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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
Selecting the target year
The Differences of the Normalized Jerk According to Shoes, Velocity and Slope During Walking
Han, Young-Min ; Choi, Jin-Seung ; Kim, Hyung-Sik ; Lim, Young-Tae ; Yi, Jeong-Han ; Tack, Gye-Rae ; Yi, Kyung-Ok ; Park, Seung-Bum ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.001
The purpose of this study was to evaluate normalized jerk according to shoes, slope, and velocity during walking. Eleven different test subjects used three different types of shoes (running shoes, mountain climbing boots, and elevated forefoot walking shoes) at various walking speeds(1.19, 1.25, 1.33, 1.56, 1.78, 1.9, 2, 2.11, 2.33m/sec) and gradients(0, 3, 6, 10 degrees) on a treadmill. Since there were concerns about using the elevated forefoot shoes on an incline, these shoes were not used on a gradient. Motion Analysis (Motion Analysis Corp. Santa Rosa, CA USA) was conducted with four Falcon high speed digital motion capture cameras. Utilizing the maximum smoothness theory, it was hypothesized that there would be differences in jerk according to shoe type, velocity, and slope. Furthermore, it was assumed that running shoes would have the lowest values for normalized jerk because subjects were most accustomed to wearing these shoes. The results demonstrated that elevated forefoot walking shoes had lowest value for normalized jerk at heel. In contrast, elevated forefoot walking shoes had greater normalized jerk at the center of mass at most walking speeds. For most gradients and walking speeds, hiking boots had smaller medio-lateral directional normalized jerk at ankle than running shoes. These results alluded to an inverse ratio for jerk at the heel and at the COM for all types of shoes. Furthermore, as velocity increased, medio-lateral jerk was reduced for all gradients in both hiking boots and running shoes. Due to the fragility of the ankle joint, elevated forefoot walking shoes could be recommended for walking on flat surfaces because they minimize instability at the heel. Although the elevated forefoot walking shoes have the highest levels of jerk at the COM, the structure of the pelvis and spine allows for greater compensatory movement than the ankle. This movement at the COM might even have a beneficial effect of activating the muscles in the back and abdomen more than other shoes. On inclines hiking boots would be recommended over running shoes because hiking boots demonstrated more medio-lateral stability on a gradient than running shoes. These results also demonstrate the usefulness of normalized jerk theory in analyzing the relationship between the body and shoes, walking velocity, and movement up a slope.
The Kinematic Analysis of the Lower Limbs Joint and the Study of Muscle Activity for the Lower Limbs Muscle During the Level and Downhill Running
Moon, Gon-Sung ; Choi, Ji-Young ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 9~19
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.009
The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematic variables of the lower limbs joints and the muscle activity for lower limbs during the level and downhill running. The subjects were 6 males of twenties and required to run on the level and downhill which was -7% grade treadmill at 8.3km/h. The running performances were filmed by high speed video camera and EMG signal was gained by ME3000P8 Measurement Unit. Rectus femoris(RF), Vastus lateralis(VL), Gluteus medius(GLU), Biceps femoris(BF), gastrocnemius medial head(GM), gastrocnemius lateral head(GL), Soleus(SO), Tibialis anterior(TA) were selected. The result of this study were as follows: 1. Ankle, knee, hip joint in downhill running showed less movement than the level running but, no significant difference. 2. VL and BF during the support phase in downhill running showed Iess muscle activity than the level running. but RF showed the opposite result. 3. GM, GL, SO adn TA during the supports phase in downhill running showed less muscle activity than the level running.
The Diagnosis and Prescription for Correcting Errors of Putting in Golf Skill : A Case Study
Hah, Chong-Ku ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 21~24
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.021
The purpose of this paper is to diagnose the errors by comparing putting motion with the single pendulum pattern applicable to putting in golf skill and order prescription that correct errors of putting. In the modern-day game of golf, putting remains the key to shooting low scores, and the ability to hole putts can turn a good round into a great round A semi-golfer, subject(sex female, age 20yrs, mass 94.3kg, height 1.65m) who has troubles to do putting is chosen. Six cameras, ProReflex MCU240(240Hz) made by Qualisys company is used to capture putting motion and data is processed by QTM(Qualisys Track Manager) and Mathematica 5.0. The result that differentiates the putting and the single pendulum pattern is acquired To make the pattern of subject's putting to the single pendulum pattern quasi-equal, one tries to lower center of mass gradually. As a result of it, one has a similar pattern like the single pendulum Conclusively, to lower C.O.M one orders prescriptions that increase the weight and length of a putter and lower C.O.M subject's segment. Further improvements to the study could be to train a subject according to prescriptions and to monitor putting again. It will probably be necessary to simulate putting motions and to research relations for body shapes and putting patterns in order to establish suitable putting-motions.
Shock Attenuation Mechanism in Drop Landing According to the Backpack Weight Changes
Choi, Chi-Sun ; Nam, Ki-Jeong ; Shin, In-Sik ; Seo, Jung-Suk ; Eun, Seon-Deok ; Kim, Suk-Bum ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 25~35
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.025
The purpose of this study was to investigate the shock attenuation mechanisms while varying the loads in a backpack during drop landing. Ten subjects (age:
) performed drop landing under five varying loads (0, 5kg. 10kg. 20kg. 30kg). By employing two cameras (Sony VX2100) the following kinematic variables (phase time, joint rotational angle and velocity of ankle, knee and hip) were calculated by applying 2D motion analysis. Additional data, i.e. max vertical ground force (VGRF) and acceleration, was acquired by using two AMTI Force plates and a Noraxon Inline Accelerometer Sensor. Through analysing the power spectrum density (PSD), drop landing patterns were classified into four groups and each group was discovered to have a different shock attenuation mechanism. The first pattern that appeared at landing was that the right leg absorbed most of the shock attenuation. The second pattern to appear was that subject quickly transferred the load from the right leg to the left leg as quickly as possible. Thus, this illustrated that two shock attenuation mechanisms occurred during drop landing under varying load conditions.
Comparative Analysis of Muscle Activities for Upper Extremity During Resistance Exercises Using Variable and Elastic Loads
Lim, Young-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 37~44
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.037
The purposes of this study were to analyze and compare EMG activities of the pectoralis major, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and brachioradialis muscles during biceps curls using a VRT device and an elastic tubing. Fifteen male college students were recruited as subjects and they performed 10-RM and 20-RM biceps curls. For each load and device condition, the mean and peak normalized EMG levels during different phases of a biceps curl were computed. For each load and phase, paired t-test (p.05) was used to find the significant difference between two devices. ANOVA with repeated measures was also used to find the significant difference among phases in terms of EMG values for each muscle. For each load and device condition, the peak and mean EMG levels during different phases of a biceps curl were computed The significant differences between devices were found in biceps brachii for EA, MD, LD phases, and triceps brachii muscles for all phases, respectively. However, no differences were found among phases for any muscle. This indicated that elastic band could have a similar characteristics of VRT. High antagonistic muscle activity as a function of injury prevention which found particularly in VRT device may suggest that elastic tubing can be a safer training device than VRT. This also imply that elastic tubing could be very effective as a home exercise tool for rehabilitation patients and elderly people.
A Kinematic Analysis of Morote-Seoinage(two-handed shoulder throw) According to the Kumi-kata Types in Judo[ I ]
Kim, Ji-Tae ; Heo, Seong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 45~53
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.045
The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise related mechanical variables according to performance levels and Kumi-kata types in elite judo players (G1) and non-elite judo players, namely university players (G2). To achieve this purpose, three players in G1 whose main special skill was Morote-Seoinage and three university judo players(G2) was selected as comparative group. Then they were examined for distinguishing A and B types of Kumi-kata. Analyzed variables were the time required to show skills, knee degree, elbow degree. After analysing this study, conclusions were derived as follows. 1. In total necessary time of showing skills according to group of Kumi-kata type, G2 was longer than G1 in both A type (20.9%) and B type (23.7%). In necessary time of phase, in only 3P, G1 was shorter than G2 in A type (50%) and B type (75%). There was no difference in time required of 1P and 2P according to Kumi-kata type of group and in only 3P, B type was shorter than A type in both B type (75%) of G1 and B type (50%) of G2 2 There was no difference in elbow degree of offensive arm according to group of Kumi-kata type, however in A and B types, G1 could use skills by extending in kake phase, but G2 could use skills by bending. Elbow degree of offensive arm according to Kumi-kata type of group showed difference in E1. and F2 of G1. A and B types of G1 extended elbow degree in Kake phase, but G2 bent elbow degree so exercise program which could movable range extensively in Kake phase is needed.
The Study of Muscle Contraction Effect of Vibration Exercise Device Using Surface Electromyography
Baik, Sung-Kook ; Lim, Young-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 55~63
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.055
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of vibration exercise using surface electromyography. Seven male collegiate wrestlers were participated in this study. Each subject stood on the platform and the vibration was induced for 1min. WEMG8 EMG system was used to record muscle activity from Vastus lateralis, Biceps Femoris, Tibialis Anterior, and Gastrocnemius. The EMG data were sampled for 30 sec. during non-vibration and vibration half squat position, respectively. The raw data were band pass filtered to remove noise and full wave rectified Paired sample t-test were performed to see the differences of maximum and average EMG between non-vibration and vibration trials. The results indicated that vibration produced much more muscle contraction than that of non-vibration trial for all selected muscles even though the significant difference was found only from Biceps Femoris. This phenomenon was due to the individual differences so care must be taken to evaluate vibration intensity and position before personal training.
Comparative Analysis of Kinematics Factors in Performing Techniques of 1/1Turn, Stretched, and Tucked on the Old Vaulting Horse and the New Vaulting Table
Kim, Ji-Tae ; Heo, Seong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 65~73
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.065
The aim of this study was to find out the differences of Kinematics factors from touching down the vaulting board to landing when techniques of 1/1Turn and Tucked were performed on the old vaulting horse and on the new vaulting table. Three national representative men gymnasts were sampled for this study. Three dimension motion analyses by means of six Sony PD-150 video cameras with the velocity of 60 fps were used As a result of analyzing the kinematic data from two kind of vaulting table, the following conclusions were made. 1. The performing time from taking off the vaulting horse to landing(phase 4) in the 1/1 Turn technique on the new vaulting table was significantly longer than that of the old vaulting horse, while the time from contacting to taking off the vaulting horse on the new vaulting table was shorter than that of the old vaulting horse in both and the Tucked techniques. 2. The vertical release COG velocity was faster on the new vaulting table compare to the old vaulting horse in the all kind technique. However the horizontal release COG velocity of the 1/1 Turn technique was faster a little in the old vaulting horse compare to the new vaulting table.
Biomechanical Comparison of HG(hard ground) Soccer Footwear and SG(soft ground) Soccer Footwear
Jin, Young-Wan ; Shin, Je-Min ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 75~83
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.075
The Purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical difference of two soccer footwear. which will provide scientific data to coaches and players, to further prevent injuries and to improve each players skills. The result of this study can be summarized after testing the two types of soccer footwear with comparative transforming heel angles and also with a pressure distribution in running. When a player's foot first touched the ground, the average difference of in/eversion was between 1.2 and 3.1 degrees for the two soccer shoes. In regards to maximum inversion and eversion of foot, maximum tibial rotation, and maximum and total movement of foot, the condition of barefoot and the two soccer shoes showed a small difference from 1.5 to 3.5 degrees and the difference among the subjects of study wasn't constant. In regards to maximum velocity of inversion and eversion running in one's bare feet showed much lower inversion velocity in comparison to putting on two types of soccer shoes and comparison of the average. Among some of the subjects, after putting on the two types of soccer shoes exceeded
in maximum velocity of eversion. In the maximum braking impulse(t=2774, p<.05) and propulsive impulse for antero-posterior direction, there was a statistically significant difference between the two soccer footwear at running. In the maximum braking force(t=3.270, p<.05) and propulsive force(t=4.956, p<.05) for antero-posterior direction, there was a statistically significant difference between the two soccer footwear at running.
The Comparative Analysis of Kinematic And Emg on Power Walking and Normal Gait
Cho, Kyu-Kwon ; Kim, You-Sin ; Kim, Eun-Jung ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 85~95
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.085
The purpose of this study of which 10 University students in their twenties are the objects was to examine the causal differences of kinematic and electromyography during power walking and normal gait. We came to the following conclusions. 1) It took less time to stance phase, swing phase and whole gait time during power walking compared with normal gait. 2) During power walking, the step length and step length and lower limb length are longer than that of normal gait. 3) During power walking, ankle joint angle became more plantar flexed at LIC and RTO, knee joint angle become more flexed, so did hip joint angle at LIC and RTO. Besides during power walking the shoulder joint angle movement was bigger and elbow joint angle was more flexed as the trait of power walking. 4) During power walking, through out the phase the muscle activity of all muscle was higher expecially the muscle activity of Biceps brachii, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, Soleus was higher. Therefore during power walking, one's scope of activity and muscle activity is relatively higher than those of normal gait, so power walking helps one strengthen muscular power and energy metabolism. This will be useful information for those who are interested in diet and well-being.
The Kinematic Analysis of the Tennis Flat Serve Motion
Oh, Cheong-Hwan ; Choi, Su-Nam ; Nam, Taek-Gil ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 97~108
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.097
By the comparison and the analysis of the different factors during the tennis flat serve motion such as the required time per section, the movement displacement of the racket, the velocity of the upper limbs joints, the physical center of gravity, and the angle and the angular velocity of the upper limbs joints between an ace player and a mediocre player, these following results were drawn. First, the experiment result of the total time required per section in a tennis flat serve motion showed that an ace player was faster than a mediocre player by 0.4 seconds. This result suggested that it was required to increase the speed of the racket head by a swift swing to perform an effective flat serve motion. Second, the experiment result of the movement displacement of the racket in the tennis flat serve motion showed that an ace player greatly moved toward the left side on an x-axis. But both an ace and a mediocre player were shown to be at the similar points on a y-axis at the moment of the impact of the racket. An ace player was also shown to be located at a higher position on a z-axis by 0.23m. Third, the velocity of the center of gravity of an ace player was faster in every phase than that of a mediocre player in a tennis flat serve motion. Fourth, the velocity of the upper limb joints of an ace player was faster in every phase than that of a mediocre player in a tennis flat serve motion. Fifth, the experiment result of the speed of the racket head in tennis flat serve motion showed that a mediocre player was faster than an ace player in the first phase, but the latter was faster than the former in the second, third, and the fourth phases. Sixth, at the moment of impact of a tennis flat serve, an ace player had greater flexion of the angle of the wrist joints by an 11.8 degree than a mediocre player. An ace player also had greater extension of the angle of the elbow joint and the shoulder joint respectively by a 5.2 degree and a 1.4 degree with a mediocre player. Seventh, an ace player had greater angular velocity of the upper limb joints and the hip joints than a mediocre player at the moment of the impact of tennis flat serve. Eighth, an ace player was shown to have a greater change of the forward and the backward inclination (or the anterior and posterior inclination) of the upper body
Kinematic Analysis of Piked KOVACS Skill on the Horizontal Bars
Lee, Yeong-Jong ; Back, Jin-Ho ; Chung, Jin-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 109~120
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.109
The purpose of this study was to examine the kinematical characteristics of gymnasts who can perform the KOVACS skill, and to grope for the better KOVACS Piked motion. The subjects were 3 male national gymnasts and were filmed with video cameras. And kinematic data were collected from the event of maximum knee flexion to the re-grasp the bar after airborne motion during KOVACS Piked motion. And the following conclusion were drawn; S1 took the enough time and inadequate height for performing KOVACS Piked motion. S2 showed the inadequate time and height during airborne motion with the large forward-backward and left-right movement. S3 showed the better KOVACS Piked movement among gymnasts, but the weak point of S3 was the large left-right shift. Based on the above conclusions, the gymnasts should be trained the enough time and height for the effective airborne movement and to reduce the left-right movement.
The Effect of Rehabilitation Training Programs on the Kinetic and Kinematic Parameters During Sit-To-Stand in Chronic Stroke Patients
Yu, Yeon-Joo ; Yoon, Te-Jin ; Eun, Seon-Deok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 121~134
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.121
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of different types of rehabilitation training program on the kinetic and kinematic parameters during sit-to-stand movement(STS) in chronic stroke patients. Two groups of hemiparetic patients, experimental and control, participated in the study. The experimental group participated in a 10-week training program (three sessions/wk,
) consisting of a warm-up, aerobic exercises, lower extremity strengthening. and a cool-down. The control group participated in an aerobic exercise. Three dimensional kinematic analysis and force platform; were used to analyze the duration of STS, lower extremity angle, and weight bearing ability. The experimental group which had more strength of lower extremity displayed decrease in duration of STS. However, the control group showed increases in duration during sit-to-stand movement. The control group flexed their trunk more than the group did Therefore, it took more time to extend their trunk during STS. The duration in sit-to-stand was affected by the strength of lower extremity and the angle of trunk movement. The angles of ankle and knee joint had an influenced on duration of STS. The post experimental group performed with their feet near the front leg of the chair during sit-to-stand, therefore the duration was decreased. The repetitive sit-to-stand movements as a resistance exercise was effective to hemiparetic patients in learning mechanism of sit-to-stand. The control group showed decreased differences in the vertical ground reaction forces between paretic and non-paretic limbs. Their training program included strengthening exercise that may help improving weight bearing ability. The control group showed increases in the center of pressure in the anteroposterior and mediolateral displacement. This means that the stability of movement was low in the control group. Their training program which combined aerobic and strengthening exercises that are more effective to improve the stability of movement.
The Kinematic Difference to the Skill Level in the Yurchenko Stretch Skill of Horse Vaulting
Yoon, Chang-Sun ; Kim, Tae-Sam ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 135~144
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.135
This study was to investigate the kinematic analysis to score of the Yurchenko stretch skill according to phases in a horse vaulting. For this study, 8 male national gymnasts were participated in acquiring three dimensional kinematical imagining data with four Sony PD-150 video cameras After digitizing motion, the Direct Linear Transformation(DLT) technique was employed to obtain 3-D position coordinates. The kinematic factors of the distance, velocity and angle variable were calculated for Kwon3D 3.1. The following conclusions were drawn; 1) The COG resultant velocity of the less skilled group decreased in PRF phase because the less skilled group had a larger flexion-knee angle than the skilled group in BC phase, Because the less skilled group had larger flexion-shoulder angle than the skilled group in HTO phase, At blocking movement, the body inclined a moving direction. By means of it, COG lowered 2) The skilled group had a more rapid COG's vertical velocity than the less skilled group at HTD and HTO event in HC phase, because this was performed the blocking movement with body angle and contacted on a horse vaulting small and its time short by means of contacting hands on a horse vaulting quickly. Such blocking movement made the vertical up-flight movement easy at POF phase bringing out rapid COG's vertical velocity after take off a horse vaulting.
Gait Asymmetry in Children with Down Syndrome
Lim, Bee-Oh ; Han, Dong-Ki ; Seo, Jung-Suk ; Eun, Seon-Deok ; Kwon, Young-Hoo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 145~151
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.145
A large interindividual variability and some abnormally kinematic patterns at the lower extremity were the main features of the gait in children with Down syndrome. The purposes of this study were to investigate the gait asymmetry and biomechanical difference between dominant leg and non dominant leg in children with Down syndrome. Seven boys with Down Syndrome(age:
, leg length:
) participated in this study. A 10.0 m
1.3 m walkway with a firm dark surface was built and used for data collection. Three-dimensional motion analyses were performed to obtain the joint angles and range of motions. The vertical ground reaction forces(%BW) and impulses(
) were measured by two force plates embedded in the walkway. Asymmetry indices between the legs were computed for all variables. After decision the dominant leg and the non dominant leg with max hip abduction angle, paired samples t-test was employed for selected kinematic and ground reaction force variables to analyze the differences between the dominant leg and the non dominant leg. The max hip abduction angle during the swing phase showed most asymmetry, while the knee flexion angle at initial contact showed most symmetry in walking and running. The dominant leg showed more excessive abduction of hip in the swing phase and more flat-footed contact than the non dominant leg. Vertical peak force in running showed more larger than those of in walking, however, vertical impulse showed more small than walking due to decrease of support time. In conclusion, the foot of dominant leg contact more carefully than those of non dominant leg. And also, there are no significant difference between the dominant leg and the non dominant leg in kinematic variables and ground reaction force due to large interindividual variability.
The Kinematic Analysis on the Instep Shooting Motion of Female High School Soccer Players According to the Angles of Approach
Cho, Kyu-Kwon ; Kim, You-Sin ; Choi, Gil-Soon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 153~163
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.153
The purpose of this research was to analyze kinematic variables that appear during the instep shooting motion of female high school soccer players according to the angle of approach to find effective shooting motions. For this experiment, 5 female high school soccer players from the K city were participated in this study as the subject group, and as a through comparison and analysis of the resulting numbers of the variables, we came to the following conclusions. 1) Stride length and stride length/lower extremity length increased as the angle of approach increased. 2) As for C.O.G movement displacement, it was highest at an approach angle of
during Right Foot Contact, at
during Left Foot Contact, at
during Rigth Toe Top, at
during Impact, and at
during Follow through. 3) The time required for each phase was longest at APP and shortest at BSP. The time required increased a little as the angle of approach increased, and the total time required also increased as the angle of approach increased. 4) The angle of the ankle joint was largest at an approach angle of
for all events except Right Foot Contact. 5) The angle of the knee joint was largest at an approach angle of
during Right Foot Contact, at
during Left Foot Contact, at
during Right Toe Top, at
during Impact, and at
during Follow through. 6) The angle of the hip joint was largest at an approach angle of
during Right Foot Contact, at
during Left Foot Contact, at
during Right Toe Top, at
during Impact, and at
during Follow through.
A Study of Golf Swing Errors of Amateur Golfer
Lim, Jung ; Jeon, Chul-Woo ; Chung, Chae-Wook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 165~174
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.165
The purpose of this study was to review the relevant literature about coaching and thereupon, survey the coaching methods used for golfer lesson to reinterpret them and thereby, describe in view of kinetics the swing errors committed frequently by amateur golfers and suggest more scientific golfer coaching methods. For this purpose, kinetic elements were divided into precision and power ones and therewith, the variables affecting such elements were identified. On the other hand, swings were divided into address, take-back, back-swing, back-swing top, down-swing, impact and follow-through to determine 20 variables for each form and thereby, define their errors to determine the relations between their frequency and errors. For this study, a total of 60 amateur golfer were sampled, and their swing forms were photographed with two high-speed digital cameras, and the resultant images were analyzed to determine the errors of each form kinetically, which would be analyzed again with the program V1-5000. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; The kinetic elements could be identified as precision, power and precise power. Thus, setup and trajectory were classified into precision elements, while differences of inter-joint angles, cocking and delayed hitting. Lastly, timing and axial movement were classified into precise power elements. Three errors were identified in association with setup. The errors related with trajectory elements accounted for most (7) of the 20 errors. Three errors were determined for inter-joint angle differences, and one error was associated with cocking and delayed hitting. Lastly, one error was classified into timing error, while five errors were associated with axial movement. Finally, as a result of arranging the errors into a cross table, it was found that the errors were associated with each other between take-back and back-swing, take-back and follow-through, back-swing and back-swing top, and between back-swing and down-swing. Namely, an error would lead to other error repeatedly. So, it is more effective to identify all the errors for every form and correct them comprehensively rather than single out the errors and correct them one by one.
The Current Status and Tasks of Future Directions in Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Kim, Eui-Hwan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 175~192
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.175
The purpose of this study was to analyze the current status and suggest tasks of future directions for development of the Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics(KSSB). KSSB was established in the 22th of Oct.,1988. It is one of the great National Society recognized by the Korean Research Foundation, and consists of almost 350 members over national Sport Biomechanists. Two roles-functions of KSSB are as follows; one is an Independent Society by KSSB, the other is a sub-Society under Korean Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance(KAHPERD) run by 15 sub-Societies. The 2 great strategies toward all over the world of KSSB were Localization and Globalization. The grand four projects of KSSB in
are as followers: 1) The rationalization of organization-operating and decentralization, 2) The international levels of society, 3) The internationalizaton of quality of Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, and 4) The presentation award by quarterly and double-movements of members of KSSB. The tasks of future direction for development of KSSB are as followers : The localization and globalization of KSSB( see above as figure 4, table 12, 13, 14).
The Biomechanical Evaluation of New Walking-shoes
Kim, Eui-Hwan ; Chung, Chae-Wook ; Lim, Jung ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 2, 2006, Pages 193~205
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.2.193
This study was to analysis the kinematic and kinetic differences between new walking shoe(NWS : RYN) and general walking shoe(GWS). The subjects for this study were 10 male adults who had the walking pattern of rearfoot shrike with normal foot. The movement of one lower leg was measured using plantar pressure and Vicon Motion Analysis Program(6 MX13 and 2 MX40 cameras : 100 f / s) while the subjects walked at the velocity(1.5m/s. on 2m).. The results of this study was as follows : 1. The NWS was better than the GWS that caused injuries such as adduction, abduction and pronation are reduced While walking on a perpendicular surface, the landing angle and the knees angles were extensive which makes walking more safe which reduces anxiety and uneasiness. 2. The bottom of the NWS were now made into a more circular arch which supports the weight of the body and reduces the irregular angles when wearing GWS. This arch made the supporting area more wide which made the upholding the trunk of the body more effective. The whole bottom of the foot that supports the weight is more flexible in addition, increases the safeness of walking patterns and the momentum of the body. 3. The moment the heel of the foot of the NWS touch the ground, the range of the pressure were partially notable and the range of the pressure on the upper part of the thigh were dispersed The injuries that occurred while walking. primary factors when a shock related injuries are reduced Judgements of the impacts of the knees and the spinal column dispersing could be made.