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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Dec 2005
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Sep 2005
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Jun 2005
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Mar 2005
Selecting the target year
The Kinematic Analysis of Kasamatus in Vault
Lee, Soon-Ho ; Back, Jin-Ho ; Kim, Young-Sun ; Kong, Tae-Ung ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.001
The study were to assess technical factors between the high score group and the low score group, from the subjects of 8 male national gymnasts, and to analyze the kinematical characteristic and main technical cause on technique of Kasamatsu movement on Vault. The result of this study is this. In case of horse contact time the high score group was swifter than low score group, and there was significant difference between the high score group and the low score group(<.01). On high score group the time of taking on from horse showed shorter than that of taking off from horse, while of the low score group the time of taking on the horse was similar to that of taking off from horse on the average. And in time of pre-flight the high score group on average the was 0.16sec shorter times than the low score group, and so there was significantly difference between groups(<.05). Also It is a characteristic that the high score group was short in horse contact time and longer in post-flight. In the horizontal distance of post-flight, the high score group was 0.11m longer than the low score group and there was significantly statistic difference between groups(<.05). In the vertical height of the cog in Post-flight's phrase, the high score group was 0.15m higher than the low score group and there was significantly statistic difference between groups(.<01). The horizontal velocity and vertical velocity in the event of taking on and off Beat board and Vault weren't significantly statistic differences between two groups. In the slow-down of average horizontal velocity during keeping contact with the beat board, the high score group was larger than the low score group. And in an increased average vertical velocity during keeping contact with the beat board, the high score group was even larger than the low score group. In the projectile angle of cog in taking off the beat board, 40.2deg., the angle of low score group and 39.5deg., the angle of high score group are nearly alike. In the projectile angle of cog in taking off the beat, the high score group showed 1.6Wt larger on average than the low score group. However the average reaction force on the board and Vault wasn't almost different between two groups, showed 0.3~0.6Wt larger in the high score group.
3-D Kinematics Comparative Analysis of Penalty Kick between Novice and Expert Soccer Players
Shin, Je-Min ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 13~24
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.013
The purpose of this study was to compare kinematic data between experts and novices, and identify difference kinematic parameters changing direction to kick in penalty kick of soccer play. Novice subjects were 5 high school students Who has never been experienced a soccer player, and expert subjects were 5 competitive high school soccer players. The 3-d angle was calculated by Euler's Angle by inertial axis and local axis with three-dimensional cinematography. Kinematic parameters in this study consisted of angles of knee joints, hip joints, lower trunk and upper trunk when the support foot was contacted on ground and kicking foot impacted the ball. The difference of angle of knee joints in the flexion/extension was insignificantly showed below
in groups and directions of ball at the time of support and impact. But the difference of angle of hip joint was significant in groups and directions of ball at the time of support and impact. Specially the right hip joint of experts were more flexed about
at left side,
at right side), less abducted about
at left side,
at right side) at impact when they kicked a ball to the left side of goalpost. The difference of amplitude angle in the trunk was significantly shown at upper trunk not lower trunk. The upper trunk was external rotated about
(novice' angle was
, expert's angle was
) at impact. Therefore the significant difference of kinematic characteristics could be found at the right hip joint and the upper trunk at penalty kick depending on the direction of kicking.
Kinematic analysis of skill between flexed and extended type of knee during Jigeo-Cha-Gi in Taekwon-Do
Kim, Dong-Kyu ; Ryew, Che-Cheong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 25~42
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.025
The study was to investigate kinematic difference between flexed and extended type of knee during Jigeo-Cha-Gi in Taekwon-Do. For this subjects participated were consisted of weights of fin (1), bantam (1) and welter class(1) of male 3 national representative level skilled in two type(flexed and extended type) of Jigeo-Cha-Gi. 3D cinematography analysis was performed for motion analysis and Kwon 3D ver. 3.1) was used for 3D coordinates & analysis variables calculation. In Temporal variable there was no significant difference statistically in all phases & total elapsed time between flexed and extended type, but flexed type was delayed more 0.016 sec than extended type. In displacement of COG there was significant difference in level of p<.05 showing longer mean 6.13 cm in case of flexed type than extended type in displacement of COG during all phase and too significant difference in level of p<.01 showing longer mean 4.4 cm in case of flexed type than extended type in displacement of COG in follow through phase. In velocity of COG there was significant difference in level of p<.001 showing higher mean 15.53cm/s in case of flexed type than extended type in velocity of COG(Y direction) during targeting phase and peak velocity(Y) was more fast 8.74 cm/s in extended type than flexed type. In velocity of leading leg in forward direction(Y) there was significant difference in level of p<.05 showing higher thigh mean value in case of flexed type than extended type but showing higher foot mean value in extended type at level of p<.001 than flexed type in velocity of COG(Y direction). In velocity of leading leg in vertical direction(Z) there was no significant difference in the second & third phase in case of vertical velocity level, but momentum transferred efficiently form proximal to distal endpoint. In front-back & right-left orientation angle of trunk there was possibility of more stable Jigeo-Cha-Gi in extended than flexed type by decreasing in right-left orientation angle of trunk. In relative angle of lower leg(hip, knee, ankle) there was significant difference in level of p<.001 showing longer mean 32.74 deg. in case of flexed type than extended type in hip joint during the second phase but maintained insufficient extended knee of mean 168 deg. in targeting phase.
A Kinematical Analysis of Belle Motion on Parallel Bars
Kong, Tae-Ung ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 43~53
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.043
This study is to define how the difference of athletic change influence on the last regrasp after somersault in Belle movement of parallel bars. For his study, the following conclusion was produced by analysis of athletic change by means of three dimensional visual image in three athlete of nation. 1. As the picture of S1, there are total used time(2.01 sec), S3(2.17 sec) and S2(2.19 sec). In case of a short needed time, it is difficult for them to perform the remaining movement of the vertical elevating flight easily and comfortably, it is judged as performing the small movement with restrict swing. 2 In the change of body center sped by each event, it is calculated as
the narrowest in S1,
the widest and then
in S3. In E3 event, average compound speed is 4.07m/s, S2 showed the fastest speed of 4.14m/s whereas S1 the narrowest angle of 3.95m/s. 3. A shoulder joint and coxa are the period of mention in E3. In E4 which was pointed out the longest vertical distance, S2 that is indicated the highest vertical height as the period of detach in parallel bars. showed -3.91m. This is regarded as a preparatory movement for dynamic performance after using effectively elastic movement of shoulder joint and coxa while easily going up with turning back movement. In the 5th phrase, long airborne time and vertical change position is showed as the start while regrasping securely air flight movement from high position. 4. In E5, a long flight time and a long vertical displacement were shown as the regrasp after somersault efficiently in high position with stability from the point of the highest peak of the center of the body. Especially, S2 is marked as a little bit long position, while S1 is reversely indicated as performing somersault and unstable motion in a low position. 5. In E3, at the point of the largest extension of the shoulder joint and hip joint the shoulder joint is largely marked in
and the hip point
in S2. The shoulder joint is marked at the smallest angle in
and the hip point
in S1. And S1 is being judged by its performance of the less self - confident motion with lessening a breath of swing. S2 makes the most use of flexion and extension of the shoulder joint and the hip joint effectively. It was performed greatly with swinging and dropping the rotary movement and the rotary inertia naturally. 6. In E6, as the point of regrasp of the upper arm in parallel bars it is recognized by the that of components of vertical and horizontal velocity stably. During this study, the insufficient thing and the study on the parallel bars at a real game later are more activated than now. If it is really used as the basic materials by means of Belle Picked Study of Super E level after Bell movement, you may perceive the technique movement previously and perform without difficulty. Especially, such technique as crucifix is quite advantageous for oriental people thanks to small body shape condition. In conclusion we will nicely prepare for our suitable environment to gradually lessen trials and errors by analyzing and studying kinematically this movement.
Kinematical Analysis of Handball Step Shoot according to Attack Position
Kang, Sang-Hack ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 55~66
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.055
The present study used a video analysis system to quantify the kinematical data of step shoot motion by male university handball players. From the results of analyzing dynamic variables of step shoot motion according to shooting direction were drawn conclusions as follows. 1. The height of release was proportional to the height of players, and the height of release appeared low in left-side attacks. This is probably because the left-right-throwing angle is larger in left-side attacks than that in center attacks and right-side attacks and, as a result, the throwing arm is lowered down in throwing. 2. The leftward inclination angle of the body was larger in order of right-side attacks > center attacks > left side attacks. 3. Players' throwing form was close to three quarter style in left-side attacks. In center and right-side attacks, the arm was somewhat more upright but still it was more three quarter style than overhand style. 4. The front-rear throwing angle at the moment of release was much higher in right-side attacks than in left-side ones. This is probably because the point of time for releasing the ball is usually late in right-side attacks and, as a result, the front-rear throwing angle becomes quite large. 5. The contribution of body parts on the ball speed was higher in order of the forearm > upper arm, hand > shoulder joint. 6. In players whose distance between the two legs at the moment of release, their body usually did not incline to the side much. Thus it is considered necessary to correct the right leg in their shooting motion. 7. According to the result of analyzing throwing form, the speed of the ball at the moment of leaving the hand was faster in right-side attacks than in left-side and center attacks.
The Effect of Low Back Pain on the EMG of Professional Golfer's Drive Swing
Park, Jong-Rul ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.067
The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the muscle activations between the professional golfers without low back pain symptom and the professional golfers with low back pain symptom, and so identify the stress related to golf swings, and provide the basic data to minimize the low back pain and the injury risk. Using surface electrode electromyography, we evaluated muscle activity in 6 male professional golfers during the golf drive swing. Surface electrodes were used to record the level of muscle activity in the Abdominal Oblique, Elector Spinae, Rectus Abdominis, Gluteus Maximus muscles during the golfer's swing. These signals were compared with %RVC(Reference voluntary contraction) which was normalized by IEMG(Integrated EMG). The golf swing was divided into five phases: take away, forward swing, acceleration, early follow through, late follow through. we observed patterns of trunk muscle activity throughout five phases of the golf swing. The results can be summarized as follows: RES(Right Elector Spinae) had statistically significant difference in take away phase, LGM(Left Gluteus Maximus), LRA(Left Rectus Abdominis), LOA(Left Oblique Abdominal) had statistically significant difference in forward swing phase, RES(Right Elector Spinae), RGM(Right Gluteus Maximus), ROA(Right Oblique Abdominal) had statistically significant difference in acceleration phase, RES(Right Elector Spinae), RGM(Right Gluteus Maximus) had statistically significant difference in early follow-through phase, LES(Left Elector Spinae), RGM(Right Gluteus Maximus) had statistically significant difference in late follow through phase.
Kinematic characteristics of the ankle joint and RPM during the supra maximal training in cycling
Lee, Yong-Woo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 75~83
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.075
The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic characteristics of the ankle joint and RPM(repetition per minutes) during the supra maximal training in cycling. For this study, 8 national representative cyclists, distance cyclists in track and road, were selected. During the super-maximum pedalling, kinematic data were collected using a six-camera(240Hz) Qualisys system. the room coordinate system was right-handed and fixed in the back of a roller for cycle, with right-handed orthogonal segment coordinate systems defined for the leg and foot. Lateral kinematic data were recorded at least for 3 minutes while the participants pedal on a roller. Two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates for each marker were determined at the time of recording using a nonlinear transformation technique. Coordinate data were low-pass filtered using a fourth-order Butterworth recursive filter with cutoff frequency of 15Hz. Variables analyzed in this study were compared using a one factor(time) ANOVA with repeated measures. The results of investigation suggest that the number of rotating pedal was decreased with time phase during the super-maximum pedaling. Maximum angle of the ankle joint showed little in change with time phase compared with minimum angle of that.
3-D Kinematic comparison of One Hand Backhand Stroke and Two Hand Backhand Stroke in Tennis
Choi, Ji-Young ; Shin, Je-Min ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 85~95
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.085
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between the segments of the body, the three dimensional anatomical angle during One Hand Backhand Stroke and Two Hand Backhand in tennis. For the movement analysis three dimensional cinematographical method(APAS) was used and for the calculation of the kinematic variables a self developed program was used with the LabVIEW 6.1 graphical programming(Johnson, 1999) program. By using Eular's equations the three dimensional anatomical Cardan angles of the joint and racket head direction were defined. 1. In three dimensional maximum linear velocity of racket head the X axis and Y axis(horizontal direction) showed
before impact, the z axis(vertical direction) maximum linear velocity of racket head did not show at impact but after impact this will resulted influence upon hitting ball. It could be suggest that Y axis velocity of racket head influence on ball direction and z axis velocity influence on ball spin after impact. The stance distance between right foot and left foot was mean
during one hand backhand stroke and
during two hand backhand stroke. 2. The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of trunk in interna rotation-external rotation showed most important role in backhand stroke. and is follwed by flexion-extension. the three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of trunk did not show significant difference between one hand backhand stroke and two hand backhand stroke but the three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of trunk was bigger than one hand backhand stroke. 3. while backhand stroke, the flexion-extension and adduction-abduction of right shoulder joint showed significant different between one hand backhand stroke and two hand backhand stroke. the three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of right shoulder joint showed more flex and abduct in one hand backhand stroke. 4. The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of left shoulder showed flexion, adduction, and external rotation at impact. after impact, The angular displacement as adduction-abduction of left shoulder changed motion direction as abduction. angular displacement of left shoulder as flexion-extension showed bigger than the right shoulder.
Kinematic analysis of professional golfers hip joint motion on the horizontal plane during driver swinging
Park, Young-Hoon ; Youm, Chang-Hong ; Seo, Kook-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 97~104
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.097
Previous studies of kinematic analysis of golf swing usually dealt with variations vertically. The purpose of the study was to examine the horizontal hip joints motion of the fifteen male professional golfers during driver swinging. Kinematic variables were calculated by the Kwon3D motion analysis program. Paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA were used to compare the hip height, distance, displacement, and position differences. Results showed that there were no hip height changes and no hip height differences between left and right hip from address to impact. The axis of the backswing was braced right hip, the axis of the downswing was moving left hip. Hips position at the top of the backswing showed that hips move to target prior to hands, which means the sequential motion of the chain linked body segments. From address to impact, left hip moving distance was longer than right hip(p<.001), but during the whole swing, right hip moving distance was longer than left hip(p<.001). Hip rotation angle to target line was
at top of the backswing,
at impact, and
3-D Kinematic Analysis According to Stance Patterns During Forehand Stroke in Tennis
Choi, Ji Young ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 105~115
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.105
Recently among several tennis techniques forehand stroke has been greatly changed in the aspect of spin, grip and stance. The most fundamental factor among the three factors is the stance which consists of open, square and closed stance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between the segments of the body, the three dimensional anatomical angle according to open, close, and square stance patterns during forehand stroke in tennis. For the movement analysis three dimensional cinematographical method(APAS) was used and for the calculation of the kinematic variables a self developed program was used with the LabVIEW 6.1 graphical programming(Johnson, 1999) program. By using Eular's equations the three dimensional anatomical Cardan angles of the joint and racket head angle were defined. In conclusion, the first hypothesis, "In three dimensional maximum linear velocity of racket head would be significant difference among the stance patterns during forehand stroke in tennis" was rejected. The second hypothesis, "In three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of trunk would be significant difference among the stance patterns during forehand stroke in tennis" was rejected and the result showed that the internal-external rotation showed most important role among the three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of trunk The third hypothesis, "In three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of upperlimb would be significant difference among the stance patterns during forehand stroke in tennis" was rejected and the result showed that The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of shoulder joint showed most important role in forehand stroke. Flexion-extension and internal-external rotation the open stance showed the largest angular displacement and is follwed by square stance and closed stance. The fourth hypothesis, "In three dimensional anatomical angular velocity of upperlimb would be significant difference among the stance patterns during forehand stroke in tennis" was rejected and the result showed that X-axis angular velocity and Z-axis angular velocity the square stance showed the largest angular velocity of the trunk and X-axis angular velocity and Y-axis angular velocity the closed stance showed the largest angular velocity of the shoulder joint.
Impact shock and kinematic characteristics of the lower extremity's joint during downhill running
Ryu, Ji-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 117~129
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.117
The purpose of this study was to characterize the impact shock wave and its attenuation, and the kinematic response of the lower extremity's joints to the impact shock during downhill running in which the lower extremity's extensor acts dominantly. For this study, fifteen subjects(mean age:
) were required to run on the 0% grade treadmill and downhill grades of 7%, and 15% in random at speed of their preference. When the participant run, acceleration at the tibia and the sacrum and kinematic data of the lower extremity were collected for 20s so as to provide at least 5 strides for analysis at each grade. Peak impact accelerations were used to calculate shock attenuation between the tibia and sacrum in time domain at each grade. Fast Fourier transformation(FFT) and power spectral density(PSD) techniques were used to analyze impact shock factors and its attenuation in the frequency domain. Joint coordinate system technique was used to compute angular displacement of the ankle and knee joint in three dimension. The conclusions were drawn as fellows: 1. Peak impact accelerations of the tibia and sacrum in downhill run were greater than that of 0% grade run, but no significant between conditions. Peak shock of PSD resembled also in pattern of peak impact acceleration. The wave of impact shock attenuation between the tibia and sacrum decreased with increasing grade, but didn't find a significant difference between grade conditions. 2. Adduction/abduction, flexion/extention, and internal/external rotation of the ankle and knee joints at support phase between grade conditions didn't make much difference. 3. At grade of 7% and 15%, there were relationship between the knee of the flexion/extension movement and peak impact acceleration during heel strike and found also it in the ankle of plantar/dorsiflexion at grade of 15%.
The Variability Analysis of the Kinematic Variables of the Lower Extremities During AK(above-knee) Amputee Gait
Seo, Uk-hyeon ; Ryu, Ji-seon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 131~142
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.131
This study was investigated the stability of the AK amputee gait through analysing the variability on kinematic variables between the sound leg and the prosthetic limb. The one male, AK amputee who could walk for himself with his prosthetic limb was participated in this study. Six cameras of the MCU 240 and the QTM(Qualisys Track Manager) software were used for data collecting in this study. The relative angle of both segments was the difference between the absolute angle of the distal segment and the absolute angle of the proximal segment. The coupling angles between the prosthetic limb and the sound leg were caculated on the thigh Flexion/Extension in relative to the shank Flexion/Extension and the shank Flexion/Extension n relative to the foot Flexion/Extension. In order to evaluate the variability of segment and joint angle, C.V. was used, and to evaluate the variability for coupling angles, the Relative motion calculated by vector coding method of the continuous methods was used. As stated, the gait pattern of the prosthetic limb was almost similar gait pattern of the sound leg, but the prosthetic limb showed that the gait pattern of the sound leg and the prosthetic limb were not stable against the sound leg.
The Biomechanical Analysis of the Cuervo Salto Forward Straight Vaults with Twists
Lim, Kyu-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 143~151
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.143
This study was conducted to investigate the technical factors of Cuervo forward straight vaults with single twist, single and half twists, and double twists actually performed by three execellent male gymnasts participated in artistic gymnastics competition of 2003 summer Universiade in Daegu and the 85th National Sports Festival in Cheongju. To accomplish the research goals the Cuervo vaults of three gymnasts were filmed by using three digital camcorders set by 60 Hz, and data were collected through the DLT method of three dimensional cinematography. The kinematic and kinetic variables as each phasic time, CM displacement velocity, release angle inclination angle hip joint angle landing angle, average horse reaction force average moment arm average torque, whoe body's total remote local angular momentum were analyzed, so the following conclusions were reached. Generally to perform the better Cuervo vault, a gymnast should touch down on the board with the great horizontal velocity of the whole body through the fast run-up, and touch down on the horse by decreasing the horizontal displacement of the whole body during the preflight, so raise CM height gradually within a short horse contact time. He should increase the horse reaction force through checking the horizontal velocity of the whole body effectively and the inclination angular displacement of the handstand, if so he can have the large vertical velocity of the whole body. By using the acquired the velocity and the angular momentum of the whole body, he can vault himself higher and twist sufficiently, then he can get better if the body could be tilted by swinging both arms and perform the cat twist with a little flexions at hip joints. According to the above outcomes we can judge that the best athletes is LuBin, the better is YTY, and the next is JSM.
The Influence of Midsole Hardness and Sole Thickness of Sport Shoes on Ball Flex Angle with the Increment of Running Velocity
Kwak, Chang-Soo ; Mok, Seung-Han ; Kwon, Oh-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 153~168
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.153
The purposes of this study were to determine the influence of midsole hardness and sole thickness of sports shoes on ball flex angle and position with increment of running velocity. The subjects employed for this study were 10 college students who did not have lower extremity injuries for the last one year and whose running pattern was rearfoot striker of normal foot. The shoes used in this study had 3 different midsole hardness of shore A 40, shore A 50, shore A 60 and 3 different sole thickness of 17cm, 19cm, 21cm. The subjects were asked to run at 3 different speed of 2.0m/sec, 3.5m/sec, 5.0m/sec and their motions were videotaped with 4 S-VHS video cameras and 2 high speed video cameras and simultaneously measured with a force platform. The following results were obtained after analysing and comparing the variables. Minimum angle of each ball flex position were increased with the increment of running velocity and shoe sole thickness(P<0.05), but mid-sole hardness did not affect minimum ball flex angle. The position which minimum angle was shown as smallest was 'D'. Midsole hardness and sole thickness did not affect time to each ball flex minimum angle, total angular displacement of ball flex angle, and total angular displacement of torsion angle(P<0.05). The position which minimum angle was appeared to be earliest was similar at walking velocity, and E and F of midfoot region at running velocity. Total angular displacement of ball flex position tended to increase as shifted to heel. It was found that running velocity had effects on ball flex angle variables, but shoe sole thickness partially affected. It would be considered that running velocity made differences between analysis variables at walking and running when designing shoes. Also, it was regarded that shoes would be developed at separated region, because ball flex angle and position was shown to be different at toe and heel region. It is necessary that midsole hardness and thickness required to functional shoes be analyzed in the further study.
The Kinematical Analysis of female 500m Sprint Start in 2005 World Short Track speed Skating Championship
Lee, Chong-Hoon ; Back, Jin-Ho ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 169~179
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.169
In the 500m short track speed skating, the matter of who reaches the first corner first can important factor since each competitor races with all speed from the start to the first line. A filed study was attempted to kinematical estimation six female foreign skaters, who participated in the 500m female final round competition, and two Korea skates during the World Short track Skating Championship. The three dimensional motion analysis with DLT method was executed using four video cameras for analyzing the actual competition situation. In point of analyzing the actual competition situation, it is expected that skaters and coaches the effective informations, and the following conclusions are drawn; The elapsed time by phase in start motion of the foreign skaters appeared shorter those of Korea skaters, so the start training of Korea skaters should be strengthed. Also the displacement of C.G in the foreign skaters appeared shorter displacement than those of Korea skaters. Especially in the starting position, the foreign skaters are superior to Korea skaters in displacement of first(left) and next following stroke(right). The velocity of C.G and maximum velocity of skate blade of foreign skaters art faster than those of Korea skaters. And the foreign skaters show the superior early velocity change. Both of leaning body angle, and left and knee angle of the foreign skaters lead to positive point of having the propulsive force in the early starting position. Observing in the most prominent feature of foreign and Korea skaters in start phase, foreign skaters skate quickly the third stroke. These features of Korea skaters would appear disadvantage of location selection in entering the coner course.
Changes of Impact Variables by the Change of Golf Club Length
Sung, Rak-Joon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 181~189
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.181
To know the proper impact posture and changes for the various clubs, changes of impact variables according to the change of golf club length was investigated. Swing motions of three male low handicappers including a professional were taken using two high-speed video cameras. Four clubs iron 7, iron 5, iron 3 and driver (wood 1) were selected for this experiment. Three dimensional motion analysis techniques were used to get the kinematical variables. Mathcad and Kwon3D motion analysis program were used to analyze the position, distance and angle data in three dimensions. Major findings of this study were as follows. 1. Lateral position of the head remained more right side of the target up to 3.5cm compared to the setup as the length of the club increased. 2. Left shoulder raised up to 5cm and right shoulder lowered up to 2.5cm compared to setup. The shoulder line opened slightly (maximum 11 degrees) to the target line. 3. Forward lean angle of the trunk decreased up to 4 degrees (more erected) compared to setup. 4. Side lean angle of the trunk increased compared to setup and increased up to 16 degrees as the club length increased. 5. The pelvis moved to the target line direction horizontally and opened up to 31 degrees. Right hip moves laterally to the grip position at the setup. 6. Flexion of the left leg maintained almost constantly but the right leg flexed up to 11 degrees compared to setup. 7. Left arm is straightened but the right arm flexed about 20degrees compared to straight. 8. Center of the shoulders were in front of the knees and toes of the feet. 9. Hands moved to the left (8.7cm), forward (5.7cm) and upward (11.6cm) compared to the setup. This is because of the rotation of pelvis and shoulders. 10. Shaft angle to the ground was smaller than the lie angle of the clubs but it increased close to the lie of the clubs at impact.
A Case Study of Angular Momentum of Trunk and Lower extremity when Performing Uchimata by Posture and Voluntary Resistance Levels of Uke in Korean Judo Olympian[III]
Kim, Eui-hwan ; Kim, Sung-sup ; Chung, Chae-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 15, issue 4, 2005, Pages 191~203
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2005.15.4.191
It was to study a following research of "A Kinematical Traits Analysis when Performing Uchimata(inner thigh reaping throw) by Posture and Voluntary Resistance Levels(VRL) of Uke in Judo" and. "A Case Study of Center of Gravity(COG) when Performing Uchimata(inner thigh reaping throw) by Posture and Voluntary Resistance Levels(VRL) of Uke in Judo[II]". The purpose of this study was to analyze an angular momentum of trunk and lower extremity when performing uchimata by two postures and voluntary resistance levels(VRL) of uke(reciver) in Judo. The subjects, who were one male judoka(YH) for 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games Olympian(silver medalist), was filmed on two S-VHS 16mm video cameras(60fields/sec.) through 3-dimensional motion analysis methods, that postures of uke were shizenhontai (straight natural posture:NP) and jigohontai (straight defensive posture:DP), VRL of uke were 0% and 100%, respectively. The variables were angular momentum of trunk, lower extremity of attacking leg and supporting leg of tori(the thrower). The data of this study collection were digitized by SIMI Motion Program computed the mean values and the standard deviation calculated for each variables. When performing uchimata according to each posture and VRL of uke and classifying. From the data analysis and discussion, the conclusions were as follows : Angular momentum of trunk when performing uchimata was showed the largest among another angular momenta, and the posture displayed more different than resistant of uke(reciver), but the pattern similar in judo. Angular momentum of trunk of X axis was the largest and Y, Z axis order. Angular momentum of attacking the thigh-leg when performing uchimata was showed the largest among another angular momenta, and the posture displayed more different than resistant of uke(reciver), X axis and Y axis similar, but angular momentum of Z axis of thigh-leg the largest, in kake(application) event in 0% resistance of DP than other variables. Angular momentum in X,Y axis of attacking the lower-leg when performing uchimata was showed that the resistance level displayed more different than posture, but Z axis the largest, in kake(E3) phase in 0% resistance of DP than other variables as same thigh-leg, and the largest from tsukuri(set-up:E2) to kake(E3) phase. X and Z axis Angular momentum of supporting the thigh-leg were similar, regardless of posture and resistance of uke, but Y axis was resistance level. Angular momentum of supporting the thigh-leg was showed the largest in X axis, increased from EO event to E2, and decreased in E3, and angular momenta of Y, X axis were showed the largest in kuzushi(balance breaking) phase when performing uchimata. Angular momentum of supporting the lower leg were similar pattern, regardless of posture and resistance of uke, in Y axis, resistance displayed more difficult the position in NP, and showed opposite angular momentum in tsukuri phase. In conclusion, angular momentum of trunk when performing uchimata was showed the largest, and pattern was similar, regardless of posture than resistant of uke(reciver), magnitude and direction were different each other, and uchimata was Ashi -waza(foot and leg techniques) division but important of trunk action.