24m/s respectively the down swing. The ball velocity showed 63.12, 63.06m/s. 4. In the rotational angle of the shoulder joint. two pro-golfer showed
, during the back swing respectively. Two subject adressed opening status og upper body. 5. In the rotational angle of the right knee angle showed
from the adress.
Electromyography Analysis of Muscle Activities of tower limb for Crouching Start Technique
Shin, Sung-Hyu ; Park, Ki-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 115~122
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.115
The purposes of this study were to analyze the muscle activities and the characteristics of muscle recruting patterns of lower limb for crouching start technique using four elite splint. The EMG technique was used to record muscle activities of both right and left sides of retus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius. Eight surface electrodes were placed on the surface of the selected muscles and one ground electrode was also attached on the back of neck(C7). One video camera was also used to record the crouching start motion to define 6 events and 5 phases for further analysis. The raw EMG data were filtered with band pass filter(10-350) to remove artifacts and then low pass filtered(4Hz) to find the linear envelope which resemble muscle tension curve. This filter EMG data were normalized to MVIC for the purpose of comparison between right and left sides muscle. The results of this study were as follows. All four subjects showed that vastus medialis muscle activity was comparatively higher than those of retus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius. And left side of muscle activity was comparatively higher than right side of muscle activity. Therefore, when the subjects starting out crouching start position, we recognized that the muscle of lower limb showed interaction effect by each muscle.
An Analysis of Starting Motions in Time 300m Inline Skating
Park, Ki-Beom ; Yang, Jeong-Ok ; Lee, Joong-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 123~137
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.123
This study is to present more effective starting skills through analysis of kinematic characteristics of starting motions in 300m Time Trials of Inline Skating. To achieve this goal, 6 athletes, 3 in the national team and 3 in business teams were chosen and their starting motions were examined with three-dimensional image analyses. The results of analyses in regard of positions and speed of the bodily center and angles, angular velocity, and linear velocity of articulations of lower limbs by sections of starting motions are as follows: In case of the central position, though it is effective to reduce the air resistance by lowering the upper part of the body maximumly, it is reasonable to accelerate by raising the upper part of the body to some degree for the running posture at the lower speed in the starting section. In the starting section, it is efficient to minimize the period of time in touching the ground. for this, it is necessary to train for taking motions without slippage while touching the ground. While 3 athletes in business teams kicked the ground as running right after the starting, the others in the national team slid on the ground. As the number of steps increased, the movable speed changed quickly. Thus the movable speed of athletes in the national team indicated big differences in two to three steps. If these factors are well supported, the push-away starting method might be better than the running starting method in terms of improvement of records.
Kinematic Analysis of Badminton Smashing Between the Skilled and the Unskilled
Ryew, Che-Cheong ; Kim, Ik-Sang ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 139~160
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.139
The purpose of this study was to suggest the guideline for scientific and quantitative skill acquisition methods of badminton smashing so that the novice could learn the motions of badminton smashing efficiently. The subject participated consisted of total 6 middle school students of the stilled(3) and the unskilled(3). The cinematographical experimental & Analysis equipments used in the study were composed of two Model D-5100 Video Cameras, a control point, a synchronization timer and Kwon3d motion analysis system. The conclusions obtained were as follows, 1. It was necessary for the unskilled to learn the smashing impact phase in situation of max. velocity of COG in order to minimize the timing loss phase. 2. Particularly. The power from segments of Power Zone must participate in utilization in sequence of order of trunk-upper arm- forearm-hand-racket segment in both the skilled and the unskilled.. 3. Therefore it was necessary for the unskilled to do smashing practice for cumulated sum of absolute & relative velocity transfer into shuttle cock after adjusting anterior-posterior tilting angle and max timing, in sequence of segment recruited.
Sport biomechanical comparative analyses between general sporting shoe and functional walking shoe
Choi, Kyoo-Jeong ; Kwon, Hee-Ja ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 161~173
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.161
This study was performed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic differences between functional walking shoe(FWS) and general sports shoe(GSS). The subjects for this study were 4 male adults who had the walking pattern of rearfoot strike with normal feet. The movement of one lower leg was measured using force platform and 3 video cameras while the subjects walked at the velocity of 2/1.5 m/s. The findings of this study were as follows 1. The angle of lower leg-ground and angle of knee with FWS was greater than with GSS at the moment of strike the floor and the moment of second peak ground reaction force. The decreasing rate of angle of ankle was smaller in FWS from the strike phase to the second peak ground reaction force. These mean upright walking and round walking along the shoe surface. 2. The maximal Increased angle of Achilles tendon and the minimal decreased angle of rearfoot were smaller in FWS very significantly(p<0.001). Thus FWS prevent the excessive pronation of ankle and have good of rear-foot control. 3. The vortical ground reaction force and the rate of it to the BW were smaller in FWS statistically(p<0.001). The loading rate was smaller in FWS, too, and thess represent the reduction of load on ankle joint and prevention of injuries on it.
Changes of the Kinetic Energy of Putter Head and Ball Movements during the Process of Impact
Park, Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 2, 2003, Pages 175~183
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.2.175
The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetic energy of putter head and ball movements during the process of impact. Highly skilled 5 golfers(less than 1 handicap) participated in this study and the target distance was 3 m. Movements of ball and putter head were recorded with 2 VHS video cameras(60 Hz, 1/500 s shutter speed). Small control object(
) was used in this sdtuldy. Analyzing the process of impact, putter was digitized before 0.0835 s and after 0.0835 s of impact. Ball was digitized 0.1336 s after impact. The results showed that the maximum speed was appeared at Impact and prolonged for a while. Contact point of the club head was within 0.7 cm to the z axis. After contacting the club head, the ball was moved above the ground level(slide) and returned to the ground with sliding and rolling. After contacting the ground, the speed of ball was relied on the surface of the ground. During impact, 70% of kinetic energy of club head has been transferred to the ball.