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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
Selecting the target year
The Research on EMG Tendency Following Increasing Record in Snatch Weightlifting
Moon, Young-Jin ; Lee, Soon-Ho ; Lim, Bee-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.001
This research was to know EMG tendency on increasing record in snatch weightlifting. In order to perform this research, we choiced 3 man national weightlifters, EMG analysis were executed on 8 major muscle(Latissimus Dorsi, Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Posterior Deltoid, Gastrocenemius, Vastus Medialis, Erector spinae, Abdominal). First trial record of athletics is 80% of each maximal record and increase the
gradually. In this study, EMG signal scale of all muscle except posterior Deltoid muscle don't increased according to increasing the barbell weight, This showed a difference between general recognition and experiment result. In posterior Deltoid muscle, EMG signal scale increased according to increasing the barbell weight. It was assumed that EMG signal of protagonist shows possibility of linear increasing if motion have a consistency. It was assumed that In present, In order to increase one's record to
, Motion consistency training is more effective training method than increasing the muscle force.
A Kinematics Analysis of Back Armstand 2 Somersault in Platform Dives a Case Study
Lee, Jong-Hee ; So, Jae-Moo ; Lim, Young-Tae ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.013
A platform diving with categorizing 624C motion was video taped and 3D kinematic variables were analyzed. This motion is consist of 3 parts from the headstand position to the act of turning after take-off. The results indicated that it took a very short time from the moment of take-off to the act of 1/2 turning because the turning motion has already started from preparing motion even before the fingertips have parted from the ground. Also, there was barely any jumping height due to the use of upper limbs segment and there was little difference in the moving distance compared to the standing events judging from horizontal movement of 1.1m. The horizontal velocity of the center of human body was increased before take-off while the vertical velocity was decreased right after take-off and the velocity of lower limbs segment was faster than the upper limbs segment showing contrary results to the standing events. In the aspects of angular velocity, the upper limbs segment starts the turning motion when take-off by rapidly extending its angular velocity while lower limbs segment make large angular velocity even before take-off.
A Kinematics Analysis of Handstand of University Students Majoring in Physical Education
Kim, Yoon-Ji ; So, Jae-Moo ; Yeo, Hong-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 21~30
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.021
The purpose of the study is to search for the possibility of the application of kinematics analysis to physical education at schools and expand its scope of application. This study chose 9 college students majoring in physical education and classified them into type A group who can make the straight, vertical handstand, type B group whose waist is bent, type C group who cannot handstand completely. The center of mass, distance between hand and leg, and the angle and angular velocity of each joint were obtained. The result of this study is this. 1. The time for CM showed 6:4 for A group and 5:5 for B and C groups. The distance between hand and foot in the event 3 was 44% of the height for A group, and 41% for B and C groups. A Group showed the higher CM positional significant difference, it was vertically direction below the hip joint at front. For significant difference of the B Group showed horizontal and vertical velocity of the CM, the highest vertical was obtained in phase 3. The difference of angle of shoulder join in the flexion/extension was showed gradually extension event 2 and the height angular velocity was at phase 3 in the A group. 2 The analysis of the handstand motion revealed that the phase 3, but the maintenance of posture start part the handstand is also very important. Through these results, this study confirmed that the time for phase of the CM, horizontal and vertical positions, velocity, the distance between hands and foot, and the difference of the angle and angular velocity of hip joint and shoulder joint can be set as the variables of analysis. It was also definite cause that the handstand motions of college students majoring in physical education had many difference in performance.
An Investigation of the Effect of the Height of Wteps on the Joint Moment of Lower Extremities of the Elderly While Walking Downstairs
Eun, Seon-Deok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 31~38
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.031
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of changing the steps height on the joint moment of lower extremity in stair-descent activity of elderly persons. Data were collected by 3-D cinematography and force platform. 9 male elderly subjects in the 60s and 70s participated in this study. All subjects performed a stair-descent in four different heights of stairs (10, 14, 18, 22cm) having 5 step staircase. The results were as follows. 1. For the step height of 22cm the maximum. plantarflexion moment was the smallest and the largest for the step height of 14cm. 2. There was not a statistical difference shown for the extension moment of the knee joint for the different height of steps. 3. There was not a statistical difference shown for the flexion moment of the hip joint for the varying height of steps but on average for the 18cm step this increased rapidly. 4. The smallest maximum. value for inversion moment was revealed for the step height of 10cm and this increased significantly for the step height of 22cm. 5. The smallest maximum. value for abduction moment of the hip joint was revealed for the step height of 10cm and this increased significantly for the step height of 22cm. 6. There was no significant difference shown for the maximum. abduction moment for the hip joint. The main conclusion is that there is a huge difference in the moment of the lower extremities for the elderly while walking down a stairs with a step height above 18 cm and that this moment increased or decreased rapidly under a condition of step height being 22cm. With the results from this research and related research of elderly walking upstairs it can be shown that the step height has a large role in the safety for the elderly.
The Kinematic Analysis on The Stand Long Jump of Visually Impaired Persons
Oh, Cheong-Hwan ; Choi, Jung-Kyu ; Jeong, Ik-Su ; Lee, Dong-Gin ; Choi, Su-Nam ; Nam, Taek-Gil ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 39~47
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.039
This study long jump action to each situation on a chessboard and section of sight disabled person and normal person through third dimension reflex analysis mechanical special quality because do comparative analysis sight disabled person's exercise ability and technology structure of action that run understand. As can do better without danger of injury map and training of exercise item that action that run is included, do offer of pabulum by purpose. Through this study, conclusion is as following. 1. Sight disabled persons' long jump average recording (121.84cm) showing normal persons' average recording (259.27cm) and much differences, show that motion of body is not big to Touch-down from Ready action. 2. Each phase body center composition(r) average speed displayed result that it is more meaning more than Each phase time required. 3. Began in line carriage without body back stretching in 1 situation on Event one are sight disabled persons. Was expose that do not bend enough knee and ankle than normal person in Event two. Was expose that body is not drooped for surface of land in Event three, and knee and ankle were expose that do not unfold easily than normal person. Was expose that do not bend enough on Touch-down knee by relation that can not grasp position of the floor in Event four. 4. When taking off, the average of horizontal speed of body center are 1.80m/sec for blind people and 3.53m/sec for the normal. In this connection, the study shows that the difference of horizontal speed between the blind and the normal is bigger than difference of vertical speed, which are 1.56m/sec for the blind and 1.98m/sec for the normal. Also, composite speed also shows us big difference between 2.41m/sec of the blind and 4.07m/sec of the normal. The speed body center of take-off was expose that average adjuster are big width of deceleration than average - beginning disabled person's average by 2.23m/sec - 1.71m/sec in the vertical speed. 5. If examine change of high and low for z Sign of right hand, change of high and low showed as is small than normal person is sight obstacle, and all hand movements are small and was expose that do not use enough reaction of body as well as in ready action.
Three dimensional Kinematic Analysis of Sweep Shot in Ice Hockey
Choi, Ji-Young ; Moon, Gon-Sung ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 49~59
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.049
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between the segments of the body, the three dimensional anatomical angle according to sweep shot in ice hockey. The subjects of this study were five professional ice hockey players. The reflective makers were attached on anatomical boundary line of body. For the movement analysis three dimensional cinematographical method(APAS) was used and for the calculation of the kinematic variables a self developed program was used with the LabVIEW 6.1 graphical programming(Johnson, 1999) program. By using Eular's equations the three dimensional anatomical Cardan angles of the joint and ice hockey stick were defined. 1. In three dimensional linear velocity of blade the Y axis showed maximum linear velocity almost impact, the X axis(horizontal direction) and the Z axis(vertical direction) maximum linear velocity of blade did not show at impact but after impact this will resulted influence upon hitting puck. 2. The resultant linear velocity of each segment of right arm showed maximum resultant linear velocity at impact. It could be suggest that the right arm swing patterns is kind of push-like movement. therefore the upper arm is the most important role in the right arm swing. 3. The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of trunk in flexion-extension showed flexion all around the wrist shot. The angular displacement of trunk in internal-external rotation showed internal rotation angle at the backswing top and and increased the angle after the impact. while there is no significant adduction-abduction. 4. The three dimensional anatomical angular displacement of trunk showed most important role in wrist shot. and is follwed by shoulder joints, in addition the movement of elbow/wrist joints showed least to the shot. this study result showed upperlimb of left is more important role than upperlimb of right.
The Kinematic Comparison of Energy Walking and Normal Walking
Shin, Je-Min ; Jin, Young-Wan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 61~71
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.061
The purpose of this study was to compare kinematic characteristics on the limbs at 3 different walking speed during the energy and the normal walking. Eight subjects performed energy walking and normal walking at the slow speed(65 beats/min), the normal speed(115beats/min), the fast speed(160 beats/min). The 3-d angle was calculated by vector projected with least squares solution with three-dimensional cinematography(Motion Analysis corporation). The range of motion was calculated on the trunk, shoulder, elbow, hip, knee joint. The results showed that stride length was no difference of the two walking pattern. The duration of support phase was also no difference of the two walking pattern. The range of motion of shoulder joint significantly increased in the sagittal and frontal planes, and the range of motion of elbow joint significantly increased as the energy walking. The range of motion of hip joint had no significant difference in the any planes in changing of walking speed. But the most remarkable difference of the two walking patterns revealed at the trunk. The range of flexion/extension angle had significant increasing
at normal speed, and the range of the right/left flexion angle had significant increasing below
at the 3 walking speed, and The range of rotation angle had significant increasing
, respectively at the normal and slow speed. But there was no significant difference of range of motion at the hip and knee joints between energy walking and normal walking.
The Effects of Strength Training on Knee Joint Torque During Walking in an Adolescent With Down Syndrome: A Single Case Study
Lim, Bee-Oh ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 73~81
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.073
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on knee joint torque during walking in an adolescent with trisomy-21 Down syndrome. One adolescent with Down syndrome and one normal child participated in this study. Strength training consisted of eight exercises: squat, hamstring curl, hip adduction, hip abduction, knee extension, toe raise, sit-ups, and hyperextension of the waist. The participant with Down syndrome was participated in strength training for 12 weeks, three times a week, three sets, 10-15 RM; resistance was adjusted according to the principle of progressive overload. To measure the effect of strength training, isokinetic strength variables and knee joint torques were measured before training and after 12 weeks of training. The participant with Down syndrome had some abnormalities in controlling knee motion during walking due to muscle hypotonia, ligament laxity, and weakness of muscles. Post-training isokinetic strength increased compared to pre-training measurements. Knee range of motion were increased after strength training. Strength training did not affect ad/adduction and in/exteranl moments but did have an effect on flexor/extensor moment and timing.
Effect of Walking Speed on Angles of Lower Extremity and Ground Reaction Force in the Obese
Kim, Tae-Wan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 83~94
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.083
The purpose of this study is to elucidate how walking speed influences on change of angles of lower extremity and ground reaction force in normal and obese people. One group with normal body weight who were experimented at a standard speed of 1.5m/s and the other obese group were experimented at two different walking speeds (standard speed of 1.5m/s and self-selected speed of 1.3m/s). We calculated angles of lower extremity and ground reaction force during stance phase through video recording and platform force measuring. When the obese group walked at the standard speed, dorsi-flexion angle of ankle got bigger and plantar-flexion angle of ankle got smaller, which were not statistically significant. There was no significant difference of knee joint angles between normal and obese group at the same speed walking but significant post hoc only for the first flexion of knee joint in obese group.
was bigger than
in vertical axis for ground reaction force in both groups at the standard speed walking and the same force value at self-selected speed in obese group.
was always bigger than
in anterior-posterior axis in both groups.
Kinetic Classification of Golf Swing Error
Jeon, Chul-Woo ; Hwang, In-Weong ; Lim, Jung ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 95~103
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.095
The purpose of this study was to review the relevant literature about coaching and thereupon, survey the coaching methods used for golf lesson to reinterpret them and thereby, describe in view of kinetics the swing errors committed frequently by amateur golfers and suggest more scientific golf coaching methods. For this purpose, kinetic elements were divided into accuracy and power ones and therewith, the variables affecting such elements were identified. For this study, a total of 60 amateur golfer were sampled, and their swing forms were photographed with two high-speed digital cameras, and the resultant images were analyzed to determine the errors of each form kinetically, which would be analyzed again with the program V1-5000. The kinetic elements could be identified as accuracy, power and accuracy & power. Thus, setup and trajectory were classified into accuracy elements, while differences of inter-joint angles, cocking and delayed hitting. Lastly, timing and axial movement were classified into accuracy & power elements. Three errors were identified in association with setup. The errors related with trajectory elements accounted for most (6) of the 20 errors. Three errors were determined for inter-joint angle differences, and one error was associated with cocking and delayed hitting. Lastly, one error was classified into timing error, while five errors were associated with axial movement. Finally, as a result of arranging the errors into a cross table, it was found that the errors were associated with each other between take-back and back-swing, take-back and follow-through, back-swing and back-swing top, and between back-swing and down-swing. Namely, an error would lead to other error repeatedly. So, it is more effective to identify all the errors for every form and correct them comprehensively rather than single out the errors and correct them one by one.
A Calculation of Joint Torque for Triple Segmental System in Golf Swing
Lim, Jung ; Hwang, In-Seong ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 105~113
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.105
The purpose of this study was to analyze the joint torque of triple segmental system in golf driver swing. For this purpose, joint torque were calculated. In order to determine the load on the lumbar region, a triple segmental system was set for wrist, left shoulder and lumbar, torque working on the lumbar region were estimated. For this study, a total of 7 professional golfers were sampled, and then, their driver swings were recorded with two high-speed digital video cameras (180 frames/sec.) to be synthesized into 3-dimensional images and coordinated. Then, Eular's equation was used to produce some kinematic data, which were used to calculate joint torque with Newton's function. All data were calculated using LabVIEW 6.1 graphic program. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; It was found that the joint torque was generated in the direction opposite the target on wrist and shoulder during down swing, while in the direction towards the target on the lumbar region. During impact and release, the torque on the wrist joint was converted from the direction opposite the target to the direction towards the target, while the torque on the lumbar region was generated vice versa. The joints on the club-arm-shoulder were generated in the opposite direction at the beginning of down swing when the torque on the thorax-pelvis began to be generated, and then, the torque on the thorax-pelvis began to lower, while that on the club-arm-shoulder began to increase. Thus, a rapid decrease of the torque on the lumbar region linked to the low trunk acted to increase moment and joint torque on the arm-club region.
3-Dimensional Analysis of the Running Motion in the Max-Velocity Phase and the Fatigue Phase During 400m Sprint by Performed Elementary School Athletes
Bae, Sung-Jee ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 115~124
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.115
This study was conducted to investigate the running motion in the max-velocity phase(150-160m) and the fatigue phase(350-360m) during 400m sprint by performed elementary school athletes. Eighteen elementary school male athletes who achieved at least the 3rd place in the sprint at the Korea Gangwon-Do elementary school track and field meetings during 2004 and 2005 were selected as subjects. The running motions performed by the subjects were recorded using two 8mm high speed cameras at the nominal speed of 100 frames per second. The Direct Linear Transformation technique was adopted from the beginning of filming to the final stage of data extraction. KWON 3D motion analysis package program was used to compute the 3 Dimensional coordinates, smoothing factor in which lowpass filtering method was used and cutoff frequency was 6.0 Hz. The movement patterns during foot touchdown and takeoff for the running stride were related with the biomechanical consideration. Within the limitations of this study it is concluded: In order to increase running velocity, several conditions must be fullfilled at the instant of leg touchdown and takeoff during the fatigue phase(350-360m). First, the body C.O.G(Center of Gravity) height should be raised at the instant of leg touchdown and takeoff during the fatigue phase. Second, the foot contact time should be shortened and the takeoff distance should be increased at the foot takeoff during the fatigue phase. Third, the shank angular velocity with respect to a transverse axis through the center of gravity should be increased during the leg touchdown and takeoff in the fatigue phase. Forth, the active landing style described as clawing the ground with the sole of the foot should be performed during the leg touchdown and takeoff in the fatigue phase) phase. Fifth, In order to increase running velocity in the fatigue phase while taking a slightly greater leg knee angle and body lean angle within the range of the subject's running motion during the fatigue phase would result in greater flight distance.
Analysis of Sports Biomechanical Variable on the Motions of Left and Right Spikes of Volleyball
Cho, Ju-Hang ; Ju, Myung-Duck ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 125~134
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.125
The purpose of this study was to analyze the Biomechanical elements by looking at the differences on the motions of the right and left spikes of right-handed offense volleyball players, using 3D image analysis and force platform. For that purpose, spike motions of six male university volleyball players were recorded three times each using two 16mm high speed cameras and the speed of recording was set at 60 frames/sec. The coordinated raw data was leveled as 6Hz using low pass filtering method and the calculation of 3D coordinates was done by using a DLT (Direct Linear Transformation) method. Also KWON 3D program was used to analyze the variables. Through the experiments and research, the following results were found: That is, in case of the right spike, the required time from the toss to the impact, which affected the success rate of offense showed as longer and on the take-off, the exact timing to touch the ball was longer because the pace between right and left feet was wider, and also after the jump, the distance between the feet indicated shorter, than the left. In addition, the degree of somersault and horizontal adduction of shoulder joint was smaller and the degree of medial rotation of shoulder joint showed bigger than the left, so it indicated that it was not centered on the body, but by the arm with an axis of shoulder using a swing motion. After the impact, the speed of the ball indicated slower compared to the left spike.
Comparative Analysis of Biomechanical Factors in Performing Techniques of 1/1Turn, Stretched, and Tucked on the Old Vaulting Horse and the New Vaulting Table
Kim, Ji-Tae ; Heo, Seong-Gyu ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 135~145
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.135
The aim of this study was to find out the differences of biomechanical factors from touching down the vaulting board to landing when techniques of 1/1Turn, stretched, and Tucked were performed on the old vaulting horse and on the new vaulting table. Three national representative men gymnasts were sampled for this study. Three dimension motion analyses by means of six Sony PD-150 video cameras with the velocity of 60 fps were used. As a result of analyzing the kinetic data from two kind of vaulting table, the following conclusions were made. 1. There was not significant differences of angular momentum between the old and the new vaulting table in all three techniques except the phase of stepping on the vaulting board and contacting the vaulting horse in the Tucked technique. IN the two phases above, the angular momentum in the new vaulting table was greater than that of the old vaulting horse. 2. There were few significant differences between the old and the new vaulting horses in the horizontal and vertical reaction force according to techniques when stepping was performed. However, it appeared tendency that the horizontal and vertical reaction force in the new vaulting table was a little greater than that of the old vaulting horse when the 1/1Turn, the Stretched and the Tucked were performed.
A Development of Pendulum Putting Machine for the Experiments of Putting Stroke
Park, Jin ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 147~152
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.147
The purpose of this study was to develop the experimental machine for the putting strokes. This experimental machine is called Pendulum Putting Machine(PPM). The height of PPM is 75cm and the mass is 10kg. To make the frame of this machine, 24 and 20 diameters of iron pipes were used. Bottom of the frame(bottom girdle) was made with circle shape and top of the frame(top girdle) was made with rectangular shape. Above the top girdle, iron plate(
) was placed to connect the ball bearing. At the top of the frame two ball bearings with axis were placed for the diverse lies of putters and irons. To verify usefulness of this machine, experiments were executed with the PPM. Two major experimental conditions were hitting points(sweet spot, toe side, heel side) and hitting places(bottom, 3cm before bottom, 3cm after bottom). Eleven different cases were tested. The results showed that the diversity of the ball placement(distance and direction) was acceptable(distance range, 2.70-5.87 standard deviation; direction range, 1.71-4.65 standard deviation). Overall the Pendulum Putting Machine is very useful for the study of putting and driving strokes.
The Biomechanical Analysis of Various Vertical Jumps According to Gender of High School Students
Lee, Haeng-Seob ; Ju, Myung-Duck ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 153~164
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.153
This thesis is focused on kinematical and kinematical analysis of each types(Type #1 : use both swing of arm and reaction of knee, Type #2 : Use only swing of arm, not reaction of knee, type #3 : Neither use of swing of arm nor reaction of knee) of vertical jumps according to gender of High School Students. The subjects of this study is High School Student's male and female, 5 each, for analyzation of actions 3D image analyzing and GRF machines were used. To identify the differences of analyzed variables, an independent T-test on gender, an One-way ANOVA on types were used. Summery of the results are stated below. first of all, female students showed differences on Hip Joint angle and Joint Velocity from male students on Kimentic Variable. So training on hip joint force of flection and extension of female students is needed. Both male and female students showed relatively bigger result of arm's Angular Momentum than thigh's Angular Momentum on Type #1. This is regarded of faster Joint Velocity of Arm. Bigger result of female students of arm's contribution on Type #1 than male students can be said as Female student's weaker hip joint's angular muscle force than male student's, so the dependency of arm is heavier than male students. In Kinetic variable, GRF showed bigger result on male students than female students. So female students need to enhance joint's torque to increase GRF than male students. On vertical Impulse, high numeric data of last two reaction of tiptoe of vertical GRF and antero-posterior GRF helped increasing impulse by extending action time of force.
The analysis of Yurchenko's 900 Degree Twist Technique with Stretched Body
Yeo, Hong-Chul ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 165~173
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.165
The purpose of this study was to analyze Yurchenko's 900 degree twist technique between the highly scored and the lowly scored subjects during the 2003 TaeGu Universiad Championship. The following results was obtained by analyzing horizontal, vertical and resultant velocities on 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th phases. The highly scored subject took longer total performance time but shorter time in 2nd and 300 phases. The highly scored subject also took longer performance time in 4th phase. In the board contact phase the highly scored subject had bigger elbow joint angle and shoulder joint angle. The highly scored subject had longer flying time and had more higher vertical height but lower horizontal and resultant velocities on 4th phase.
The Study on critical Value of Kinematical Evaluation Variables of Lower Extremity Pronation in Biomechanical Evaluation of Running Shoes
Kwak, Chang-Soo ; Jeon, Min-Ju ; Kwon, Oh-Bok ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 175~187
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.175
The purpose of this study was to find the relationship between Achilles tendon angle, angular velocity from 2D cinematography utilized to easily analyze the functions of shoes, ankle joint moment, knee joint moment, and hip joint moment from 3D cinematography utilized to predict the injury. Also, this study was to provide the optimal standard to analyze the injury related to the shoes. Subjects in this study were 30 university male students and 18 conditions (2 types of running speed, 3 of midsole hardness, 3 of midsole height) were measured using cinematography and force platform. The results were as following. 1) Hip joint abduction moment was effected by many variables such as running speed, midsole height, maximum achilles tendon angle, ground reaction force. 2) Knee joint rotational moment in running was approximately 1/10 - 1/4 times of the injury critical value and eversion moment was approximately 1/4 - 1/2 times of the injury critical value. 3) Ankle joint pronation moment in running was 1/3 - 1/2 times of the injury critical value. 4) Knee joint rotational moment was found to be irrelevant with maximum achilles tendon angle or angular velocity. 5) Pronation from running was thought to be relevant to rather eversion moment activity than rotational moment activity of knee joint. 6) Plantar flexion abductor of ankle showed significant relationship with the ground reaction force variable. 7) When the loading rate for ground reaction force in passive region increased, extensor tended to be exposed to the injury. Main variables in biomechanical analysis of shoes were impact absorption and pronation. Among these variables, pronation factor was reported to be relevant with knee injury from long duration exercise. Achilles tendon angle factor was utilized frequently to evaluate this. However, as the results of this study showed, the relationship between these variables and injury relating variable of knee moment was so important. Studies without consideration on this finding should be reconsidered and reconfirmed.
The Relationship of One Repetition Maximum between Flat Bench Press Exercise and Incline Bench Press Exercise
Lim, Kyu-Chan ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 189~194
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.189
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship of one repetition maximum between flat bench press exercise and incline bench press exercise, and so 40 male students of U-university were sampled purposedly, who were skilled in flat bench press and incline bench press exercises. After measuring lRM of each exercise by free barbell weight, the correlation analysis and the simple regression analysis were examined by using SPSS 120 at a significance level .05. The conclusions were as follows; Firstly, it was identified that 1RM of flat bench press exercise and incline bench press exercise were
respectively, and the coefficient of correlation between two variables was 0.969, so the relationship was positive correlation. Secondly, it was identified that the regression equation predicted 1RM of incline bench press exercise was significant actually and statistically, so it was expressed that the equation was -6.648 + 0.827 (1RM of flat bench press exercise).
The Effect of Isotonic Excercise on a Change for Extended Strength Ratio(ESR) According to a Posture Change for the Aged a Low Back Pain Patients
Han, Gil-Soo ; So, Jae-Moo ; Lee, Kyoung-Ju ; Moon, Hun-Kee ;
Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, volume 16, issue 4, 2006, Pages 195~203
DOI : 10.5103/KJSB.2006.16.4.195
The isometric rehabilitation program was applied to 47 people of the aged low back patients(man 22 people, woman 25 people) twice a week for 8weeks. The Medx was used to study an effect on a change for extended strength ratio(ESR) according to a posture change. The isometric ESR at each flexion angle (
was measured total 3times("before excercise", "on 4th week after excercise", "8th week after excercise") and analyzed. So, we could come to a conclusion as follows. 1. The maximum extended strength measured at a range of 7 angles for an isometric excercise of 8 weeks increased than "before an excercise", including that men have an increase of 39.51% and women have 62.92% in training effect. All of men and women showed statistically significant increase in physical strength(p<.001).excercise") and analyzed. So, we could come to a conclusion as follows. 2. After an excercise of 8 weeks, man showed 62.17% at zero degree and 49.115% at 12 degree respectively in maximum extended strength. Women showed 106.6% at zero degree and 86.16% at 12 degree. In view of this, respectively man have increase rate of physical strength over 31% and women have over 46% at all angles, also have significant increase in extension angle(p<.001). 3. A change for isometric ESR have a decrease of 27.68% for men and 74.66% for women than before isometric excercise of 8 weeks statistically significantly(p<.05, p<.00l). Men showed 1.77:1 of a similar ratio in the decrease effect comparing with normal people, but women showed 225:1.