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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
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Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
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Comparison of Newton's and Euler's Algorithm in a Compound Pendulum
Hah, Chong-Ku ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.001
The Primary type of swinging motion in human movement is that which is characteristic of a pendulum. The two types of pendulums are identified as simple and compound. A simple pendulum consist of a small body suspended by a relatively long cord. Its total mass is contained within the bob. The cord is not considered to have mass. A compound pendulum, on the other hand, is any pendulum such as the human body swinging by hands from a horizontal bar. Therefore a compound pendulum depicts important motions that are harmonic, periodic, and oscillatory. In this paper one discusses and compares two algorithms of Newton's method(F = m a) and Euler's method (M =
) in compound pendulum. Through exercise model such as human body with weight(m = 50 kg), body length(L = 1.5m), and center of gravity (
= 0.4119L) from proximal end swinging by hands from a horizontal bar, one finds kinematic variables(angle displacement / velocity / acceleration), and simulates kinematic variables by changing body lengths and body mass. BSP by Clauser et al.(1969) & Chandler et al.(1975) is used to find moment of inertia of the compound pendulum. The radius of gyration about center of gravity (CoG) is
(단, k= radius of gyration, K= radius of gyration /segment length), and then moment of inertia about center of gravity(CoG) becomes
. Finally, moment of inertia about Z-axis by parallel theorem becomes
. The two-order ordinary differential equations of models are solved by ND function of numeric analysis method in Mathematica5.1. The results are as follows; First, The complexity of Newton's method is much more complex than that of Euler's method Second, one could be find kinematic variables according to changing body lengths(L = 1.3 / 1.7 m) and periods are increased by body length increment(L = 1.3 / 1.5 / 1.7 m). Third, one could be find that periods are not changing by means of changing mass(m = 50 / 55 / 60 kg). Conclusively, one is intended to meditate the possibility of applying a compound pendulum to sports(balling, golf, gymnastics and so on) necessary swinging motions. Further improvements to the study could be to apply Euler's method to real motions and one would be able to develop the simulator.
Biomechanical Comparison Analysis of Popular Insole and Functional Insole of Running Shoes
Shin, Sung-Hwon ; Jin, Young-Wan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 9~18
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.009
These studies show that I applied to functional insole (a specific S company) for minimizing shocks and sprain people's ankle arising from running. How to an effect on human body which studied a kinematics and kinetics from 10 college students during experiments. This study imposes several conditions by barefoot, normal running shoes and put functional insole shoes ran under average
meter per second by motion analysis, ground reaction force and electromyography that used to specific A company. First of all, Motion analysis was caused by Achilles tendon angle, Angle of the lower leg, Angle of the knee, Initial sole angle and Barefoot angle. Second, Contact time, Vertical impact force peak timing, Vertical active force and Active force timing, and Maximum loading rate under impulse of first 20 percent and Value of total impulse caused Ground reaction force. Third. The tendon fo Quadriceps femoris, Biceps femoris, Tibialis anterior and gastronemius medials caused. electromyography. 1. Ground reaction force also showed that statically approximates other results from impact peak timing (p.001), Maximum loading rate(p<.001), Maximum loading rate timing (p<.001) and impulse of first 20 percent (p<.001). 2 Electromyography showed that averagely was distinguished from other factors, and did not show about that. Above experiment values known that there was statically difference between Motion analysis and Ground reaction force under absorbing of the functional insole shoes which was not have an effect on our body for kinetics and kinematics.
Sensitivity of Marker Set and Knee Joint Centre on Knee Angles during Cutting Movement
Park, Sang-Kyoon ; Lee, Joong-Sook ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 19~31
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.019
Motion Change of the Trunk and Upper Extremity Segment to Putting the Wrist Support on Throwing in Bowling
Kim, Tae-Sam ; Lee, Hoon-Pyo ; Han, Hee-Chang ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 33~41
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.033
This study was to analysis three dimension angle of the upper extremity segment and trunk to putting the protector in women bowlers. For this study, the subjects selected 4 players of national and university team. All subjects putted in the same wrist support to satisfy the experiment conditions. To get three dimensions position coordination of swing motion used for 6 ProReflex MCU 240 camera produced by Qualisys. After position coordination calculation, Three dimension angle of the trunk and the upper extremity segment calculated for Matlab 6.5. the result is following; In the trunk motion, there were little differences among the subjects in a flexion and extension change. There were a lot of differences in motion change of the abduction-adduction and internal-external rotation, but the motion types translated to the adduction-abduction-adduction and from the internal rotation toward the external rotation. In the upper arm segment the Flexion and extension showed a consistent motion in the down swing and up swing phase. And the motion change of abduction-adduction and pronation-supination showed a abduction-adduction-abduction and pronation-supination change during swing phase. In the forearm segment changes, it showed a lot of differences among the subjects and a similar change with the upper arm segment. Especially, the hand segment showed a supination motion from the backswing apex to release phase, but for increasing a rotation velocity of ball, the hand segment translated toward pronation in follow throw phase.
The Kinematic Analysis of Back-Kick Motion in Taekwondo
Lee, Dong-Jin ; Park, Chan-Ho ; Kim, Hun-Soo ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 43~51
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.043
The purpose of this study was to analyze kinematic variables during turing back kick motion of Taekwondo. The subjects of this study were the 4 skilled and 4 unskilled of male university player in respectively. The experiment of this study was used two 16mm high speed cameras and its speed 125 frames/s. Analysis of this data was three dimensional cinematography using KWON3D program package. The results were as following; 1. In the elapsed time, there was no significance difference statically between a skilled and unskilled group. But skilled group was more fast during the motion of I phase. And unskilled group was more fast during the motion of II phase so called force production section, which had an influence on Diechagi's velocity. 2. In the center of gravity of human body, the changing of it was
of LFM(left foot movement) and
of RKF(right knee flection), and
of RFI(right foot impact). There was no significance difference statically between the two groups. 3. The velocity of heel on impact was 1.13m/s in the skilled group and 1.23m/s in the unskilled group, when each angle of knee was
. The maximum velocity of each performance was reached before the RKF, and the velocity and angle at impact along by two groups did not show any significant difference statically. 4. In the angular velocity of just RKF of lower leg, there was significance difference statically between the two groups(p<.05).
Biomechanical Analysis of a Bowling Swing
Lee, Hae-Myeong ; Lee, Sang-Cheol ; Lee, Hae-Dong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 53~63
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.053
The general objective of this study was to investigate biomechanical characteristics of bowling swing using three-dimensional cinematography. This study focused specifically on movements of the upper body segments during a bowling swing. Eight elite female bowling players participated in this study. Subjects performed bowling swing and their performance was sampled at 60 frame/sec using two high-speed video cameras with a synchronizer. After digitizing images from two cameras, the two-dimensional coordinates were used to produce three-dimensional coordinates of the 12 body segments (20 joint reference makers). The obtained three-dimensional coordinates were fed to a custom-written kinematic and kinetic analyses program (LabView 6.1, National Instrument, Austin, TX, USA). The analyses determined the linear and angular kinematic variables of the body segments with which joint force and torque of the lower and upper trunks and the shoulder were estimated based on the Newton-Euler equations. It was found that during the bowling swing the peak linear velocities of the body segments were reached in sequence the trunk, the shoulder, the elbow, the wrist, and the bowl. This result indicates that linear momentum of the lower body and the trunk transmits to the arm segment during the bowling swing. The joint torques of the torso and the arm occurred almost simultaneously, indicating that bowling swing seem to be a push-like motion, rather than a proximal-distal sequence motion in which many of throwing motions are categorized. The ultimate objective of the bowling swing is to release a heavy-weight bowl with power and consistency. Therefore, the bowling swing observed in this study well agrees with that bowlers use the stepping to increase the linear velocity of the bowl, the simple pendulum system and the push-like segmental motion in the torso and the arm segment to enhance the power at the release of the bowl.
Kinematical Analysis of Endo 360° El-grip in Horizontal Bar
Back, Jin-Ho ; Park, Jong-Chul ; Yoon, Jong-Wan ; Lee, Yong-Sik ; Park, Jong-Hoon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 65~74
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.065
This study was attempted to Kinematical characteristics of the Endo
El-grip Swing on the horizontal bar. To do this, we selected and analyzed the performance of two athletes who did Endo
El-grip Swing in the horizontal bar competition of male artistic gymnastic in the 22nd Universiad Games 2003 Daegu. We drew the conclusions from the kinematical factors that were came out through analyzing three-dimensional cinematography of the athletes' movements, by using two video cameras. In point of analyzing the actual competition situation, it is expected that gymnastics and coaches have the effective informations, and the following conclusion had resulted. 1. When performing Endo
El-Grip, the average for entire required time was
. The average for descent phase time was
, ascent phase time was
, connecting phase time was
, and El-Grip phase time was
. The descent phase need short period of time but however to have a stable performance, ensuring ascent and connecting phase time are needed. El-Grip phase need short period of time to have a stable re-grasp. 2. To have a convenient preparation for El-Grip in descent and ascent phase, lowering CM, and ease up in sway and plunge from the High Bar would make descent and ascent even more faster and would have increase effect in trunk rotation. 3. In descent and ascent phase, if shoulder angle and arm slope is dwindling then it would effect rotation angle so might risk it from hitting a Bar when putting legs in and out. 4. In connecting phase, it requires some time to show stable performance when El-Grip phase is continued by using hip angle which would make trunk rotation angle bigger and make descent and ascent time slower. 5. In El-Grip phase, when doing motions like hand standing. using hip angle more than maximum would make CM even faster and it is stable position while performing.
Force Depression Following Active Muscle Shortening during Voluntary Contraction in Human Tibialis Anterior Muscle
Lee, Hae-Dong ; Lee, Seung-Cheol ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 75~83
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.075
The purpose of this study was to investigate steady-state force depression following active muscle shortening in human tibialis anterior muscle during voluntary contractions. Subjects (n = 7; age
years; 7 males) performed isometric reference contractions and isometric-shortening-isometric contractions, using maximal voluntary effort. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric torque produced following active muscle shortening with the purely isometric reference torque obtained at the corresponding joint angle. In order to test for effects of the shortening conditions on the steady-state force depression, the speed of shortening were changed systematically in a random order but balanced design. Ankle dorsiflexion torque and joint angle were continuously measured using a dynamometer. During voluntary contractions, muscle activation of the tibialis anterior and the medical gastrocnemius was recorded using surface electromyography. Force depression during voluntary contractions, with a constant level of muscle activation, was 12 %, on average over all subjects. Force depression was independent of the speeds of shortening (
for 15 and 45 deg/sec over 15 deg of shortening, respectively). The results of this study suggest that steady-state force depression is a basic property of voluntarily-contracting human skeletal muscle and has functional implication to human movements.
Analysis of Lower Limb Joint Angle and Rotation Angle of Tennis Forehand Stroke by Stance Pattern
Kang, Young-Teak ; Lee, Kyung-Soon ; Seo, Kuk-Woong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 85~94
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.085
The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematics variables of during forehand stroke by stance patterns. Eight high school tennis players were chosen for the study, who have never been injured for last six months, in Busan. They performed horizontal swing and vertical swing that it was done each five consecutive trial in the condition of square, open and semi-open stance. It was filmed by 6 video camera and used with 3-dimensional motion analyzer system. The following kinematic variables were analyzed in relation to angle of segment( shoulder, hip and knee joint). The conclusion were as follow: 1. The angle of hip joint represented at impact that horizontal swing was not significant difference by stance patterns but vertical swing was increased in open stance than square and semi-open stance. 2. The angle of both knee was not significant difference between all stance types and swing patterns. 3. The angle of shoulder, hip and knee joint rotation showed that open stance was increased than square and semi-open stance in all swing types and event.
Analysis of Muscle Activities for Upper Extremity According to Satbar-Grip Patterns
Kim, Tae-Wan ; Hwang, Kyu-Yeon ; Kim, Jung-Suk ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 95~103
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.095
The purpose of this study was to analyze a change of maximal grip forces and EMG of agonists in upper extremity of 8 professional Ssirum players according to Satbar-grip patterns, to elucidate prime agonist muscles, contribution rate of each muscle, and a difference on EMG in upper extremity. one-way ANOVA(RM) performed for average and maximal values of each player after standardization and statistical significance was set as p<.05. The result includes the following: the highest grip force was A type with a statistic significance using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's comparison between A and C type. In summary the highest grip force was exerted on extension in the wrist than flexion in all grip types. Average and maximal values of biceps brachii and brachioradialis muscles were statistically significant and ones of flexor carpi ulnaris and extensor capi ulnaris were not.
Correlation Between Walking Speeds and Lower Extremities Joint Moment in Obese
Shin, Sung-Hyoo ; Kim, Tae-Whan ; Kwon, Moon-Seok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 105~115
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.105
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanical characteristics of lower extremity joint movements at different walking speeds in obese people and suggest the very suitable exercise for obese person's own body weight and basic data for clinical application leading to medical treatment of obesity. This experimental subjects are all males between the ages of 20 and 30, who are classified into two groups according to Body Mass Index(BMI): one group is 15 people with normal body weight and the other 15 obese people. Walking speed is analysed at 3 different speeds (
) which is increased by
from the standard speed of
. We calculated joint moments of lower extremity during stance phase through video recording and platform force measurement.Two-way ANOVA(Analysis of Variance, Mix) is applied to get the difference of moments according to walking speeds between normal and obese groups. Pearson's Correlation Analysis is applied to look into correlation between walking speeds and joint moments in both groups. Significance level of each experiment is set as
. As walking speed increases maximum ankle plantar flexion moment in the stance phase is smaller in obese group than in normal group, which is suggestive of weak toe push-off during terminal stance in obese group, and the highest maximum ankle plantar flexion moment in obese group during the middle speed walking(
). Maximum ankle dorsal flexion moment in obese group is relatively higher than in normal group and this is regarded as a kind of compensatory mechanism to decrease the impact on ankle when heel contacts the floor. Maximum knee flexion and extension moments are both higher in normal group with an increase tendency proportional to walking speed and maximum hip flexion and extension moments higher in obese group. In summary, maximum ankle plantar flexion moment between groups(p<.025), maximum knee moment not in flexion but in extension(p<.001) within each group according to increasing walking speed, and maximum hip flexion and extension moment(p<.001 and p<.004, respectively according to increasing walking speed are statistically significant but knee and hip moments between groups are not. Pearson correlation are different: high correlation coefficients in maximum knee flexion and extension moments, in maximum hip extension moment but not hip flexion, and in maximum ankle dorsal flexion moment but not ankle plantar flexion, in each group. We suspect that equilibrium imbalance develops when the subject increases walking speed and the time is around which he takes his foot off the floor.
The Study on effect of the Muscle Activities for Dietshoes (Backless)
Lee, Chang-Min ; Oh, Yeon-Ju ; Lee, Kyung-Deuk ; Park, Seung-Bum ; Lee, Hoon-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 117~124
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.117
The modern convenient life formed by industrial development becomes lack of exercise and takes an interest in diet. Specially, professional walking shoes is developed as people take an interest in jogging, Those shoes, professional walking shoes or Dietshoes, increase exercise effects by change of heel types. Therefore, this study investigated motility effects by EMG experiment in order to measure Muscle Activities (MA) while wearing diet shoes (backless). Experiment was conducted by EMG measurement, from calf (gastrocnemius muscle), thigh (vastus muscle) and waist (erector spinae muscle), of 12 high school students. Exercise effects between the two shoes were analyzed by EMG (MF; Median Frequency, MPF; Mean Power Frequency, ZCR; Zero Crossing Rate). Results showed that the Dietshoes(MF: 48.21Hz, MPF: 65.0Hz, ZCR: 100.6Hz) had larger EMG value than that of Normal shoes(MF: 40.47Hz, MPF: 58.04Hz, ZCR: 82.09Hz). Also, in MA, the highest activities are showed in the calf, the second one is in waist, and last one is in thigh during gate. ANOVA between shoes in measurement parts showed significant effects in MF (gastrocnemius: p-value=.022, vastus laterals: p-value=.037, erector spinae: p-value=.082), MPF (gastrocnemius: p-value=.032, vastus laterals: p-value=.046, erector spinae: p-value=.090), and ZCR (gastrocnemius: p-value=.000, vastus laterals: p-value=.004, erector spinae: p-value=.134). And MA of Dietshoes is higher than that of Normal shoes, and decreasing rate of MA in Dietshoes is less than that of Normal shoes. Thus, this study validates exercise effects of Dietshoes.
The Kinematic Analysis According to a Dancesport Heel-Shoes Type on Rumba Cucarachas Movement Change
Choi, In-Ae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 125~135
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.125
This study was to analyze the effect of dancesport heel-shoes heights on Rumba Cucarachas Movement in terms of analysis, and to provide the essential information to decide the proper heel-shoes heights for individual. six female subjects participated in this study. Dependent variables were set and divided into the amount of movement regarding the velocity and angle of the right elbow, pelvis, ankle, and knee. The following conclusion was drawn blow. 1) Angle: We all appeared in 5, 7, 9cm heel height so that we were similar in a knee and elbow angle and no significantly. The plantar flexion appeared greatly as an ankle angle's shoe high and significantly. 2) Velocity: An elbow velocity all appeared in a three shoes so that it was similar. We speed fast speed some in a 7cm heel height. A knee velocity expressed fast speed some in a 5cm heel height. The pelvis velocity in a that it was similar. Generaly, The aspect to be a dancesport competition o'clock and aesthetic is the height. and the muscular strength train after we need the thing to choose suitable to the individual shoe height. It is logical that the decision of heel-shoes heights should be made by anthropometric and sport dynamic analysis in order to maximize the dynamic and aesthetic aspect of dance sport.
The Effects of Wearing Roller Shoes on Muscle Activity in The Lower Extremity During Walking
Chae, Woen-Sik ; Lim, Young-Tae ; Lee, Min-Hyung ; Kim, Jung-Ja ; Kim, Youn-Joung ; Jang, Jae-Ik ; Park, Woen-Kyoon ; Jin, Jae-Hong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 137~148
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.137
The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activity in the lower extremity during walking wearing jogging and roller shoes. Twelve male middle school students (age: 15.0 yrs, height 173.7 cm, weight 587.7 N) who have no known musculoskeletal disorders were recruited as the subjects. Seven pairs of surface electrodes (QEMG8, Laxtha Korea, gain = 1,000, input impedance >
, CMMR >100 dB) were attached to the right-hand side of the body to monitor the rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial (GM) and lateral gastrocnemius (GL) while subjects walked wearing roller and jogging shoes in random order at a speed of 1.1 m/s. An event sync unit with a bright LED light was used to synchronize the video and EMG recordings. EMG data were filtered using a 10 Hz to 350 Hz Butterworth band-passdigital filter and further normalized to the respective maximum voluntary isometric contraction EMG levels. For each trial being analyzed, five critical instants and four phases were identified from the recording. Averaged IEMG and peak IEMG were determined for each trial. For each dependent variable, paired t-test was performed to test if significant difference existed between shoe conditions (p<.05). The VM, TA, BF, and GM activities during the initial double limb stance and the initial single limb stance reduced significantly when going from jogging shoe to roller shoe condition. The decrease in EMG levels in those muscles indicated that the subjects locked the ankle and knee joints in an awkward fashion to compensate for the imbalance. Muscle activity in the GM for the roller shoe condition was significantly greater than the corresponding value for the jogging shoe condition during the terminal double limb stance and the terminal single limb stance. Because the subjects tried to keep their upper body weight in front of the hip to prevent falling backward, the GM activity for the roller shoe condition increased. It seems that there are differences in muscle activity between roller shoe and jogging shoe conditions. The differences in EMG pattern may be caused primarily by the altered position of ankle, knee, and center of mass throughout the walking cycle. Future studies should examine joint kinematics during walking with roller shoes.
Analysis of the Lower Extremity's Coupling Angles During Forward and Backward Running
Ryu, Ji-Seon ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 149~163
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.149
The purpose of this study was to compare the lower extremity's joint and segment coupling patterns between forward and backward running in subjects who were twelve healthy males. Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected with Qualisys system while subjects ran to forward and backward. The thigh internal/external rotation and tibia internal/external rotation, thigh flexion/extension and tibia flexion/extension, tibia internal/external rotation and foot inversion/eversion, knee internal/external rotation and ankle inversion/eversion, knee flexion/extension and ankle inversion/eversion, knee flexion/extension and ankle flexion/extension, and knee flexion/extension and tibia internal/external rotation coupling patterns were determined using a vector coding technique. The comparison for each coupling between forward and backward running were conducted using a dependent, two-tailed t-test at a significant level of .05 for the mean of each of five stride regions, midstance(1l-30%), toe-off(31-50%), swing acceleration(51-70%), swing deceleration(71-90), and heel-strike(91-10%), respectively. 1. The knee flexion/extension and ankle flexion/extension coupling pattern of both foreward and backward running over the stride was converged on a complete coordination. However, the ankle flexion/extension to knee flexion/extension was relatively greater at heel-strike in backward running compared with forward running. At the swing deceleration, backward running was dominantly led by the ankle flexion/extension, but forward running done by the knee flexion/extension. 2. The knee flexion/extension and ankle inversion/eversion coupling pattern for both running was also converged on a complete coordination. At the mid-stance. the ankle movement in the frontal plane was large during forward running, but the knee movement in the sagital plane was large during backward running and vice versa at the swing deceleration. 3. The knee flexion/extension and tibia internal/external rotation coupling while forward and backward run was also centered on the angle of 45 degrees, which indicate a complete coordination. However, tibia internal/external rotation dominated the knee flexion/extension at heel strike phase in forward running and vice versa in backward running. It was diametrically opposed to the swing deceleration for each running. 4. Both running was governed by the ankle movement in the frontal plane across the stride cycle within the knee internal/external rotation and tibia internal/external rotation. The knee internal/external rotation of backward running was greater than that of forward running at the swing deceleration. 5. The tibia internal/external rotation in coupling between the tibia internal/external rotation and foot inversion/eversion was relatively great compared with the foot inversion/eversion over a stride for both running. At heel strike, the tibia internal/external rotation of backward running was shown greater than that of forward(p<.05). 6. The thigh internal/external rotation took the lead for both running in the thigh internal/external rotation and tibia internal/external rotation coupling. In comparison of phase, the thigh internal/external rotation movement at the swing acceleration phase in backward running worked greater in comparison with forward running(p<.05). However, it was greater at the swing deceleration in forward running(p<.05). 7. With the exception of the swing deceleration phase in forward running, the tibia flexion/extension surpassed the thigh flexion/extension across the stride cycle in both running. Analysis of the specific stride phases revealed the forward running had greater tibia flexion/extension movement at the heel strike than backward running(p<.05). In addition, the thigh flexion/extension and tibia flexion/extension coupling displayed almost coordination at the heel strike phase in backward running. On the other hand the thigh flexion/extension of forward running at the swing deceleration phase was greater than the tibia flexion/extension, but it was opposite from backward running. In summary, coupling which were the knee flexion/extension and ankle flexion/extension, the knee flexion/extension and ankle inversion/eversion, the knee internal/external rotation and ankle inversion/eversion, the tibia internal/external rotation and foot inversion/eversion, the thigh internal/external rotation and tibia internal/external rotation, and the thigh flexion/extension and tibia flexion/extension patterns were most similar across the strike cycle in both running, but it showed that coupling patterns in the specific stride phases were different from average point of view between two running types.
Effects of 12-week Wearing of the Unstable Shoes on the Standing Posture and Gait Mechanics
Park, Ki-Ran ; An, Song-Yi ; Lee, Ki-Kwang ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 165~172
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.165
The purpose of this study was to determine effects of 12-week wearing of unstable shoe on the standing posture and gait mechanics. Nine healthy men were asked to wear the unstable shoes for 12-week and walk for 30 minute everyday. Their standing posture and gait mechanics were measured before and after treatment. Standing posture was measured for each side(anterior, posterior, lateral) for standing position. And gait analysis was measured joint angle of a right lower limb between first right heel contact and second right heel contact. Kinematic data were collected using video camera at 30 frame per seconds. Statistical analysis was paired t-test(p<.05) to compare before training with after that. A head tilt angle was significantly decreased for posterior side(p<.05). The angle of between center of line and surface was significantly decreased at midstance and take off during walking(p<.05). Ankle dorsiflexion significantly increased at heel contact2(p<.05) and ankle plantarflexion significantly increased at midstance and midswing(p<.05). The increase of ankle dorsiflexion showed that our results consisted with previous study. In conclusion, there was not large significant difference in static standing posture but joint angle of lower limb represented many changes with increasing of ankle motion during walking. These were of benefit to body by increasing leg muscle activity but it was necessary for man having a ankle problem to consider. Further studies concerning optimum outsole angle of unstable shoes are necessary.
Longitudinal Kinematical Analysis of Kip to Swallow Motion in Rings
Back, Jin-Ho ; Park, Jong-Hoon ; Lee, Yong-Sik ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 173~181
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.173
The purpose of this study is grasp the problem of the gymnast, Kim, Dong-Hwa's Kip to Swallow Motion in Rings, and make up for the weak points to help him to perform a better performance. Therefore, two tryouts for
Athens Olympic Games were filmed using video camera then finalized with Kinematical Analysis using 3D motion analysis program followings are the form of conclusions. 1. In the very first tryout, when he was doing a Swallow Support Scale, his CM position was high and arm slope was deduction because when he was doing Kip, the ascent velocity was low and he tried excessively to pull him on rings due to relying upon angular movement of shoulder joint. 2. When he was doing drop, he let his hip angle bend only little bit and let fall so making shoulder angle wider and maintain the level horizontally occurs strong drop motion when vertical descent is happening. 3. As a result, lowering the direction of a kick makes CM's movement path lower, increase vertical ascent velocity, and it helps to do the Swallow Support motion in short period of time. 4. After a strong drop motion, which is deep and fast, would make rope of ring shake so there is a defect that the body moves to forward area. However, it does not effect in Swallow Support Scale motion. 5. In the second tryout, trunk rotation angle and arm slope was fixed decrease while doing rotary motion. When rotary motion was happening, before the body was going under the rings, maintained his arm slope horizontally so his Swallow Support Scale motion was nearly perfect.
Comparative study of CP(center of pressure) Pattern on pitching sort in Softball
Moon, Young-Jin ; Kim, Jin-Gyong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 3, 2006, Pages 183~188
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.3.183
This research is to know differentiation of CP(center of pressure) pattern among four pitching sort(straight ball, raise ball, change up ball, drop ball). Subject are three national or junior athletes. We use the one camera, Novel Win pressure measurement system. Conclusions are as follows : 1. When we throw the straight ball, CP of left foot is effective to end movement at middle of foot in body balance on arm angular motion and enhanced speed. 2. When we throw the raise ball, to change CP from middle to post is more effective in order to raise the ball. 3.In drop ball pitching, in order to fall down the ball in front of hitter, CP of left foot move from post foot to interior part of forefoot 4. In change up ball pitching, if CP of left foot move into forefoot, it is a cause of high ball and hitter can recognize the change up ball because of late arm rotation motion.