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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Dec 2003
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Aug 2003
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Apr 2003
Selecting the target year
Mechanical principles and motions for increasing the height of Fosbury flop
Sung, Rak-Jun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 1~14
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.001
This study was conducted to investigate the principles and motions for increasing the jumping height of Fosbury Flop. The subjects were three male jumpers who were former Korean national team players. Their jumping motions were analyzed using the DLT method of three-dimensional cinematography. The conclusions were as follows. 1. The horizontal velocity of approach run and decreasing of this velocity during the take off phase were increased as the jumping height was increased. Therefore, in order to increase the jumping height, the horizontal velocity of approachrun should be increased and decreased properly during the take-off phase. The average height of the analyzed Dials was 2.15m. The average horizontal velocity of approachrun was 7.49m/s and decreased to 4.16m/s at the instance of take-off. 2. The vertical velocity of the center of gravity was increased as the ascending height of the center of gravity during the take-off phase was increased. Therefore, the center of gravity at the instant of touch down should be lowered. This could be possible by increasing the length of the last stride and the backward lean angle of the body. The average length of the last stride was 111.1% of the standing height, the average height of the center of gravity was 46.6% of the standing height and the average backward lean angle of the body was 40.3 degrees.
Kinematical Analysis of Men`s Pole Vault Event
Lim, Kyu-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 15~26
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.015
This study was conducted to investigate the performance times, CM position and CM speed, pole chord length and pole chord angle, whole body angular momentum(X axis), and grip width in pole vault event according to the event and phase; touch down, pole plant, take-off, maximum pole bending pole straight, pole release, peak height, and foot contact, pole contact, free flight. The pole vaulting of four male elite vaulters including six trial were filmed using two video digital cameras at 60 Hz at 56th national athletic match, and data were collected through the DLT method of three dimensional cinematography. In general the better jumper is, the longer the performance time is. And the greater CM speed is, and the better his transformation ability of CM horizontal speed into vertical speed is. As he uses a longer pole, his grip is higher, and it is a enough for him to rock back his body, so that he pulls and pushes the pole well keeping his hips close to. An greater maximum angular momentum and early positioning of the hips parallel to the bar makes his body far side of the bar and his bar clearance easier. Specially our national jumper needs to have more powerful braking force during foot contact phase, and take his body on the pole after maximum pole bending, and pull and push the pole strongly keeping his hips close to. Also he needs to have stronger muscular strength in order to control the longer pole and use the pole of proper tension more efficiently.
The Relationship between Kinematics of the Limb motions and Changes in the Velocity of the Center of Gravity of the Whole Body during Support Phase in the Triple Jump
Ryu, Jae-Kyun ; Jung, Chul-Jung ; Park, Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 27~46
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.027
The purposes of this study were to determine the functions of actions of the limbs during each of the three support phases of the triple jump and their relationships with the performance of the triple jump. Four elite male triple jumpers were participated as subjects. The statistical analyses used were the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient for establishing relationships and simple regression analyses to determine and compare the relationships between the change of the horizontal velocity and the change of the vertical velocity during different support phases. A level of significance at p<.05 was set. The actions of the arms were responsible for about 25%, 25%, and 30% of the decrease in the horizontal velocity of the whole body center of gravity during the support phases of the hop, step, and jump, respectively. The change in the velocities of the whole body center of gravity due to the actions of the free limbs were significantly related with the whole body center of gravity during each support phase. The action of the support leg was associated with the decrease in the horizontal velocity and the increase in the vertical velocity of the whole body center of gravity during each support phase.
The Kinematic Analysis of the Hand spring forward and Salto forward straight with 3/2 Turn on the Vault
Yeo, Hong-Chul ; Yoon, Hee-Joong ; Ryu, Ji-Seon ; Jung, Chul-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 47~65
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.047
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of the kinematical and the kinetical factors that calculated from preflight to postflight of salto forward straight 3/2 turn motion between skitters and less-skitters. four S-VHS video cameras operating at 60Hz were used to record the performances. five elite male gymnasts were participated in this study as subjects. three-dimensional coordinates of 20 body landmarks during each trial were collected using a Direct Linear Transformation method. The digitized body landmarks were smoothed using a Butterworth second order with low pass digital filter and a cutoff frequency of 10Hz. 1. A skitter, got a high score for performance, showed shorter time and faster horizontal velocity than a less-skitter at the board contact. also, a skitter extended quickly his knee and hip joint after contacting board for preflight phase. 2. A skitter revealed faster time and horizontal velocity the vault from taking off board than a less-skiller. A skitter took a long time and high distance to get the vertical peak compared with a less-skiller. 3. For the second phase, a skitter, who executes the most optimal motions among the subjects, displayed a long flight time, a high height, and a far flight distance as well as maintaining consistent horizontal speed even at the peak of post flight. On the other side, a less-scorer displayed a slow vertical velocity, distance and a short time at the point of take-off from vault as well as low height at the peak of post flight.
Kinematical analysis of Yurchenko Streched at Horse Vaulting
Yoon, Chang-Sun ; Kim, Tae-Sam ; Yoon, Hee-Joung ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 67~79
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.067
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effective skill motion through the kinematic analysis of the Yurchenko Streched motion in new horse vaulting. The subjects in this study were 3 male gymnasts who were ranked as national athletes. After the 3D motion analysis, kinematic variables were analyzed to comparison with the difference between this study and the previous study(Yang, D. Y and Lee, C. S, 1999). As a result, the following conclusions was drawn; 1. In the board contact phase, this study showed a shorten contact time to maintain in condition highly extension of hip and hee angle than the previous study. 2. In the pre-flight phase, this study appeared more shortly flight duration time and horizontal flight displacement than the previous study. 3. In the horse contact phase, the contact duration time and horizontal displacement of COG shortened than the previous study, but appeared to the fast horizontal and vertical velocity and highly extension of shoulder an. 4. In the post-flight phase, a stable horse contact appeared to the increase of the flight duration time and the apex height during the post-flight. And it showed that these results have a stable and good landing.
The Kinematical Analysis of Li Xiaopeng Motion in Horse Vaulting
Park, Jong-Hoon ; Yoon, Sang-Moon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 81~98
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.081
The purpose of this study is to closely examine kinematic characteristics by jump phase of Li Xiaopeng motion in horse vaulting and provide the training data. In doing so, as a result of analyzing kinematic variables through 3-dimensional cinematographic using the high-speed video camera to Li Xiaopeng motion first performed at the men`s vault competition at the 14th Busan Asian Games, the following conclusion was obtained. 1. It was indicated that at the post-flight, the increase of flight time and height and twisting rotational velocity has a decisive effect on the increase of twist displacement. And Li Xiaopeng motion showed longer flight time and higher flight height than Ropez motion with the same twist displacement of entire movement. Also the rotational displacement of the trunk at peak of COG was much short of
(one rotation) but twist displacement showed
. Likewise, Li Xiaopeng motion was indicated to concentrate on twist movement in the early flight. 2. It was indicated that at the landing, Li Xiaopeng motion gets the hip to move back, the trunk to stand up and the horizontal velocity of COG to slow down. This is thought to be the performance of sufficient landing, resulting from large security of rotational displacement of airborne and twist displacement. 3. It was indicated that at the board contact, Li Xiaopeng motion made a rapid rotation uprighting the trunk to recover slowing velocity caused by jumping with the horse in the back, and has already twisted the trunk nearly close to
at board contact. Under the premise that elasticity is generated without the change of the feet contacting the board, it will give an aid to the rotation and twist of pre-flight. Thus, in the round-oH phase, the tap of waist according to the fraction and extension of hip joint and arm push is thought to be very important. 4. It was indicated that at the pre-flight, Li Xiaopeng motion showed bigger movement than the techniques of precedented studies rushing to the horse, and overcomes the concern of relatively low power of jump through the rapid rotation of the trunk. Li Xiaopeng motion secured much twist distance, increased rotational distance with the trunk bent forward, resulting in the effect of rushing to the horse. 5. At horse contact, Li Xiaopeng motion makes a short-time contact, and maintains horse take-off angle close to vertical, contributing to the increase of post-flight time and height. This is thought to be resulted from rapid move toward movement direction along with the rotational velocity of trunk rapidly earned prior to horse contact, and little shave of rotation axis according to twist motion because of effective twist in the same direction.
The Kinematics Analysis of Round-off at end of Beam-salto Backward Stretched with Step-out to Cross on Balance Beam
Kim, Young-Ran ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 99~116
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.099
The purpose of this study was to kinematics factors on during round-off at end of beam-salto backward stretched with step-out to cross on balance beam. Four elite female gymnastics players participated as subject of this study. The methods of this study was analyzed using three dimentional analysis. The results and conclusion of this paper is obtained as follows ; 1. The phase of time was the most short time in board touch down phase and board take-off phase. Also, it was shown a more long time in total time compared to previous study. 2. The horizontal displacement of each phase was shown the most high levels in balance beam landing. The vertical displacement was display a non-linearity increase in board take-of phase, and it was shown the most high levels in vertical displacement during landing of balance beam. 3. The horizontal velocity of each phase was shown the most high levels in board touch down, and it was display a gradually decreased levels because flight during board take-of. The resultant velocity of CG on each phase was shown the most high levels in board touch down and board take-off. 4. The angle of hip joint was shown the most high levels as performed a motion in extension state during board take-off, and the angle of knee joint was display a increased levels because of flight cause body extension in board take-off. Also the angle of ankle joint was shown a increasing levels during board take-off. Considering to this results, it is suggest that the change of kinematics factors in board touch down and board take-off is key role on the effective board control.
Range Simulation on Spin Effort of golfball
Han, Tae-Jong ; Kim, Yong-Sun ; Lee, Soon-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 117~131
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.117
This study simulated the range of golf ball with different projection angles using a drive swing condition. For the simulation purpose, the differential equation of dynamics was induced by using Bernoulli`s principle and average back spin frequency, instant velocity, and dimple of golf ball from amateur group, professional group, and Tiger Woods were chosen as the initial condition. The study result indicated that lift coefficient(
) relative to drag coefficient (
), 0.3 of differential equation was applied differently in terms of back spin Sequency, and when
was 0.4 for amateur, 0.5 for professional, and 0.7 for Tiger Woods the projection ranges of ball were closely matched with initial condition. With selected
and back spin frequency of initial condition, the ranges with different projection angle was measured as 193m (
) for amateur, 240m (
), professional and 273m (
)Tiger Woods, respectively. For the range in terms of back spin frequency and projection angle, the amateur group indicated relatively high spin frequency (70 RPS) and showed the maximal range (195m) with
of projection angle. The tendency of longer range with higher projection angle was also found under the different conditions of spin frequency in this group. The professional group showed their maximal range (245m) with conditions of 60RPS of spin frequency and
of projection angle. Their range was decreased dramatically when the spin frequency was reduced to 40-50 RPS. For Tiger Woods, the maximal range was found with 40RPS of spin frequency and the range was decreased notably when the spin frequency was above 40RPS.
Kinematical Analysis of Pitching wedge swing motion in University Golfer
Back, Jin-Ho ; Yoon, Dong-Seob ; Kim, Jae-Phil ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 133~149
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.133
The purposes of present study were to determine the major check-points of golf swing from the review of previous studies, and to suggest additional information on the teaching theory of golf. The golf swing motion of 6 male and female elite university golf players were filmed with 16mm Locam II high speed cameras at the speed of 200f/s, and variables such as time, displacement, angle, velocity were calculated and analyzed by 3D Cinematography using DLT method. The results were: 1. Differences were shown in the ratio of weight distribution on the feet, cocking angle, take-back velocity, club-head velocity at impact depending upon the physical characteristics and club used for swing. 2. Time for the down-swing and impact were
in men and
in women, which was 1/3 of the time for the back-swing. Women showed longer total swing time than men because of longer time in back-swing, follow-through and finish. 3. Men showed larger range of motion in shoulder and knee joints than women, on the other hand women showed larger range of motion in hip joint than men. 4. Cocking motion and right elbow flexion were occurred at the top of back-swing and cocking release was occurred at the moment of impact. Maximum rotations of shoulder and hip joints were found between the top of back-swing and down-swing phase. 5. Women showed lower back-swing velocity than men, and men showed higher club velocity(men:
) than women.
The Frequency of Sport Injury for the Junior Elite Golf Players in Korea
Lim, Young-Tae ; Seo, Hee-Jin ; Park, Chan-Hee ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 151~162
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.151
The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of sports injury among Korean junior elite golf players. The survey was made through the questionnaire which consist of eight categories and 280 valid answers were used to perform frequency analysis. The results indicated that 197 out of 280 participants experienced golf injuries (30%: during a game, 70%: during a practice) and 70% of them also experienced injuries within a year. The frequency analysis for the site of injury has shown that back was the most vulnerable area for all players(33%), followed by the right wrist, left shoulder and elbow for male players. Among female players, left wrist was the second weak site of injury, followed by the right wrist, right thoracic spine, and left shoulder. A few of them also have shown abnormal symptoms of ruptured lumbar disk, scoliosis, and lordosis and these injuries might be caused by the lack of flexibility and the fatigue due to over-practice. High frequency of wrist injury also demonstrated that excessive chopping or punching shot and poor environmental course conditions may cause this injury to be common. Overall, lack of warm up time, lack of strength and flexibility, and excessive amount of practice were the major reasons of injury for the junior elite golfers in Korea. The study also proved that these young Korean golfers actually had more chances to be faced with the injury than average. Thus, it is necessary to develop systematic and scientific methods of training, and prevention, treatment of these injuries with medical professionals.
A Kinematic Analysis of Gait Patterns between the Normal Men and the Lower Limb Handicapped
Kim, Moo-Young ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 163~180
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.163
This paper aims at collecting the guantitative data of kenematic variables by analysing the gait patterns of the normal adult men and the handicapped. The gait motions were taped with 4 video cameras, the cinematographic analyses were performed by the DLT technique of three dimensional image treatment. The following results were obtained in the analysis of the variables: 1. The ratio of stance time and swing time did not show any significant difference in the groups of the normal men and the handicapped when both foot of the former and the right feet of the latter were compared. The stride peeriod time of these two groups were 1.12 and 1.11 second, respectively. 2. In the handicapped group, the step width was wider, the step length and stride length were shorter, and especially, the step length of the right foot was shorter, 3. The small vertical displacement of left toes of the handicapped group showed that the heal contact and the left midstance are almost simultaneous. 4. The two groups have almost the same horizontal displacement of the center of gravity and the same vertical rate of extension. In view of the velocity of the center of gravity the normal adults showed the constant speed of movement. However, the handicapped adults were reduced from the right midstance to the right toe-off. 5. The handicapped showed prominently low angle on the left toe-off in the ankle joint angle, they also had the tendency to walk in the patterns of extended knee in the knee joint angle. Both the handicapped and the normal had the hyperextension on the toe-off in the hip joint angle. In the back and front angle of body, both showed the slightly back-sided walking positions. 6. Both groups had the abduction of both feet in foot placement angle, but the handicapped did not show serious abduction of left midstance.
A Kinematic Analysis of the Upper-limb Motion of Wheelchair Basketball Free Throw Shooting
Han, Hee-Chang ; Yoon, Hee-Joong ; Lee, Hoon-Pyo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 181~197
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.181
The Purpose of this study was to examine the kinematic analysis of the upper-limb motion of wheelchair basketball free throw shooting. Three-dimensional kinematic data were obtained from 8 male wheelchair basketball players performing a successful free throw. Players were divided into three groups, according to their IWBF classification(Group 1: 1 point players, Group 2: 2-2.5point players and Group 3:3.5-4 point players) Wheelchair basketball free throw motions were taken by video camera. The three-dimensional coordinates was processed by DLT. Players from Group 1 and 2 tended to release the ball from a lower height, with greater velocity and release angle. Players from Group 1 showed greater shoulder horizontal adduction and horizontal abduction angle, wrist ulnar flexion and radial flexion angle, and trunk angle. but players from Group 2 appeared lower shoulder abduction. Upper limb angular velocity showed most greatly in hands from Group 1, upperarm from Group 2, and forearm from Group 3.
Analysis of the 500M Short track speed skating starting motion according to the center of gravity position ratio
Back, Jin-Ho ; Chung, Nam-Ju ; Han, Ki-Hoon ; Lee, Yong-Goo ; Yoon, Dong-Seob ; Lee, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 199~215
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.199
The purpose of this study was to attempt new starting motion and supply present starting motion in the 500M short track speed skating according to the center of gravity position. The center of gravity position ratio was divided starting motion into five(type A : front 80%-back 20%, type B front 70%-back 30%, type C : front 50%-back 50%, type D : front 30%-back 70%, type E : front 20%-back 80%). The three dimension motion analysis with DLT(direct linear transformation) method was executed using two video cameras. The following conclusion was that It was appear that reaction and execution time in starting motion was the most short in type B. It was characteristic that step of skaters was shorten and center of gravity position ratio was not effect to change of the step in each event. It was appear that the displacement of type D and type E were longer than that type A and type B during the starting motion. It was appear that skill types of center of gravity position ratio to the front were lower than that to the back and contract a posture. Observing the above, it was conclusion that skill type B of center of gravity position ratio to the tent was more effect than that to the back. But it is important that these skill type was most used to the competition and estimate the result.
A Kinematic Analysis on Clear & Drop Motion of Badminton
Song, Joo-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 217~229
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.217
The purpose of this study was to present the basic data on improving the skills for 3 junior high school national badminton players in clear and drop motion through the 3-dimensional image analysis. Therefore, the results of this study are as follows: 1. In the duration times per phase, subject C relatively showed a similar time between clear and drop motion. Accordingly, C took a more effective motion than A and B. 2. In the velocities of racket head, subject A and C showed similar changes relatively. However, in case of subject B, the velocity was decreased before back swing(E2) and increased until impact(E3). 3. Regardless of clear and drop motion, the changing phases of joint angle for wrist and elbow showed similar changes comparatively. 4. In the angles of upper body, clear motion was average 85.0 degree and drop one was average 80.7 degree during the impact(E3). Hence, it showed that drop motion hit the ball bowing the upper body more than clear one. 5. In the angles of racket head, clear motion was average 87.7 degree and drop one was average 85.6 degree during the impact(E3). Consequently, drop motion was impacted forward more than clear one.
Statistical Analysis of Soccer Game
Lim, Bee-Oh ; Chung, Chul-Soo ; Shin, In-Sik ; Yoon, Jae-Man ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 231~239
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.231
Evaluation of performance characteristics in the seeress of team attack during volleyball game
Lee, Ki-Chung ; Lee, Jong-Kyung ; Chun, Young-Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 241~252
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.241
The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance characteristics in the success of team attack during volleyball game. Three dimensional analysis was performed with games of business teams. Analyzed variables were followed by the movement distance of a setter when A-quick was occurred, the position during the spike, the possibility area during the attack, the right and left distance of the assistance attacker, the distance between attacker and blocker, and the distance between blockers each others. 1. It is recommended that the movement distance of the setter be decreased in order to make stable set condition. 2. In order to make one person blocking, the formation was to be consisted of the right and left formation which was associated with the progressive attack performance of the assistance attacker. 3. It is useful to widen attack area. Also it is necessary to improve the enhancement of passing the ball against the blocking of an opponent player. Finally, it is necessary to develop kinematic variables to evaluate performance characteristics of players. Further study may consider the best defense position against the attack of the opponent player.
Comparative Analysis of Open- Spike between Excellent and Non-excellent Players in Volleyball
Kim, Chang-Bum ; Kim, Young-Suk ; Shin, Jun-Yong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 253~264
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.253
This study aims at finding the structure of spike technique by analysing comparatively the spike action by excellent and by non-excellent players throughout the section from a flying jump to the time of landing for the correct analysis of spike action and tries to help athletes and coaches to execute a scientific training. For the objected person of this study, six of H College athletes three of excellent athletes and three of non-excellent athletes, presently registered as athlete with the Korea Volleyball federation) were chosen, and the factors of analysis were analysed upon performance time of action by section, human body centered displacement, change of articulation angle, speed change of articulation of the upper limbs, uniformity of the articulation of the upper limbs upon impact, etc. The conclusion of this study is as follow: 1. In the time required for taking action, it shows to take
seconds for the group of excellent athletes and
seconds for the group of non-excellent athletes. Although there was not big difference between two groups in the performance time of action, it showed that the group of excellent athletes takes longer compared to the group of non-excellent athletes. And it was found by the result of this study that the group of excellent athletes stays longer in the duration of flight. 2. In the displacements of horizontal movement and vertical movement, it was found that the group of excellent athletes have moved more than the group of non-excellent athletes in the horizontal movement of the center of human body 3. In the angles of wrist and knee, it was found that the excellent athletes have shown little than the non-excellent athletes in the entire sections, but that in the angle of elbow, the non-excellent athletes have shown bigger than the excellent athletes.. 4. In the speed of the articulation of the upper limbs upon impact, it was found that the group of excellent athletes have shown bigger than the group of non-excellent athletes, and that in the maximum value of the articulation of the upper limbs, the maximum value for the hand was indicated upon impact and that forearm and upper arm have shown the maximum value just before the impact. 5. In the uniformity of articulation of the upper limbs at the time of impact, the group of excellent athletes showed bigger than the group of non-excellent athletes in all the articulations.
Analysis of Muscle Contribution on Snatch Motion
Kang, Chan-Keum ; Park, Eun-Hye ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 265~276
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.265
The objective of this research is to provide basic data for improving athletic performances, suggesting methods that can be utilized at games and coaching movements in the snatch, by analyzing the level of contribution of muscles to the movements of the snatch lift through three-dimensional imaging and EMG analysis between skilled and unskilled lifters. To this end, three high school students (the skilled group), three middle school student (the unskilled group) were selected; two digital video cameras and electromyography were used. The muscles measured by an EMG include gastrocnemius muscle, biceps femoris muscle, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi muscle, trapezius muscle, and brachioradialis. Based on the Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) program, the results of the analysis are summarized as follows. 1. In performing snatch pulls, the skilled lifters were found to simultaneously move the weight centers of the body and the barbell close to vertical, close to the shoulders in the pulling portion; in snatching and grabbing the barbell from a sited position, it was observed that the shorter the time for adjusting to change in the height of the barbell by using rotational inertia, the better it is to perform the movements. 2. The skilled lifters were observed to perform stable and efficient movements in grabbing the bar in a sited position, by moving the barbell and weight center of the body close to vertical and moving the shoulder joint under the bar fast. 3. The results of the EMG analysis of the entire movements from the snatching portion to the portion of grabbing the bar in a sited position show that when the skilled lifters lifted the barbell vertically during the pulling portion, their shoulder joints were extended to put more weight on biceps femoris muscle and brachioradialis; and in snatching and grabbing the bar from a sited position, it was found desirable to increase the myoelectrical activity of erector spinae in order to achieve a balance in the movements of the hip joint between font and rear, as the weight centers of the body and the barbell move higher. On the other hand, the unskilled lifters were found that in response to change in posture, they increase their muscular strength inefficiently in performing the movements throughout the entire lifting process.
Kinematic Analysis of Marche Fente Motion in a Fleuret Attack Technique
An, Sang-Young ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 277~291
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.277
This study was designed to examine the kinematic factors in the phase during the marche fente motion. For this study, the subjects were 5 elite male fencing players. The direct linear transformation (DLT) method was used in calculating 3-D coordinate of the digitized body parts. The cubic spline function was used for smoothing and the kinematic data for displacement, velocity, angle variables were calculated for Kwon3d ver 2.1. And the following conclusions were drawn; 1. It show that the marche phase appeared to longer time than the pante phase In the performance time. For the fast attack, it showed that the subjects should be moving in a short stride width. 2. For a fast and stable movement posture in the marche phase, the vertical change of COG must be maintain the same position as possible, but all subjects appeared to decrease the COG because of a excessive the knee flection. 3. In the COG velocity change, all the subjects showed to the same change in both the marche and the fente phase. However in the attack extremity velocity, it increased velocity in order of upper arm, fore arm, and hand in the marche phase, but it showed different velocity among each subjects at the moment of stabbing. So that in order to do effective stabbing, they have to extend their upper extremity max and do faster the distal segment than the proximal segment. 4. It showed to take a fast and stable movement, because some subjects showed the big anteroposterior angle of the trunk flexed max shoulder angle and elbow angle of their attack arm and the other upper extremity.
The Case Study of A Kinematic Analysis of the Right-Straight Punch in Korean National Representative Boxers
Kim, Eui-Hwan ; Kim, Jin-Pyo ; Lee, Jin-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 293~309
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.293
The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematic variables of the right-straight punch(RSP) in boxing with three-dimensional analysis technical methods. The subjects are boxers who have been playing in national boxing representative team and the RSP is their special favorite technique, The right-straight punches were filmed on 16mm video cameras(30frames/sec.) The kinematic variables were temporal, postural and center of gravity(COG). The mean and the standard deviation of variables have been obtained and used as basic factors for examining characteristics of the RSP by out-boxers. From the data analysis and discussion, the following conclusions have been drawn. 1) Temporal variables It is a significant characteristic that LDJ and KDM s` the amount of elapsed time(EF) needed for both an attack and a defense were similar : ET for stretch-out of attack-arm was
. and return was
. Therefore, a defense motion is as important as an attack motion. 2) Posture variables When the subjects performed a RSP, the significant characteristic of the ankle angle was that it wasn`t completely returned to the original position after stretching-out. Therefore it is necessary to do supplementary exercises, such as side steps, to move the center of gravity more effectively. The hee angle was not fully stretched either. In regard to the hip angle, it should be rotated with all strength to harmonize with the direction of movement. 3) Center of Gravity(COG) variables When both LDJ and KDM performed a RSP, a significant characteristic was the transformation of sagittal view rather than transverse or frontal views.
Analysis of connecting joint anglle and moment in arm landing action in Sports Aerobics
Yoo, Sil ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 311~325
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.311
A relation between the movement range of arms and arising moment has been studied to find out efficient movement range to minimize impact concerning arm landing in sports aerobics. Four male athletes who won top three in national-level sports aerobics competition were chosen for the experiment. They were allowed to jump in between two force platform so that the right hand and the right leg could land onto the front and rear force platform, respectively. The sampling frequency was 200 Hz. The main conclusions based on the analysis of the angle and joint moment parameters of wrist, elbow, and shoulder are as follows: 1. The wrist moment was small when its angle was small, indicating that the dorsi-flexion of the wrist joint offered a positive influence to reduce wrist moment. 2. The elbow angle increased as wrist angle decreased and vice versa. This means that the movement range of the wrist joint affects that of the elbow joint. The darsi-flexion of the wrist is the position to absorb the impact of the elbow effectively rather than to absorb the impact of the wrist itself. The impact is absorbed by the flexion of wrist joint rather than the wrist. 3. The degree of moment transfer of the shoulder joint, having absorbed the impact from the elbow and elbow joint, became dependent on the efficiency of the fore-joints impact absorption.
A Comparison analysis of kinematics of lower extremities for 1st position jump in ballet between two types of ballet shoes
Youm, Chang-Hong ; Park, Young-Hoon ; Seo, Kook-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 327~340
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.327
The purpose of this study was to investigate the height of jump, angle of the ankle and knee, the angular velocity of the ankle and knee between two types of ballet shoes during a jump in the 1st position. The subjects were 5 female ballet majors of university in Busan the majors who have been dancing ballet for six years on the average. The conclusions are as follows: 1. The height of jump had no significant difference between two types of ballet shoes, and then the average of the height of jump with point shoes group (
) was a little higher than ballet shoes group (
). 2. The angle of the ankle had no significant difference for all events between two types of ballet shoes. The minimum angle of ankle joint was represented to
at the E1 of the left ankle angle of the ballet shoes and the maximum value was showed
at the E3 of the right ankle angle of the point shoes. 3. The angle of the knee had no significant difference for all events between two types of ballet shoes. The minimum angle of knee joint was represented to
at the E1 of the left knee angle of the ballet shoes and the maximum value was showed
at the E3 of the right knee angle of the point shoes. 4. The ankle velocity of the ankle had no significant difference for all events between two types of ballet shoes. The minimum angular velocity of the ankle was represented to 4.35 deg/s at the maximum height(E3) of the point shoes and the maximum value was showed 597.81 deg/s at the take-off(E2) of the right ankle angle of the point shoes. 5. The angular velocity of the knee had significant difference between two types of ballet shoes at the event 1(p<.05). The minimum angular velocity of the hee was represented to -1.68 deg/s at the maximum height(E3) of the point shoes and the maximum value was showed 360.25 deg/s at the take-off(E2) of the left knee angle of the ballet shoes. The other events had no significant difference between two types of ballet shoes.
A Development of Device for Measurement of Vertical Ground Reaction Force(II)
Park, Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 341~354
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.341
The purpose of this study was to develop the uniaxial force plate system which is measured by the vertical force. The VGRF(vertical ground reaction force) 1.0 was composed of 2 bath digital scales, 2 indicaters, and analyzing software. This system was newly renovated to VGRF 2,0 which are 2 industrial digital scales, 2 adjustable indicators, and enforced analyzing software. Changes of the new system were as follows. First, the height of the plate was 75% lower than before. Second, sensing ability of the load cell was changed from 90 - 0.05kg to 300 - 0.1kg. Third, the speed of data processing was changed from 17 per second to 60 per second. Fourth, analyzing software was enforced to develop and calculate the data. For the test of the system, two different types(bare foot, high-heeled shoes) gait was adopted. highly skilled female walker(23yrs, height 165cm, body mass 46.8kg) participated for the experimental study. During the dynamic performance(gait analysis), the data of each load cell were very similar to the previous studies. Specifically, bare foot walking had less vertical force than high-heeled shoes. Consequently, VGRF 2.0 can sense the general dynamic movements as well as static load conditions.
Effects of shoe and landing heights on impact force and shock attenuation during landing activities
Yu, Yeon-Joo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 13, issue 3, 2003, Pages 355~366
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2003.13.3.355