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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
Selecting the target year
A Biomechanical Comparison of Cushioning and Motion Control Shoes During Running
Lee, Ki-Kwang ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.001
Excessive pronation and impact force during running are related to various running injuries. To prevent these injuries, three type of running shoes are used, such as cushioning, stability, and motion control. Although there were may studies about the effect of midsole hardness on impact force, no study to investigate biomechanical effect of motion control running shoes. The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical difference between cushioning and motion control shoes during treadmill running. Specifically, plantar and rearfoot motion, impact force and loading rate, and insole pressure distribution were quantified and compared. Twenty male healthy runners experienced at treadmill running participated in this study. When they ran on treadmill at 3.83 m/s. Kinematic data were collected using a Motion Analysis eight video camera system at 240 Hz. Impact force and pressure distribution data under the heel of right foot were collected with a Pedar pressure insole system with 26 sensors at 360 Hz. Mean value of ten consecutive steps was calculated for kinematics and kinetics. A dependent paired t-test was used to compare the running shoes effect (p=0.05). For most kinematics, motion control running shoes reduced the range of rearfoot motion compared to cushioning shoes. Runners wearing motion control shoe showed less eversion angle during standing less inversion angle at heel strike, and slower eversion velocity. For kinetics, cushioning shoes has the effect to reduce impact on foot obviously. Runners wearing cushioning shoes showed less impact force and loading rate, and less peak insole pressure. For both shoes, there was greater load on the medial part of heel compared to lateral part. For pressure distribution, runners with cushioning shoes showed lower, especially on the medial heel.
Effects of Preparatory Movements on Performance of Sideward Responsive Propulsion Movement
Kim, Yong-Woon ; Yoon, Te-Jin ; Seo, Jung-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 9~19
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.009
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of three different types of preparatory movement(squat, countermovement and hopping) in sideward responsive propulsion movement. 7 healthy subjects performed left and right side movement task by external output signal. 3D kinematics were analyzed The results were followed First, performance time in the countermovement and hopping conditions was shorter(10-20%) than that in the squat condition. The hopping condition that is more related to pre-stretch showed excellent performance. Second, time difference between after turned on the external signal and until take off was the primary factor in performance results among movement conditions. The preparatory phase before the propulsive phase in the squat condition produced more time than that in other conditions. The hopping condition showed the most short time in both the preparatory and the propulsive phase, therefore it was advantage for performance result Third, significant difference was not found in take-off velocity among movement conditions although there was difference of the time required in the propulsive phase. The maximum acceleration in the propulsive phase was larger in order of the hopping. countermovement, and squat condition. The countermovement and hopping conditions showed high take-off velocity although the propulsive phase in those conditions was shorter than that in squat condition. The pre-stretch by preparatory countermovement was considered as the positive factor of producing power in concentric contraction. Fourth, the hopping condition produced large angular velocity of joints. In hopping condition, large amount of moment for rotation movement was revealed in relatively short time and it was considered to cause powerful joint movements. In conclusion, the hopping movement using countermovement is advantage of responsive propulsion movement. It is resulted from short duration until take off and large amount of joint moment and joint power in concentric contraction by pre-stretch.
Kinematical Analysis of Tichonkich Motion in Parallel Bars
Park, Jong-Hoon ; Back, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 21~30
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.021
The purpose of this study is helps to make full use for perfect performance by grasping the defects of Tichonkich motion performed by athlete CSM For this, the study analyzed kinematical variables through Tichonkich motions performed at the first selection competition(1st trial) and final selection competition(2nd trial) for the dispatch to the 28th Athens Olympic Games using the three-dimensional cinematographical method with a high-speed video camera, and obtained the following results. 1. During Tichonkich motion, the execution time of up swing and the right hand moving to the left bar was shorter in the 2nd trial than the 1st one, while the execution time of down swing, the support of the left bar and the right hand moving to the right bar was longer in the 2nd trial than the 1st trial. 2. The horizontal position of COG in the 2nd trial was -35cm in the 1st stage, 42cm in the 3rd stage and 29cm in the 4th stage, that is, it showed a great swing focused on the circular movement compared to the 1st trial, while the vertical position of COG was -59cm in the 2nd stage, that is, it showed a small swing focused on a up and down movement. Also the 5th stage vertical position was 98cm, and the 6th stage vertical position was 95cm in the 2nd trial which were higher than those of the 1st trial, so it has provided magnificence required in the modern gymnastics. 3. And it was indicated that the horizontal velocity at the down swing phase proceeded forward more rapidly in the 2nd trial than that in the 1st trial, and the reverse ascent made a rapid vertical rise lessening left and right velocity change. And in the 5th stage, the 2nd trial was kept very slower in horizontal, vertical and left and right velocity that in the 1st trial, so it reached a handstand with leisurely movement. 4. In the 2nd trial, shoulder joint of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd stages kept a larger angle than that in the 1st trial, that is, it made a great swing while in the 1st trial, it showed a swing movement dependent on kick movement by the flexion and extension of hip joint. Also in the 2nd trial, the body formed a vertical posture with both hands supporting the left bar and hip joint was kept larger as
in the 5th and 6th stage than that in the 1st trial, so it made a handstand with the body uprightly stretched out, and magnificent and stable movement.
Weight Transfer Patterns Under the Different Golf Swing Types: a Case Study Involving a Low Handicap Player and a High Handicap Player (I)
Park, Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 31~49
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.031
The purpose of this study was to analyze the weight transfer patterns under the different golf swing types which are full swing control swing and putting stroke. Two women golfers participated in this study, one(165cm, 94.3kg)being classified as a low-handicap(LH)player, the other(165cm, 54.5kg) being classified as a high-handicap(HH) player. Both players are right-handed. Two force plates(Kistler, 9286AA) were synchronized with a motion capture system(Qualisys ProReflex MCU240). Anteriorposterior, mediolateral, and vertical forces were used as an indicator of the pattern of swing. Four discrete positions which are address, top of backswing impact, and finish were identified as an event and three phases which are backswing downswing, and follow-through between he events were also identified. The results showed that, at impact, the total force was 1.24BW ring the full swing 1.17BW during the control stroke, 1.00BW during the putting stroke. Depending on the golf swing types, the differences are existed. At impact, the distribution of forces is different with a low-handicap(LH) player and a high-handicap(HH) player. A LH player has 26% in right foot and 74% in left foot during the full swing 49% in right foot and 51% in left foot during the control swing 49% in right foot and 51% in left foot during the putting stroke. A HH, on the other hand, has 74% in right foot and 26% in left foot during the full swing 62% in right foot and 38% in left foot during the control swing 54% in right foot and 46% in left foot during the putting stroke. From address to top of backswing the amount of vertical forces are changed 43:57(right foot: left foot) to 76:24 during the full swing 47:53(right foot: left foot) to 75:25 during the control swing 50:50(right foot: left foot) to 54:46 during the putting stroke. The biggest weight transfer pattern took place in full swing and the control swing is next, and the putting stroke is the final.
The Effect of Aging on the Mechanism of Muscle Fatigue during Sustained Submaximal Isometric Contraction
Yoon, Te-Jin ; Kim, Yong-Won ; Chung, Chul-Soo ; Sandra, Hunter ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 51~59
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.051
To examine the influence of aging on the mechanism of muscle fatigue, we compared the magnitude of central and peripheral fatigue in young and old women before, during and after a sustained submaximaI isometric contraction of elbow flexor muscles. Twelve women (6 young.
years and 6 old,
years) performed a contraction at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque with their non-dominant arm. The old women were weaker than the young women, however their endurance time for the 20% contraction was longer compared with the young women (
sec, P <. 05). Both groups had a similar reduction in voluntary activation ratio (VA) during and after the fatiguing contraction. However, the old women showed much greater variability in VA before and after the contraction (
respectively) compared with the young women (
, respectively). Furthermore, the EMG activity of the elbow flexor muscles and triceps brachii was greater for the old women compared with the young women throughout the fatiguing contraction, indicating different activation strategies with age. Indices of peripheral fatigue including twitch properties, showed that fatigue within the muscle was more rapid for the young women compared with the old women. These results suggest that although old women are weaker than young women, they have greater endurance due to mechanisms within muscle. Furthermore, old women showed great variability in their ability to optimally activate all muscle fiber compared with young women for an isometric contraction.
A Kinematical Analysis of the Kenmotsu on the Parallel Bars
Kong, Tae-Ung ; Kim, Young-Sun ; Yoon, Chang-Sun ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 61~70
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.061
The purpose of study was to investigate the kinematic variables of Kenmotsu motion in Parallel bars. To this study, by 3 dimensional kinematical analysis of 4 male national gymnasts participants in the 28th Athens Olympic Game in 2004, kinematic data collected using video camera. Coordinate data were smoothed by using a fourth-order Butterworth low pass digital filter with cutoff frequency of 6Hz. The conclusions were as follows. 1. In P2, because the constrained swing movement made the movement of a rising back difficult7, the movements of Reg. were performed at low position after Air phase. 2. In E5 event, for the shake of a stable handstand and applied techniques like a Belle(E-value), a Belle Piked(super E-value), a vertical velocity in E2, a horizontal velocity in E3 and a vertical velocity in E4 were necessary for high velocities. 3. In E4 event, it was appeared that for a flexible body's movement of a vertical up-flight, the large angle of the shoulder joint and the flexion & extension of the hip joint were necessary in Air phase and a long flight time and vertical displacement made Reg. movements stable at the high position.
An Analysis of decision Factor on Drive Distance for University Golf Player's Object Execution Using Late Hitting Method
So, Jea-Moo ; Lim, Young-Tae ; Kim, Yong-Seok ; Cho, Bum-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 71~78
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.071
The purpose of this research was to conduct an analysis on the factors that determine the distance at the time of target swing based on the use of late hitting of outstanding college golfers to verify the difference between late hitting and the distance that target increases in regular swing and the distance. Then, this research conducts an analysis on the correlation between club head velocity, ball velocity, launch angle, back spin, meet ratio and distance that become kinematics variables at the time of target swing. To attain the above mentioned purpose, 25 outstanding college players with average experience and handicap of 6 years and 5, respectively, were targeted Comparative analysis on two swing that target increase in regular and the distance was conducted by used driver. When it pertained to two types of swing. analysis system comprised of an analytical software called the Science Eye of the Bridgestone and peripheries was used to define the relationship between variables of club head velocity, ball velocity, launch angle, back spin, meet ratio that become kinematics variables. As for the method of processing data pertaining to the factors that determine the distance, differences of distance by the type of swing was verified by using independent T-test that leveraged SPSS 120 statistics program. Moreover, level of correlation between variables that contribute to the increase in distance through relation of correlation, and analysis of tendencies was conducted to analyze tendency of non-distance to increase in accordance to the increase of each variable. Key results produced through this experiment are as follows: 1. Artificial late hitting for increased non-distance that targets skilled players had effect on increased the distance(p<. 05). 2 The drive distance is correlated with each measured variable that is positive correlation to ball velocity, club head velocity, meet ratio and relation of back spin and launch angle are negative correlation. ball velocity and club head velocity are very high correlated with drive distance(p<.01), back spin and distance are negative correlation(p<.01). 3. Among each measured variable increasing the club velocity is the most contribution, and ball velocity and meet ratio and the increasing launch angle and back spin is negative effect for increasing distance.
Effects of Gender, Skill Level, and Club on Kinematics of Golf Swing
Kwon, Sun-Ok ; Lee, Ki-Kwang ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 79~94
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.079
Because the golf swing is very complex movement, it is varied in different gender, skill level, and club. This study measured kinematic variables in golf swing regarding gender, skill level, and club types using FasTrak electromagnetic tracking system. Golf swing kinematics including time variables, linear and angular displacement variables, angular velocity variables were analyzed and compared through three-way ANOVA The results were as follows: 1. In time variables, Female and driver showed longer backswing time than male and iron. Downswing time was longer in female and nonexperts than male and experts. Backswing time over downswing time was longer in experts than nonexperts. Uncocking time was longer in male and experts than female and nonexperts. The differences were statistically significant (p<.05). 2. In displacement variables, Female and nonexperts showed greater backswing head lift than male and experts. Impact head lift was greater in female, nonexperts, and iron than male, experts, and driver. The differences were statistically significant (p<.05). Experts and driver showed greater top hip rotation angle than nonexperts and iron. Top shoulder rotation angle was greater in male, experts and driver than female, nonexperts, and iron. X-factor was greater in male, experts, and driver than female, nonexperts, and iron. Male and experts showed greater backswing hip sway than female and nonexperts. Impact hip sway was greater in male and iron than female and driver. The differences were statistically significant (p<.05). 3. In velocity variables, Experts displayed higher impact hip rotation velocity than nonexperts. Impact shoulder rotation velocity was greater in male and iron than female and driver (p<.05).
Changes of Setup Variables by the Change of Golf Club Length
Sung, Rak-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 95~104
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.095
To know the proper setup posture for the various clubs, changes of setup variables according to the change of golf club length was investigated. Swing motions of three male low handicappers including a professional were taken using two high-speed videocameras. Four clubs iron 7, iron 5, iron 3 and driver (wood 1) were selected for this experiment. Three dimensional motion analysis techniques were used to get the kinematical variables. Mathcad and Kwon3D motion analysis program were used to analyze the position, distance and angle data in three dimensions. The variables divided into three categories 1) position and width of anterior-posterior direction 2) position and width of lateral direction 3) angles and evaluated based on the theories of many good golf teachers. Major findings of this study were as follows. 1.The stance (distance between ankle joints) was increased as the length of the club increased but the increasing width was not large. It ranges from 5cm to 10cm and professional player showed small changes. 2. Forward lean angle of trunk was decreased (more erected) as the length of the club increased. It ranges from 30 degrees for iron7 to 25 degrees for driver. 3. Angle between horizontal and right shoulder were increased as the length of the club increased. It ranges from 10 degrees to 20 degrees and professional player showed small changes. 4. Anterior-posterior position of the shoulders were located in front of the foot for all clubs and the difference between the shoulder and knee position was decreased as the length of the club increased. 5. Anterior-posterior position of grip (hand) was located almost beneath the shoulders (2.5cm front) for iron7, but it increased to 10cm for the driver. This grip adjustment makes the height of the posture increased only 5cm from iron7 to driver. 6. Lateral position of grip located at 5cm left for the face of iron7, but it located at the right side (behind) for the face of driver. 7. Lateral position of the ball located at the 40%(15cm) of stance from left ankle for iron7 and located at the 10% (5cm) of stance for driver. 8. Head always located at the right side of the stance and the midpoint of the eyes located at the 37% of stance from the right ankle for all clubs. This means that the axis of swing always maintained consistently for all clubs. 9. Left foot opened to the target for all subject and clubs. The maximum open angle was 25 degrees. Overall result shows that the changes of the setup variables vary only small ranges from iron7 to driver. Paradoxically it could be concluded that the failure of swing result from the excessive changes of setup not from the incorrect changes. These findings will be useful for evaluating the setup motion of golf swing and helpful to most golfers.
The Kinematic Analysis of the Last Approach Stride and Take-off Phase of BKH Athlete in the High Jump
Yoon, Hee-Joong ; Kim, Tae-Sam ; Lee, Jin-Taek ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 105~115
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.105
This study was investigated the kinematic factors of the last approach strides and. take off motion for the skill improving of BKH elite male athlete. 'The subjects chosen for the study were BKH and. KASZCZYK Emillian male athletes who were participated in 2003 Dae-Gu Universiad Games. Three high speed video cameras set in 60frames/s setting were used. for recording from the last approach strides to the apex position. After digitizing motion, the Direct Linear Transformation(DLT) technique was employed to obtain 3-D position coordinates, The kinematic factors of the distance, velocity and angle variable were calculated for Kwon3D 3.1. The following conclusions were drawn; 1. It showed longer stride length, as well as faster horizontal and lateral velocity than the success trial during the approach phase. For consistent of the approach rhythm, it appeared that the subject should a short length for obtain the breaking force by the lower COG during the approach phase. 2. The body lean angle showed a small angle by a high COG during the take-off phase. For obtain the vertical displacement of the COG and a enough space form the bar after take-off, it appeared that the subject should increase the body lean angle. 3. For obtain the vertical force during the takeoff phase, it appeared that the subject should keep straight as possible the knee joint. Therefor, the subject can be obtain a enough breaking force at the approach landing.
A COG Variable Analysis of Air-rolling-breakfall in Judo
Kim, Eui-Hwan ; Chung, Chae-Wook ; Kim, Sung-Sup ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 117~132
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.117
It was to study a following research of "A Kinematic Analysis of Air-rolling-breakfall in Judo". The purpose of this study was to analyze the Center of Gravity(COG) variables when performing Air-rolling-breakfall motion, while passing forward over(PFO) to the vertical-hurdles(2m height, take off board 1m height) in judo. Subjects were four males of Y. University squad, who were trainees of the demonstration exhibition team, representatives of national level judoists and were filmed by four 5-VHS 16mm video cameras(60field/sec.) through the three dimensional film analysis methods.COG variable were anterior-posterior directional COG and linear velocity of COG, vertical directional COG and linear velocity of COG. The data collections of this study were digitized by KWON3D program computed The data were standardized using cubic spline interpolation based by calculating the mean values and the standard deviation calculated for each variables. When performing the Air-rolling-breakfall, from the data analysis and discussions, the conclusions were as follows : 1. Anterior-posterior directional COG(APD-COG) when performing Air-rolling-breakfall motion, while PFO over to the vertical-hurdles(2m height) in judo. The range of APD-COG by forward was
in take-off position(event 1),
in the air-top position(event 2),
in the touch-down position(event 3), gradually and
in safety breakfall position(event 4), respectively. 2 The linear velocity of APD-COG was
. in take-off position(event 1),
. gradually in the air-top position(event 2),
. in the touch-down position (event 3), gradual decrease and
. in the safety breakfall position(event 4), respectively. 3. The vertical directional COG(VD-COG) when performing Air-rolling-breakfall motion, while PFO to the vertical-hurdles(2m height) in judo. The range of VD-COG toward upward from mat was
in take-off position(event 1), the highest
in the air-top position(event 2), and after rapid decrease
in the touch-down position(event 3), gradual decrease
in safety breakfall position(event 4), respectively. 4. The linear velocity of VlJ.COG was
. in take-off position(event 1),
. gradually in the air-top position(event 2),
. gradual decrease in the touch-down position(event 3), gradual decrease and -4.40
. in safety breakfall position(event 4), respectively. When performing Air-rolling-breakfall showed parabolic movement from take-off position to air-top position, and after showed vertical fall movement from air-top position to safety breakfall. In conclusion, Ukemi(breakfall) is safety fall method Therefore, actions need for performing safety fall movement, that decrease and minimize shock and impact during Air-rolling-breakfall from take-off board action to air-top position must be maximize of angular momentum, and after must be minimize in touch-down position and safety breakfall position.
The Kinematic Comparison and Analysis between National Long Jumpers and Foreign long Jumpers with record of over 8 meter
Ryu, Jae-Kyun ; Chang, Jae-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 133~142
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.133
The purpose of this study was to compare of the kinematic variables from takeoff preparation to takeoff used by long jumpers who recorded over 8meters in 2002 Busan Asian Game and 2003 Daegu Universiade and 2001 national championship. The kinematic characteristics from the last three stride to takeoff at the takeoff board were analyzed such as velocities, heights and angles. The conclusion were as follows; In order to record over 8meters the national long jumpers should have under 5cm height variation at the penultimate stride of the run-up. In the approach phase the horizontal velocity of the jumpers should reach to 10m/s in touchdown at takeoff board The vertical velocity must have 3.75m/s simultaneously in order to record 8meters. The jumpers need to continue talent of the horizontal velocity in touchdown at takeoff board and require jumping power of the takeoff leg at takeoff board The appropriate body variation range ratio between takeoff and touchdown should be 1.2 vs 1 and the trunk angle at touch down on the board should be close to the erect posture for higher body flight.
The Forecasting a Maximum Barbell Weight of Snatch Technique in Weightlifting
Hah, Chong-Ku ; Ryu, Ji-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 143~152
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.143
The purpose of this study was to predict the failure or success of the Snatch-lifting trial as a consequence of the stand-up phase simulated in Kane's equation of motion that was effective for the dynamic analysis of multi-segment. This experiment was a case study in which one male athlete (age: 23yrs, height: 154.4cm, weight: 64.5kg) from K University was selected The system of a simulation included a multi-segment system that had one degree of freedom and one generalized coordinate for the shank segment angle. The reference frame was fixed by the Nonlinear Trans formation (NLT) method in order to set up a fixed Cartesian coordinate system in space. A weightlifter lifted a 90kg-barbell that was 75% of subject's maximum lifting capability (120kg). For this study, six cameras (Qualisys Proreflex MCU240s) and two force-plates (Kistler 9286AAs) were used for collecting data. The motion tracks of 11 land markers were attached on the major joints of the body and barbell. The sampling rates of cameras and force-plates were set up 100Hz and 1000Hz, respectively. Data were processed via the Qualisys Track manager (QTM) software. Landmark positions and force-plate amplitudes were simultaneously integrated by Qualisys system The coordinate data were filtered using a fourth-order Butterworth low pass filtering with an estimated optimum cut-off frequency of 9Hz calculated with Andrew & Yu's formula. The input data of the model were derived from experimental data processed in Matlab6.5 and the solution of a model made in Kane's method was solved in Matematica5.0. The conclusions were as follows; 1. The torque motor of the shank with 246Nm from this experiment could lift a maximum barbell weight (158.98kg) which was about 246 times as much as subject's body weight (64.5kg). 2. The torque motor with 166.5 Nm, simulated by angular displacement of the shank matched to the experimental result, could lift a maximum barbell weight (90kg) which was about 1.4 times as much as subject's body weight (64.5kg). 3. Comparing subject's maximum barbell weight (120kg) with a modeling maximum barbell weight (155.51kg) and with an experimental maximum barbell weight (90kg), the differences between these were about +35.7kg and -30kg. These results strongly suggest that if the maximum barbell weight is decided, coaches will be able to provide further knowledge and information to weightlifters for the performance improvement and then prevent injuries from training of weightlifters. It hopes to apply Kane's method to other sports skill as well as weightlifting to simulate its motion in the future study.
A Study on the Effective X-Factor
Chang, Jae-Kwan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 153~159
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.153
The purpose of this study was to investigate the Effective X-Factor in golf swing. The term X-Factor means the relative rotation of shoulders with respect to hips during the golf swing. To ascertain the Effective X-Factor that resulted in a high club head speed at impact six golfers' swing motions were videotaped and analyzed using three-dimensional techniques. The results can be summarized as follows. The standard deviations of the professionals' average club head speeds were higher than the amateurs'. This means that the professionals' swing skills were better than amateurs' in driving accuracy and consistency. As the club head speeds were increased gradually the X-Factors and the club head speeds had reached to the subjects' average club head speeds, but the X-Factors and the club head speeds were not increased above the subjects' average club head speeds. The X-Factor Stretch early in the down swing was existed and Professional stretched values were higher than the amateurs. In conclusion my research results suggested that the increase in Effective X-Factors had no relationship to the increase in club head speeds.
3-D Kinematic Analysis According to Open Stance Patterns During Forehand Stroke in Tennis
Choi, Ji-Young ; Kim, Ro-Bin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 161~173
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.161
Recently among several tennis techniques forehand stroke has been greatly changed in the aspect of spin, grip and stance. The most fundamental factor among the three factors is the stance which consists of open, square and closed stance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between the segments of the body, the three dimensional anatomical angle according to open stance patterns during forehand stroke in tennis. For the movement analysis three dimensional cinematographical method(APAS) was used and for the calculation of the kinematic variables a self developed program was used with the LabVlEW 6.1 graphical programming(Johnson, 1999) program. By using Eular's equations the three dimensional anatomical Cardan angles of the joint and racket head angle were defined 1. In three dimensional maximum linear velocity of racket head the X axis showed
at impact, not the Y axis(horizontal direction) and the z axis(vertical direction) maximum linear velocity of racket head did not show at impact but after impact this will resulted influence upon hitting ball It could be suggest that Y axis velocity of racket head influence on ball direction and z axis velocity influence on ball spin after impact. the stance distance between right foot and left foot was mean
. 2. The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of shoulder joint showed most important role in forehand stroke. and is followed by wrist joints, in addition the movement of elbow joints showed least to the stroke. The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of racket increased flexion/abduction angle until the impact. after impact, The angular displacement of racket changed motion direction as extension/adduction. 3. The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of trunk in flexion-extension showed extension all around the forehand stroke. The angular displacement of trunk in adduction-abduction showed abduction at the backswing top and adduction around impact. while there is no significant internal-external rotation 4. The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of hip joint and knee joint increased extension angle after minimum of knee joint angle in the forehand stroke, The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of ankle joint showed plantar flexion, internal rotation and eversion in forehand stroke. it could be suggest that the plantar pressure of open stance during forehand stroke would be distributed more largely to the fore foot. and lateral side.
The Kinematic Analysis of Driggs Motion in Horse Vaulting - a case study
Kim, Yoon-Ji ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 3, 2005, Pages 175~183
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.3.175
This study investigates the kinetic characteristics of the Driggs motion in horse vaulting by stages through the three-dimensional video analysis of YTY and TABARA who won a high score and a low score respectively from the Driggs motion in horse vaulting during the Daegu Universiade 2003, which involves putting one's hands on the horse vaulting rotating sideways, stretching and rotating backward in the air, and twisting 900 degrees, so as to help develop the techniques of Korean gymnastic athletes. From the analyses of the duration of body center, horizontality, vertical position and horizontality, vertical speed and angle factors for each of four phases from the contact of the board to the takeoff from the horse vaulting. I arrived at the following conclusions: 1. It was found that the motion of bending oneself forward while rapidly stretching the knee joint when taking off from the board increases the horizontal speed of body center and shortens the time of the first jump. 2. It was found that S1 who won a high score shortened the time of the contact and takeoff from the horse vaulting and enlarged the shoulder joint angle for full blocking motion. It was also found that horizontal speed decreased while vertical speed increased when you rapidly stretch the right elbow joint while taking off from the horse vaulting. 3. It was found that horizontal distance was shortened to increase the height and time of staying in the air during the second jump.